Frankenstein. Shelley started writing the story when she was 18, the first edition of the novel was published anonymously in London on 1 January 1818, when she was 20, her name first appeared on the second edition, published in 1823. Shelley travelled through Europe in 1814, journeying along the river Rhine in Germany with a stop in Gernsheim, 17 kilometres away from Frankenstein Castle, two centuries before, an alchemist was engaged in experiments, she travelled in the region of Geneva —where much of the story takes place—and the topic of galvanism and occult ideas were themes of conversation among her companions her lover and future husband, Percy Shelley. Mary and Lord Byron decided to have a competition to see who could write the best horror story. After thinking for days, Shelley dreamt about a scientist who created life and was horrified by what he had made. Frankenstein is infused with elements of the Romantic movement. At the same time, it is an early example of science fiction. Brian Aldiss has argued that it should be considered the first true science fiction story because, in contrast to previous stories with fantastical elements resembling those of science fiction, the central character "makes a deliberate decision" and "turns to modern experiments in the laboratory" to achieve fantastic results.
It has had a considerable influence in literature and popular culture and spawned a complete genre of horror stories and plays. Since the novel's publication, the name "Frankenstein" has been used to refer to the monster itself; this usage is considered erroneous, but some commentators regard it as well-established and acceptable. In the novel, Frankenstein's creation is identified by words such as "creature", "monster", "daemon", "wretch", "abortion", "fiend" and "it". Speaking to Victor Frankenstein, the monster says "I ought to be thy Adam, but I am rather the fallen angel". Frankenstein is written in the form of a frame story that starts with Captain Robert Walton writing letters to his sister, it takes place at an unspecified time in the 18th century, as the letters' dates are given as "17—". In the story following the letters by Walton, the readers find that Victor Frankenstein creates a monster that brings tragedy to his life; the novel Frankenstein is written in epistolary form, documenting a fictional correspondence between Captain Robert Walton and his sister, Margaret Walton Saville.
Walton is a failed writer and captain who sets out to explore the North Pole and expand his scientific knowledge in hopes of achieving fame. During the voyage, the crew spots a dog sled driven by a gigantic figure. A few hours the crew rescues a nearly frozen and emaciated man named Victor Frankenstein. Frankenstein has been in pursuit of the gigantic man observed by Walton's crew. Frankenstein starts to recover from his exertion; the recounted story serves as the frame for Frankenstein's narrative. Victor begins by telling of his childhood. Born in Naples, into a wealthy Genevan family and his brothers and William, all three being sons of Alphonse Frankenstein by the former Caroline Beaufort, are encouraged to seek a greater understanding of the world through chemistry; as a young boy, Victor is obsessed with studying outdated theories that focus on simulating natural wonders. When Victor is five years old, his parents adopt Elizabeth Lavenza, the orphaned daughter of an expropriated Italian nobleman, with whom Victor falls in love.
During this period, Victor's parents and Caroline, take in yet another orphan, Justine Moritz, who becomes William's nanny. Weeks before he leaves for the University of Ingolstadt in Germany, his mother dies of scarlet fever. At the university, he excels at chemistry and other sciences, soon developing a secret technique to impart life to non-living matter, he undertakes the creation of a humanoid, but due to the difficulty in replicating the minute parts of the human body, Victor makes the Creature tall, about 8 feet in height and proportionally large. Despite Victor's selecting its features as beautiful, upon animation the creature is instead hideous, with watery white eyes and yellow skin that conceals the muscles and blood vessels underneath. Repulsed by his work, Victor flees. While wandering the streets, he meets his childhood friend, Henry Clerval, takes Henry back to his apartment, fearful of Henry's reaction if he sees the monster. However, the Creature has escaped. Victor is nursed back to health by Henry.
After a four-month recovery, he receives a letter from his father notifying him of the murder of his brother William. Upon arriving in Geneva, Victor sees the Creature near the crime scene and climbing a mountain, leading him to believe his creation is responsible. Justine Moritz, William's nanny, is convicted of the crime after William's locket, which had contained a miniature portrait of Caroline, is found in her pocket. Victor is helpless to stop her from being hanged. Ravaged by grief and guilt, Victor retreats into the mountains; the Creature finds him and pl
The Matrix is a 1999 science fiction action film written and directed by The Wachowskis and starring Keanu Reeves, Laurence Fishburne, Carrie-Anne Moss, Hugo Weaving, Joe Pantoliano. It depicts a dystopian future in which humanity is unknowingly trapped inside a simulated reality called the Matrix, created by thought-capable machines to control humans while using their bodies as an energy source. Hacker and computer programmer Neo learns this truth and "is drawn into a rebellion against the machines", which involves other people who have been freed from the Matrix; the film is an example of the cyberpunk subgenre. The Wachowskis' approach to action scenes drew upon their admiration for Japanese animation and martial arts films, the film's use of fight choreographers and wire fu techniques from Hong Kong action cinema influenced subsequent Hollywood action film productions; the Matrix is known for popularizing a visual effect known as "bullet time", in which the heightened perception of certain characters is represented by allowing the action within a shot to progress in slow-motion while the camera's viewpoint appears to move through the scene at normal speed.
The film contains numerous allusions to philosophical and religious ideas, including existentialism, feminism, Buddhism and postmodernism. While some critics have praised the film for its handling of difficult subjects, others characterize the film's themes as being overshadowed by its action scenes; the Matrix was first released in the United States on March 31, 1999 and grossed over $460 million worldwide. It was well-received by many critics and won four Academy Awards, as well as other accolades, including BAFTA Awards and Saturn Awards; the Matrix was praised for its innovative visual effects and entertainment value. The film has since appeared in lists of the greatest science fiction films, and, in 2012, was added to the National Film Registry for preservation; the success of the film led to the release of two feature film sequels, both written and directed by the Wachowskis: The Matrix Reloaded and The Matrix Revolutions. The Matrix franchise was further expanded through the production of comic books, video games and animated short films, in which the Wachowskis were involved, inspired books and theories on ideas in religion and philosophy.
Computer programmer Thomas Anderson, living a double life as the hacker "Neo", feels something is wrong with the world and is puzzled by repeated online encounters with the cryptic phrase "the Matrix". A woman known as Trinity contacts him. Undeterred, Neo meets Morpheus, who offers him a choice between a red pill that will show him the truth about the Matrix, a blue pill that will return him to his former life. After swallowing the red pill, his reality disintegrates and Neo awakens, naked and hairless, in a liquid-filled pod, among countless others connected by cables to an elaborate electrical system, he is brought aboard Morpheus' hovercraft, the Nebuchadnezzar. As Neo recuperates, Morpheus explains the truth: in the 21st century, intelligent machines waged war against their human creators; when humans blocked the machines' access to solar energy, the machines retaliated by harvesting the humans' bioelectric power. The Matrix is a shared simulation of the world as it was at the end of the 20th century, where the harvested humans' minds are pacified while their bodies are contained in pods.
All free humans live in the last refuge in the real world. Morpheus and his crew are a group of rebels who hack into the Matrix to "unplug" enslaved humans and recruit them, their understanding of the simulated reality enables them to bend its physical laws, granting them superhuman abilities. Morpheus warns Neo that death within the Matrix kills the physical body, that the Agents are powerful computer programs that eliminate threats to the system. Neo's prowess during virtual combat training lends credibility to Morpheus' belief that Neo is "the One", an powerful human prophesied to free humans and end the war; the group enters the Matrix to visit the Oracle, an all-knowing prophet who predicted the emergence of the One. She implies that Neo is not the One and warns Neo that he will have to choose between Morpheus' life and his own. Before they can leave the Matrix, the group is ambushed by Agents and tactical police alerted by Cypher, a disgruntled crew member who betrayed Morpheus to Smith in exchange for a comfortable life back in the Matrix.
Morpheus allows himself to be captured so Neo and the rest of the crew can escape. Cypher exits the murders several crew members as they lie defenseless in the real world; as he prepares to disconnect Neo and Trinity, Tank, a crewman whom he had left for dead, kills him. In the Matrix, the Agents interrogate Morpheus to learn his access codes to the mainframe computer in Zion. Tank proposes killing Morpheus to prevent this, but Neo, believing that he is not the One, decides himself worth sacrificing if need be to rescue Morpheus. While rescuing Morpheus, Neo gains confidence in his abilities, performing feats comparable to the Agents'. Morpheus and Trinity exit the Matrix. In the real world, machines called. Trinity whispers to Neo that he can't be dead because she loves him and the Oracle told her that she would fall in love with the One, she kisses Neo and he revives with the power to control the Matrix. He effortlessly defeats Smith and leaves the Matrix just as the ship
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works. More restrictively, literature refers to writing considered to be an art form or any single writing deemed to have artistic or intellectual value due to deploying language in ways that differ from ordinary usage, its Latin root literatura/litteratura was used to refer to all written accounts. The concept has changed meaning over time to include texts that are spoken or sung, non-written verbal art forms. Developments in print technology have allowed an ever-growing distribution and proliferation of written works, culminating in electronic literature. Literature is classified according to whether it is fiction or non-fiction, whether it is poetry or prose, it can be further distinguished according to major forms such as short story or drama. Definitions of literature have varied over time: it is a "culturally relative definition". In Western Europe prior to the 18th century, literature denoted all writing. A more restricted sense of the term emerged during the Romantic period, in which it began to demarcate "imaginative" writing.
Contemporary debates over what constitutes literature can be seen as returning to older, more inclusive notions. The value judgment definition of literature considers it to cover those writings that possess high quality or distinction, forming part of the so-called belles-lettres tradition; this sort of definition is that used in the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition when it classifies literature as "the best expression of the best thought reduced to writing." Problematic in this view is that there is no objective definition of what constitutes "literature": anything can be literature, anything, universally regarded as literature has the potential to be excluded, since value judgments can change over time. The formalist definition is. Jim Meyer considers this a useful characteristic in explaining the use of the term to mean published material in a particular field, as such writing must use language according to particular standards; the problem with the formalist definition is that in order to say that literature deviates from ordinary uses of language, those uses must first be identified.
Etymologically, the term derives from Latin literatura/litteratura "learning, a writing, grammar," "writing formed with letters," from litera/littera "letter". In spite of this, the term has been applied to spoken or sung texts. Literary genre is a mode of categorizing literature. A French term for "a literary type or class". However, such classes are subject to change, have been used in different ways in different periods and traditions; the history of literature follows the development of civilization. When defined as written work, Ancient Egyptian literature, along with Sumerian literature, are considered the world's oldest literatures; the primary genres of the literature of Ancient Egypt—didactic texts and prayers, tales—were written entirely in verse. Most Sumerian literature is poetry, as it is written in left-justified lines, could contain line-based organization such as the couplet or the stanza, Different historical periods are reflected in literature. National and tribal sagas, accounts of the origin of the world and of customs, myths which sometimes carry moral or spiritual messages predominate in the pre-urban eras.
The epics of Homer, dating from the early to middle Iron age, the great Indian epics of a later period, have more evidence of deliberate literary authorship, surviving like the older myths through oral tradition for long periods before being written down. Literature in all its forms can be seen as written records, whether the literature itself be factual or fictional, it is still quite possible to decipher facts through things like characters' actions and words or the authors' style of writing and the intent behind the words; the plot is for more than just entertainment purposes. Studying and analyzing literature becomes important in terms of learning about human history. Literature provides insights about how society has evolved and about the societal norms during each of the different periods all throughout history. For instance, postmodern authors argue that history and fiction both constitute systems of signification by which we make sense of the past, it is asserted that both of these are "discourses, human constructs, signifying systems, both derive their major claim to truth from that identity."
Literature provides views of life, crucial in obtaining truth and in understanding human life throughout history and its periods. It explores the possibilities of living in terms of certain values under given social and historical circumstances. Literature helps us understand references made in more modern literature because authors reference mythology and other old religious texts to describe ancient civi
Blade Runner is a 1982 science fiction film directed by Ridley Scott, written by Hampton Fancher and David Peoples, starring Harrison Ford, Rutger Hauer, Sean Young. It is a loose adaptation of Philip K. Dick's novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?. The film is set in a dystopian future Los Angeles of 2019, in which synthetic humans known as replicants are bio-engineered by the powerful Tyrell Corporation to work on off-world colonies; when a fugitive group of Nexus-6 replicants led by Roy Batty escapes back to Earth, burnt-out cop Rick Deckard reluctantly agrees to hunt them down. Blade Runner underperformed in North American theaters and polarized critics, it became an acclaimed cult film regarded as one of the all-time best science fiction films. Hailed for its production design depicting a "retrofitted" future, Blade Runner is a leading example of neo-noir cinema; the soundtrack, composed by Vangelis, was nominated in 1983 for a BAFTA and a Golden Globe as best original score. The film has influenced many science fiction films, video games and television series.
It brought the work of Philip K. Dick to the attention of Hollywood, several big-budget films were based on his work. In the year after its release, Blade Runner won the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, in 1993 it was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as "culturally or aesthetically significant". A sequel, Blade Runner 2049, was released in October 2017. Seven versions of Blade Runner exist as a result of controversial changes requested by studio executives. A director's cut was released in 1992 after a strong response to test screenings of a workprint. This, in conjunction with the film's popularity as a video rental, made it one of the earliest movies to be released on DVD. In 2007, Warner Bros. released a 25th-anniversary digitally remastered version. In 2019 Los Angeles, former police officer Rick Deckard is detained by officer Gaff, brought to his former supervisor, Bryant. Deckard, whose job as a "blade runner" was to track down bioengineered beings known as replicants and "retire" them, is informed that four are on Earth illegally.
Deckard starts to leave, but Bryant ambiguously threatens him, he stays. The two watch a video of a blade runner named Holden administering the "Voigt-Kampff" test, designed to distinguish replicants from humans based on their emotional response to questions; the test subject, shoots Holden on the second question. Bryant wants Deckard to retire Leon and the other three Tyrell Corporation Nexus-6 replicants: Roy Batty and Pris. Bryant has Deckard meet with Eldon Tyrell so he can administer the test on a Nexus-6 to see if it works. Tyrell expresses his interest in seeing the test fail first and asks him to administer it on his assistant Rachael. After a much longer than standard test, Deckard concludes that Rachael is a replicant who believes she is human. Tyrell explains that she is an experiment, given false memories to provide an emotional "cushion". Searching Leon's hotel room, Deckard finds a synthetic snake scale. Roy and Leon investigate a replicant eye-manufacturing laboratory and learn of J. F. Sebastian, a gifted genetic designer who works with Tyrell.
Deckard returns to his apartment. She tries to prove her humanity by showing him a family photo, but after Deckard reveals that her memories are implants from Tyrell's niece, she leaves his apartment. Meanwhile, Pris manipulates him to gain his trust. A photograph from Leon's apartment and the snake scale lead Deckard to a strip club, where Zhora works. After a confrontation and chase, Deckard kills Zhora. Bryant orders him to retire Rachael, who has disappeared from the Tyrell Corporation. After Deckard spots Rachael in a crowd, he is attacked by Leon, who knocks Deckard's pistol out of his hand, attempts to kill Deckard, but Rachael uses Deckard's pistol to kill Leon, they return to Deckard's apartment, during an intimate discussion, he promises not to track her down. Arriving at Sebastian's apartment, Roy tells Pris. Sympathetic to their plight, Sebastian reveals that because of "Methuselah Syndrome", a genetic premature aging disorder, his life will be cut short. Sebastian and Roy gain entrance into Tyrell's secure penthouse, where Roy demands more life from his maker.
Tyrell tells him. Roy confesses that he has done "questionable things", but Tyrell dismisses this, praising Roy's advanced design and accomplishments in his short life. Roy kisses Tyrell kills him. Sebastian runs for the elevator, followed by Roy. Deckard is told by Bryant that Sebastian was found dead. At Sebastian's apartment, Deckard is ambushed by Pris. Roy's body begins to fail, he chases Deckard through the building. Deckard is left hanging between buildings. Roy makes the jump with ease, as Deckard's grip loosens, Roy hoists him onto the roof, saving him. Before Roy dies, he delivers a monologue about how his memories "will be lost in time, like tears in rain". Gaff arrives and shouts to Deckard about Rachael: "It's too bad she won't live, but again, who does?" Deckard finds Rachael asleep in his bed. As they leave, Deckard notices an origami unicorn
Science fiction is a genre of speculative fiction dealing with imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, extraterrestrials in fiction. Science fiction explores the potential consequences of scientific other various innovations, has been called a "literature of ideas." "Science fiction" is difficult to define as it includes a wide range of concepts and themes. James Blish wrote: "Wells used the term to cover what we would today call'hard' science fiction, in which a conscientious attempt to be faithful to known facts was the substrate on which the story was to be built, if the story was to contain a miracle, it ought at least not to contain a whole arsenal of them."Isaac Asimov said: "Science fiction can be defined as that branch of literature which deals with the reaction of human beings to changes in science and technology." According to Robert A. Heinlein, "A handy short definition of all science fiction might read: realistic speculation about possible future events, based solidly on adequate knowledge of the real world and present, on a thorough understanding of the nature and significance of the scientific method."Lester del Rey wrote, "Even the devoted aficionado or fan—has a hard time trying to explain what science fiction is," and that the reason for there not being a "full satisfactory definition" is that "there are no delineated limits to science fiction."
Author and editor Damon Knight summed up the difficulty, saying "science fiction is what we point to when we say it." Mark C. Glassy described the definition of science fiction as U. S. Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart did with the definition of pornography: "I know it when I see it." Science fiction had its beginnings in a time when the line between myth and fact was arguably more blurred than the present day. Written in the 2nd century CE by the satirist Lucian, A True Story contains many themes and tropes that are characteristic of contemporary science fiction, including travel to other worlds, extraterrestrial lifeforms, interplanetary warfare, artificial life; some consider it the first science-fiction novel. Some of the stories from The Arabian Nights, along with the 10th-century The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter and Ibn al-Nafis's 13th-century Theologus Autodidactus contain elements of science fiction. Products of the Age of Reason and the development of modern science itself, Johannes Kepler's Somnium, Francis Bacon's New Atlantis, Cyrano de Bergerac's Comical History of the States and Empires of the Moon and The States and Empires of the Sun, Margaret Cavendish's "The Blazing World", Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, Ludvig Holberg's Nicolai Klimii Iter Subterraneum and Voltaire's Micromégas are regarded as some of the first true science-fantasy works.
Indeed, Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan considered Somnium the first science-fiction story. Following the 18th-century development of the novel as a literary form, Mary Shelley's books Frankenstein and The Last Man helped define the form of the science-fiction novel. Brian Aldiss has argued. Edgar Allan Poe wrote several stories considered science fiction, including "The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall" which featured a trip to the Moon. Jules Verne was noted for his attention to detail and scientific accuracy Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea which predicted the contemporary nuclear submarine. In 1887, the novel El anacronópete by Spanish author Enrique Gaspar y Rimbau introduced the first time machine. Many critics consider H. G. Wells one of science fiction's most important authors, or "the Shakespeare of science fiction." His notable science-fiction works include The Time Machine, The Island of Doctor Moreau, The Invisible Man, The War of the Worlds. His science fiction imagined alien invasion, biological engineering and time travel.
In his non-fiction futurologist works he predicted the advent of airplanes, military tanks, nuclear weapons, satellite television, space travel, something resembling the World Wide Web. In 1912, Edgar Rice Burroughs published A Princess of Mars, the first of his three-decade-long planetary romance series of Barsoom novels, set on Mars and featuring John Carter as the hero. In 1926, Hugo Gernsback published the first American science-fiction magazine, Amazing Stories, in which he wrote: By'scientifiction' I mean the Jules Verne, H. G. Wells and Edgar Allan Poe type of story—a charming romance intermingled with scientific fact and prophetic vision... Not only do these amazing tales make tremendously interesting reading—they are always instructive, they supply knowledge... in a palatable form... New adventures pictured for us in the scientifiction of today are not at all impossible of realization tomorrow... Many great science stories destined to be of historical interest are still to be written...
Posterity will point to them as having blazed a new trail, not only in literature and fiction, but progress as well. In 1928, E. E. "Doc" Smith's first published work, The Skylark of Space, written in collaboration with Lee Hawkins Garby, appeared in Amazing Stories. It is called the first great space opera; the same year, Philip Francis Nowlan's original Buck Rogers story, Armageddon 2419 appeared in Amazing Stories. This was followed by the first serious science-fiction comic. In 1937, John W. Campbell became editor of Astounding Science Fiction, an event, sometimes conside
2001: A Space Odyssey (film)
2001: A Space Odyssey is a 1968 epic science fiction film produced and directed by Stanley Kubrick. The screenplay was written by Kubrick and Arthur C. Clarke, was inspired by Clarke's short story "The Sentinel". A novel called 2001: A Space Odyssey, written concurrently with the screenplay, was published soon after the film was released; the film, which follows a voyage to Jupiter with the sentient computer HAL after the discovery of a mysterious black monolith affecting human evolution, deals with themes of existentialism, human evolution, artificial intelligence, the possibility of extraterrestrial life. The film is noted for its scientifically accurate depiction of spaceflight, pioneering special effects, ambiguous imagery. Sound and dialogue are used sparingly and in place of traditional cinematic and narrative techniques; the soundtrack incorporates a number of pieces of classical music, among them Also sprach Zarathustra by Richard Strauss, "The Blue Danube" by Johann Strauss II, works by Aram Khachaturian and György Ligeti.
2001: A Space Odyssey was financed and distributed by American studio Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, but filmed and edited entirely in England, where Kubrick lived, using the facilities of MGM-British Studios and Shepperton Studios. MGM subcontracted the film to Kubrick's production company in order to qualify for the Eady Levy, a UK tax on box-office receipts used to fund the production of films in Britain at the time; the film received mixed reactions from critics and audiences upon its release, but garnered a cult following and became the highest-grossing North American film of 1968. It was nominated for four Academy Awards. A sequel, 2010: The Year We Make Contact, directed by Peter Hyams, was released in 1984. 2001: A Space Odyssey is regarded as one of the greatest and most influential films made. In 1991, it was deemed "culturally or aesthetically significant" by the United States Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the National Film Registry. Sight & Sound magazine ranked 2001: A Space Odyssey sixth in the top ten films of all time in its 2002 and 2012 critics' polls editions.
In 2010, it was named the greatest film of all time by The Moving Arts Film Journal. In an African desert millions of years ago, a tribe of hominids is driven away from its water hole by a rival tribe, they awaken to find a featureless black monolith. Influenced by the monolith, they discover how to use a bone as a weapon and drive their rivals away from the water hole. Millions of years a Pan Am spaceplane carries Dr. Heywood Floyd to the huge Space Station V orbiting Earth for a layover on his trip to Clavius Base, a United States outpost on the Moon. After Floyd has a videophone call with his daughter, he deflects questions from his Soviet scientist friend and her colleague about rumors of a mysterious epidemic at Clavius. Floyd speaks to a meeting of Clavius personnel, apologizing for the epidemic cover story but stressing secrecy, his mission is to investigate a found artifact buried four million years ago near the crater Tycho. Floyd and others ride in a Moonbus to the artifact, a monolith identical to the one encountered by the ape-men.
Sunlight strikes a loud high-pitched radio signal is heard. Eighteen months the United States spacecraft Discovery One is bound for Jupiter. On board are mission pilots and scientists Dr. David Bowman and Dr. Frank Poole, along with three other scientists in suspended animation. Most of Discovery's operations are controlled by the ship's computer, a HAL 9000 with a human personality that the crew calls "Hal". Hal says he is "foolproof and incapable of error". Hal raises concerns about the nature of the mission to Bowman, but their conversation is interrupted when Hal reports the imminent failure of an antenna control device; the astronauts find nothing wrong. Hal suggests letting it fail so the problem can be found. Mission Control advises the astronauts that results from their twin HAL 9000 indicate that Hal is in error about the device's imminent failure. Hal says. Concerned about Hal's behavior and Poole enter an EVA pod to talk without Hal overhearing, agree to disconnect Hal if he is proven wrong.
Hal secretly follows their conversation by lip reading. While Poole is on a space walk outside his EVA pod attempting to replace the unit, Hal takes control of the pod, severs his oxygen hose and sets him adrift. Bowman takes another pod to rescue Poole. Meanwhile, Hal turns off the life support functions of the crewmen in suspended animation; when Bowman returns to the ship with Poole's body, Hal refuses to let him in, stating that the astronauts' plan to deactivate him jeopardizes the mission. Bowman opens the ship's emergency airlock manually, enters the ship, proceeds to Hal's processor core. Hal tries to reassure Bowman pleads with him to stop, expresses fear; as Bowman deactivates the circuits controlling Hal's higher intellectual functions, Hal regresses to his earliest programmed memory, the song "Daisy Bell", which he sings for Bowman. When Bowman disconnects Hal, a prerecorded video message from Floyd plays, revealing that the mission's true objective is to investigate a radio signal, sent from a lunar artifact to Jupiter.
Only Hal and the hibernating crew had been told this. At Jupiter, Bowman leaves Discovery One in an EVA pod to investigate another monolith orbiting the planet; the pod is pulled into a vortex of colored light, the Star Gate, Bowman races across vas
The Terminator is a 1984 American science fiction film directed by James Cameron. It stars Arnold Schwarzenegger as the Terminator, a cyborg assassin sent back in time from 2029 to 1984 to kill Sarah Connor, whose son will one day become a savior against machines in a post-apocalyptic future. Michael Biehn plays a soldier from the future sent back in time to protect Connor; the screenplay is credited to Cameron and producer Gale Anne Hurd, while co-writer William Wisher Jr. received a credit for additional dialogue. Executive producers John Daly and Derek Gibson of Hemdale Film Corporation were instrumental in the film's financing and production; the Terminator topped the United States box office for two weeks and helped launch Cameron's film career and solidify Schwarzenegger's. It received critical acclaim, with many praising its pacing, action scenes and Schwarzenegger's performance, its success led to a franchise consisting of four sequels, a television series, comic books and video games.
In 2008, The Terminator was selected by the Library of Congress for preservation in the National Film Registry as "culturally or aesthetically significant". In 1984 Los Angeles, a cyborg assassin known as a Terminator arrives from 2029 and steals clothes and guns. Shortly afterward, Kyle Reese, a human soldier sent back in time from the same year, arrives, he evades the police. The Terminator begins systematically killing women named Sarah Connor, whose addresses it finds in the telephone directory, it tracks the last Sarah Connor to a nightclub. The pair steal a escape with the Terminator pursuing them in a police car; as they hide in a parking lot, Kyle explains to Sarah that an artificial intelligence defense network, known as Skynet, will become self-aware in the near future and initiate a nuclear holocaust. Sarah's future son John will rally the survivors and lead a resistance movement against Skynet and its army of machines. With the Resistance on the verge of victory, Skynet sent a Terminator back in time to kill Sarah before John is born, to prevent the formation of the Resistance.
The Terminator, a Cyberdyne Systems Model 101, is an efficient killing machine with a powerful metal endoskeleton and an external layer of living tissue that makes it appear human. Kyle and Sarah are apprehended by police after another encounter with the Terminator. Criminal psychologist Dr. Silberman concludes that Kyle is delusional; the Terminator repairs its body and attacks the police station, killing seventeen police officers in its attempt to locate Sarah. Kyle and Sarah escape, steal another car and take refuge in a motel, where they assemble pipe bombs and plan their next move. Kyle admits that he has been in love with Sarah since John gave him a photograph of her, they have sex; the Terminator kills Sarah's mother and impersonates her when Sarah, unaware of the Terminator's ability to mimic voices, attempts to contact her via telephone. When they realize it has reacquired them, they escape in a pickup truck while it chases them on a motorcycle. In the ensuing chase, Kyle is wounded by gunfire while throwing pipe bombs at the Terminator.
Enraged‚ Sarah knocks the Terminator off its motorcycle but loses control of the truck, which flips over. The Terminator hijacks a tank truck and attempts to run down Sarah, but Kyle slides a pipe bomb onto the tanker's exhaust pipe, causing an explosion that burns the flesh from the Terminator's endoskeleton, it pursues them into a factory. He jams his final pipe bomb into the Terminator's abdomen, blowing it apart, injuring Sarah, killing himself; the Terminator's torso grabs Sarah. She lures it into a hydraulic press, crushing it. Months a pregnant Sarah is traveling through Mexico, recording audio tapes to pass on to her unborn son, John, she debates. At a gas station, a boy takes an instant photograph of her and she buys it — the same photograph that John will give to Kyle. Arnold Schwarzenegger as T-800 "Model 101", a cybernetic android disguised as a human being sent back in time to assassinate Sarah Connor. Michael Biehn as Kyle Reese, a human Resistance fighter sent back in time to protect Sarah.
Linda Hamilton as Sarah Connor, the Terminator's target, soon to be the mother of the future Resistance leader John Connor. Paul Winfield as Ed Traxler, a police Lieutenant who questions Sarah. Lance Henriksen as Hal Vukovich, a police Sergeant who questions Sarah. Earl Boen as Dr. Peter Silberman, a criminal psychologist. Bess Motta as Ginger Ventura, Sarah's roommate. Rick Rossovich as Matt Buchanan, Ginger's boyfriend. Additional actors included Shawn Schepps as Sarah's co-worker at the diner. In Rome, during the release of Piranha II: The Spawning, director Cameron fell ill and had a dream about a metallic torso holding kitchen knives dragging itself from an explosion. Inspired by director John Carpenter, who had made the slasher film Halloween on a low budget, Cameron used the dream as a "launching pad" to write a slasher-style film. Cameron's agent requested that he work on something else. After this, Cameron dismissed his agent. Cameron returned to Pomona and stayed at the home of science fiction writer Randall Frak