Tomohon is a city in North Sulawesi Province, in central Indonesia. Tomohon was a part of the Minahasa Regency in North Sulawesi. There was a time when the inhabitants felt the necessity of upgrading the status of their residence into an autonomous city on behalf of its approach to community service. Tomohon became a city in 2003 by the passage of the Act of Republic Indonesia No. 10 of 2003 about the establishment of South Minahasa Regency and Tomohon city within North Sulawesi Province and was inaugurated on August 4, 2003. Tomohon is known for flower planting at people's homes. Nearby is the volcano Gunung Lokon or Mount Lokon and Mount Empung. Tomohon is known for wooden-house production, palm-sugar production, vegetable agriculture, as a center of Christian Ministry, as a student town. Tomohon has been written of in several historical records. One of them was found in the ethnographic works of Reverend Nicolaas Graafland, written on Queen Elizabeth Ships on January 14, 1864, he described a heart-capturing country on the Minahasa highland in Northern Celebes called Tomohon that he had visited in 1850.
The development of civilization and the dynamics of development and social implementation from year to year made Tomohon one of the capital districts in the Minahasa regency. In the beginning, Tomohon was a district of the Toumbulu people located in northwestern Minahasa, which consists of Talete, Paslaten and Matani. In 1880, the Sarongsong district were united into Tomohon, Kakaskasen district combined in 1908. In 1927, Tomohon was integrated into Manado as a subdistrct, in 1935, Tombariri district combined with Tomohon subdistrict under the Manado district. In 1945, Tomohon was separated from Manado and again became the Tomohon district with two subdistrict: Tomohon and Tombariri. During the Permesta between March 1956 and October 1961, some of the Tombariri combined to Tomohon. In 1974-2003, Tomohon was a district under the Minahasa Regency. In the early decades of the 2000s, people in some parts of the Minahasa regency bore inspiration and aspirations of the strategic environmental trends both internally and externally for regional expansion.
Efforts at reformation and the implementation of regional autonomy had been accelerating the process of accommodation people's aspirations for the expansion of the region. Through a long legal process and mature consideration in order to accelerate national development for the welfare of society the Minahasa regency government along with the Regional Representatives Council of Minahasa Regency recommended the aspirations for the establishment of South Minahasa Regency and North Minahasa Regency; the formation of South Minahasa Regency and Tomohon was established by the Central Government by issuing the Act No. 10 of 2003 and the establishment of the North Minahasa Regency through Act No. 33 of 2003. The establishment of the legislative institution of Tomohon came as election results of 2004, resulting in Tomohon Regional Regulation Number 22 Year 2005 about Regional Symbol and Regulations of Tomohon and No. 29 of 2005 about the Anniversary of Tomohon. Tomohon inaugurated the Minister of Home Affairs Hari Sabarno on behalf of the President of the Republic of Indonesia on August 4, 2003.
Tomohon locates in 1 ° 124 ° 50' East. Tomohon broad based decision-Law No. 10 of 2003 is 11,420 hectares with population of 87,719 inhabitants. In general, Tomohon is located on the main circulation route connecting Manado as the provincial capital and other cities in North Sulawesi. Tomohon is surrounded by Minahasa Regency, with the borders of the area are: North: Pineleng and Tombulu District, Minahasa Regency South: Remboken and Sonder District, Minahasa Regency West: Tombariri District, Minahasa Regency East: Tombulu and West Tondano District, Minahasa RegencyThe geography of Tomohon is located in the Asian portion of the Pacific Ring of Fire, flanked by two active volcanoes, those are Mount Lokon and Mount Mahawu; the area is made of young volcanic rock, with a composition of andesitic and basaltic tuff, is of a brittle nature and eroded. The material component of the volcanic eruption with a cool temperature increase the fertile soil, for the people taking advantage to produces fruits and flowers.
In the southern, there's a Lake Linow, a formed crater from volcanic eruption. Around the lake, there are various geothermal manifestation such as hot springs and mud pool. Tomohon has a cooler temperature than Manado, at a lower land nearby the sea. Tomohon is situated at an altitude of about 700–1,000 metres above sea level, Temperatures in Tomohon in the daytime are between 17–30 °C and 16–24 °C at night. Tomohon has a tropical rainforest climate, with a significant amount of rainfall during the year for the driest month; the city area based on the Village Potential Data 2014 was 147.21 square kilometres. The city administration is divided into 44 villages; the mayor leads the city administration. The first mayor of Tomohon is Boy Simon Tangkawarouw. Since 2005, city residents have directly voted for a mayor, Jefferson SM Rumajar elected as the first definitive mayor; the city is divided into five districts with 100,373 totals population. The table below lists population based on the Statistics of Tomohon City.
In general, Community Based Eco-Tourism is tourism, managed by the community for the tourist destination
Makassar is the capital of the Indonesian province of South Sulawesi. It is the largest city in the region of Eastern Indonesia and the country's fifth largest urban centre after Jakarta, Surabaya and Medan. From 1971 to 1999, the city was named after one of Ujung Pandang; the city is located on the southwest coast of the island of Sulawesi. The city's area is 199.3 square kilometres and it had a population of around 1.6 million in 2013. Its built-up area has 1,976,168 inhabitants covering 15 districts, its official metropolitan area, known as Mamminasata, with 17 additional districts, covers an area of 2,548 square kilometres and had a population of around 2.4 million according to 2010 Census. The trade in spices figured prominently in the history of Sulawesi, which involved frequent struggles between rival native and foreign powers for control of the lucrative trade during the pre-colonial and colonial period, when spices from the region were in high demand in the West. Much of South Sulawesi's early history was written in old texts that can be traced back to the 13th and 14th centuries.
Makassar is mentioned in the Nagarakretagama, a Javanese eulogy composed in 14th century during the reign of Majapahit king Hayam Wuruk. In the text, Makassar is mentioned as an island under Majapahit dominance, alongside Butun and Banggawi; the 9th King of Gowa Tumaparisi Kallonna is described in the royal chronicle as the first Gowa ruler to ally with the nearby trade-oriented polity of Tallo, a partnership which endured throughout Makassar's apogee as an independent kingdom. The centre of the dual kingdom was at Sombaopu, near the mouth of the Jeneberang River about 10 km south of the present city centre, where an international port and a fortress were developed. First Malay traders Portuguese from at least the 1540s, began to make this port their base for trading to the Spice Islands', further east; the growth of Dutch maritime power over the spice trade after 1600 made Makassar more vital as an alternative port open to all traders, as well as a source of rice to trade with rice-deficient Maluku.
The Dutch East India Company sought a monopoly of Malukan nutmeg and cloves, came close to succeeding at the expense of English and Muslims from the 1620s. The Makassar kings maintained a policy of free trade, insisting on the right of any visitor to do business in the city, rejecting the attempts of the Dutch to establish a monopoly. Makassar depended on the Muslim Malay and Catholic Portuguese Portuguese sailors communities as its two crucial economic assets; however the English East India Company established a post there in 1613, the Danish Company arrived in 1618, Chinese and Indian traders were all important. When the Dutch conquered Portuguese Melaka in 1641, Makassar became the largest Portuguese base in Southeast Asia; the Portuguese population had been in the hundreds, but rose to several thousand, served by churches of the Franciscans and Jesuits as well as the regular clergy. By the 16th century, Makassar had become Sulawesi's major port and centre of the powerful Gowa and Tallo sultanates which between them had a series of 11 fortresses and strongholds and a fortified sea wall that extended along the coast.
Portuguese rulers called the city Macáçar. Makassar was ably led in the first half of the 17th century, when it resisted Dutch pressure to close down its trade to Maluku, made allies rather than enemies of the neighbouring Bugis states. Karaeng Matoaya was ruler of Tallo from 1593, as well as Chancellor or Chief Minister of the partner kingdom of Gowa, he managed the succession to the Gowa throne in 1593 of the 7-year-old boy known as Sultan Alaud-din, guided him through the acceptance of Islam in 1603, numerous modernizations in military and civil governance, cordial relations with the foreign traders. John Jourdain called Makassar in his day "the kindest people in all the Indias to strangers". Matoaya's eldest son succeeded him on the throne of Tallo, but as Chancellor he had evidently groomed his brilliant second son, Karaeng Pattingalloang, who exercised that position from 1639 until his death. Pattingalloang must have been educated by Portuguese, since as an adult he spoke Portuguese "as fluently as people from Lisbon itself", avidly read all the books that came his way in Portuguese, Spanish or Latin.
French Jesuit Alexandre de Rhodes described his passion for mathematics and astronomy, on which he pestered the priest endlessly, while one of his Dutch adversaries conceded he was "a man of great knowledge and understanding." After Pattingalloang's death in 1654, a new king of Gowa, Sultan Hasanuddin, rejected the alliance with Tallo by declaring he would be his own Chancellor. Conflicts within the kingdom escalated, the Bugis rebelled under the leadership of Bone, the Dutch VOC seized its long-awaited chance to conquer Makassar with the help of the Bugis, their first conquest in 1667 was the northern Makassar fort of Ujung Pandang, while in 1669 they conquered and destroyed Sombaopu in one of the greatest battles of 17th century Indonesia. The VOC moved the city centre northward, around the Ujung Pandang fort they rebuilt and renamed Fort Rotterdam. From this base they managed to destroy the strongholds of the Sultan of Gowa, forced to live on the outskirts of Makassar. Following the Java War, Prince Diponegoro was exiled to Fort Rotterdam until his death in 1855.
After the arrival
Bandung is the capital of West Java province in Indonesia. According to the 2015 census, it is Indonesia's fourth most populous city after Jakarta and Bekasi with over 2.5 million inhabitants. At the meantime, Greater Bandung is the country's third largest metropolitan area with over 8 million inhabitants. Located 768 metres above sea level 140 kilometres southeast of Jakarta, Bandung has cooler year-round temperatures than most other Indonesian cities; the city lies on a river basin surrounded by volcanic mountains. This topography provides a natural defense system, the primary reason for the Dutch East Indies government's plan to move the colony capital from Batavia to Bandung; the Dutch colonials first established tea plantations around the mountains in the eighteenth century, a road was constructed to connect the plantation area to the colonial capital Batavia. The Dutch inhabitants of Bandung demanded the establishment of a municipality, granted in 1906, Bandung developed into a resort city for plantation owners.
Luxurious hotels, cafés, European boutiques were opened, hence the city was nicknamed Parijs van Java. After Indonesia declared independence in 1945, the city experienced rapid development and urbanization, transforming Bandung from an idyllic town into a dense 16,500 people/km2 metropolitan area, a living space for over 8.5 million people. New skyscrapers, high-rise buildings and gardens have been constructed. Natural resources have been exploited by conversion of protected upland area into highland villas and real estate. Although the city has encountered many problems, Bandung still attracts large numbers of tourists, weekend sightseers, migrants from other parts of Indonesia; the city has won a regional environmental sustainability award for having the cleanest air among other major cities in ASEAN countries in 2017. The city has become known as a Smart City, leveraging technology to improve government services, including social media, that alert the authorities to issues such as floods or traffic jams.
The first Asian-African Conference known as the Bandung Conference was hosted in Bandung by President Sukarno in 1955. Redevelopment of the international airport was completed in 2016. To improve infrastructure, the construction of a Jakarta-Bandung High Speed Rail and Bandung Metro Kapsul, a type of indigenous Automated People Mover will begin in 2018; the new Bandung Kertajati International Airport opened in June 2018 with a 2,500 meter long runway and only one flight per day to Surabaya. Bandung, the capital of West Java province, located about 180 kilometres southeast of Jakarta, is the third largest city in Indonesia, its elevation is 768 metres above sea level and is surrounded by up to 2,400 metres high Late Tertiary and Quaternary volcanic terrain. The 400 km2 flat of central Bandung plain is situated in the middle of 2,340.88 square kilometres wide of the Bandung Basin. The basin's main river is the Citarum; the Bandung Basin is an important source of water for potable water and fisheries, with its 6,147 million m3 of groundwater being a major reservoir for the city.
The northern section of Bandung is hillier than other parts of the city, the distinguished truncated flat-peak shape of the Tangkuban Perahu volcano can be seen from the city to the north. Long-term volcanic activity has created fertile andisol soil in the north, suitable for intensive rice, tea and coffee plantations. In the south and east, alluvial soils deposited by the Cikapundung river predominate. Geological data shows that the Bandung Basin is located on an ancient volcano, known as Mount Sunda, erected up to 3,000–4,000 metres during the Pleistocene age. Two large-scale eruptions took place; the lake drained away. The official name of the city during the colonial Dutch East Indies period was Bandoeng; the earliest reference to the area dates back to 1488, although archaeological findings suggest a type of Homo erectus species had long lived on the banks of the Cikapundung River and around the old lake of Bandung. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Dutch East Indies Company established plantations in the Bandung area.
In 1786, a supply road connecting Batavia, Cianjur, Bandung and Cirebon was constructed. In 1809, Napoleon Bonaparte, French Emperor and conqueror of much of Europe including the Netherlands and its colonies, ordered the Dutch Indies Governor H. W. Daendels to improve the defensive systems of Java to protect against the British in India. Daendels built a road, stretching 1,000 km from the west to the east coast of Java, passing through Bandung. In 1810, the road was laid down in Bandung and was named De Groote Postweg, the present-day location of Jalan Asia-Afrika. Under Daendels' orders
Indonesian cuisine consists of the various regional cuisines in parts of Indonesia. Many regional cuisines exist based upon indigenous culture with some foreign influences. Indonesia has around 5,350 traditional recipes, with 30 of them considered the most important. Indonesia's cuisine may include rice and soup dishes in modest local eateries to street-side snacks and top-dollar plates. Indonesian cuisine varies by region and has many different influences. Sumatran cuisine, for example has Middle Eastern and Indian influences, featuring curried meat and vegetables such as gulai and curry, while Javanese cuisine is indigenous, with some hint of Chinese influence; the cuisines of Eastern Indonesia are similar to Melanesian cuisine. Elements of Chinese cuisine can be seen in Indonesian cuisine: foods such as noodles, meat balls, spring rolls have been assimilated. Throughout its history, Indonesia has been involved in trade due to its location and natural resources. Additionally, Indonesia’s indigenous techniques and ingredients were influenced by India, the Middle East and Europe.
Spanish and Portuguese traders brought New World produce before the Dutch came to colonise most of the archipelago. The Indonesian islands The Moluccas, which are famed as "the Spice Islands" contributed to the introduction of native spices, such as cloves and nutmeg, to Indonesian and global cuisine. Indonesian cuisine demonstrates complex flavour, acquired from certain ingredients and bumbu spices mixture. Indonesian dishes have rich flavours. Most of Indonesians favour hot and spicy food, thus sambal, Indonesian hot and spicy chili sauce with shrimp paste, is a staple condiment at all Indonesian tables. Seven main Indonesian cooking methods are frying, roasting, dry roasting, sautéing and steaming; some popular Indonesian dishes such as nasi goreng, gado-gado and soto are ubiquitous in the country and are considered national dishes. The official national dish of Indonesia however, is tumpeng, chosen in 2014 by Indonesian Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy as the dish that binds the diversity of Indonesia's various culinary traditions.
However in 2018, the same ministry has chosen 5 national dish of Indonesia. Today, some popular dishes that originated in Indonesia are now common to neighbouring countries and Singapore. Indonesian dishes such as satay, beef rendang, sambal are favoured in Malaysia and Singapore. Soy-based dishes, such as variations of tofu and tempeh, are very popular. Tempeh is regarded as a Javanese invention, a local adaptation of soy-based food fermentation and production. Another fermented food is oncom, similar in some ways to tempeh but using a variety of bases, created by different fungi, popular in West Java. SBS Australia stated that Indonesian food is "one of the most vibrant and colourful cuisines in the world, full of intense flavour." Kira Jane Buxton of Mashed described it as "eclectic" and "diverse". Indonesian cuisine has a long history—although most of them are not well-documented, relied on local practice and oral traditions. A rare instance however, is demonstrated by Javanese cuisine that somewhat has quite a well-documented culinary tradition.
The diversity ranges from ancient bakar batu or stone-grilled yams and boar practiced by Papuan tribes of eastern Indonesia, to sophisticated contemporary Indonesian fusion cuisine. The ethnic diversity of Indonesian archipelago provides an eclectic combination — mixing local Javanese, Balinese, Minang and other native cuisine traditions, with centuries worth of foreign contacts with Indian traders, Chinese migrants and Dutch colonials. Rice has been an essential staple for Indonesian society, as bas-reliefs of 9th century Borobudur and Prambanan describes rice farming in ancient Java. Ancient dishes were mentioned in many Javanese inscriptions and historians have succeeded in deciphering some of them; the inscriptions from Medang Mataram era circa 8th to 10th century mentioned several ancient dishes, among others are hadaŋan haraŋ, hadaŋan madura, dundu puyengan. Various haraŋ-haraŋ either celeṅ/wök, hadahan/kbo, kidaŋ/knas or wḍus. Ancient beverages include nalaka rasa, jati wangi, kinca. Various kuluban and phalamula.
Other ancient vegetable dishes include rumwah-rumwah and tetis. The 9th century Old Javanese Kakawin Ramayana mentioned cooking technique as Trijata offered Sita some food. Several food were mentioned in several Javanese inscriptions dated from 10th century to 15th century; some of this dishes are identified with present day Javanese foods. Among others are pecel, rarawwan, kurupuk, sweets like wajik and dodol beverages like dawet. In the 15th century Sundanese manuscript Sanghyang Siksa Kanda
The wild boar known as the wild swine, Eurasian wild pig, or wild pig, is a suid native to much of Eurasia, North Africa, the Greater Sunda Islands. Human intervention has spread its distribution further, making the species one of the widest-ranging mammals in the world, as well as the most spread suiform, its wide range, high numbers, adaptability mean that it is classed as least concern by the IUCN and it has become an invasive species in part of its introduced range. The animal originated in Southeast Asia during the Early Pleistocene, outcompeted other suid species as it spread throughout the Old World; as of 1990, up to 16 subspecies are recognized, which are divided into four regional groupings based on skull height and lacrimal bone length. The species lives in matriarchal societies consisting of their young. Grown males are solitary outside the breeding season; the grey wolf is the wild boar's main predator throughout most of its range, except in the Far East and the Lesser Sunda Islands, where it is replaced by the tiger and Komodo dragon, respectively.
It has a long history of association with humans, having been the ancestor of most domestic pig breeds and a big-game animal for millennia. Boars have re-hybridized in recent decades with feral pigs; as true wild boars became extinct in Great Britain before the development of Modern English, the same terms are used for both true wild boar and pigs large or semi-wild ones. The English'boar' stems from the Old English bar, thought to be derived from the West Germanic *bairaz, of unknown origin. Boar is sometimes used to refer to males, may be used to refer to male domesticated pigs breeding males that have not been castrated.'Sow', the traditional name for a female, again comes from Old English and Germanic. The young may be called'piglets'; the animals' specific name scrofa is Latin for'sow'. In hunting terminology, boars are given different designations according to their age: MtDNA studies indicate that the wild boar originated from islands in Southeast Asia such as Indonesia and the Philippines, subsequently spread onto mainland Eurasia and North Africa.
The earliest fossil finds of the species come from both Europe and Asia, date back to the Early Pleistocene. By the late Villafranchian, S. scrofa displaced the related S. strozzii, a large swamp-adapted suid ancestral to the modern S. verrucosus throughout the Eurasian mainland, restricting it to insular Asia. Its closest wild relative is the bearded pig of Malacca and surrounding islands; as of 2005, 16 subspecies are recognised, which are divided into four regional groupings: Western: Includes S. s. scrofa, S. s. meridionalis, S. s. algira, S. s. attila, S. s. lybicus and S. s. nigripes. These subspecies are high-skulled, with thick underwool and poorly developed manes. Indian: Includes S. s. davidi and S. s. cristatus. These subspecies have sparse or absent underwool, with long manes and prominent bands on the snout and mouth. While S. s. cristatus is high-skulled, S. s. davidi is low-skulled. Eastern: Includes S. s. sibiricus, S. s. ussuricus, S. s. leucomystax, S. s. riukiuanus, S. s. taivanus and S. s. moupinensis.
These subspecies are characterised by a whitish streak extending from the corners of the mouth to the lower jaw. With the exception of S. s. ussuricus, most are high-skulled. The underwool is thick, except in S. s. moupinensis, the mane is absent. Indonesian: Represented by S. s. vittatus, it is characterised by its sparse body hair, lack of underwool long mane, a broad reddish band extending from the muzzle to the sides of the neck. It is the most basal of the four groups, having the smallest relative brain size, more primitive dentition and unspecialised cranial structure. With the exception of domestic pigs in Timor and Papua New Guinea, the wild boar is the ancestor of most pig breeds. Archaeological evidence suggests that pigs were domesticated from wild boar as early as 13,000–12,700 BC in the Near East in the Tigris Basin being managed in the wild in a way similar to the way they are managed by some modern New Guineans. Remains of pigs have been dated to earlier than 11,400 BC in Cyprus.
Those animals must have been introduced from the mainland, which suggests domestication in the adjacent mainland by then. There was a separate domestication in China, which took place about 8,000 years ago. DNA evidence from sub-fossil remains of teeth and jawbones of Neolithic pigs shows that the first domestic pigs in Europe had been brought from the Near East; this stimulated the domestication of local European wild boars, resulting in a third domestication event with the Near Eastern genes dying out in European pig stock. Modern domesticated pigs have involved complex exchanges, with European domesticated lines being exported in turn to the ancient Near East. Historical records indicate that Asian pigs were introduced into Europe during the 18th and early 19th centuries. Domestic pigs tend to have much more developed hindquarters than their wild boar ancestors, to the point where 70% of their body weight is concentrated in the posterior, the opposite of wild boar, where most of the muscles are concentrated on the head and shoulders.
The wild boar is a bulky, massively built suid with short and thin legs. The trunk is short and massive, w
Dog meat is the flesh and other edible parts derived from dogs. Human consumption of dog meat has been recorded in many parts of the world. In the 21st century, dog meat is consumed in some regions of China, South Korea and Nigeria and it is still eaten or is legal to be eaten in other countries throughout the world; some cultures view the consumption of dog meat as part of their traditional, ritualistic, or day-to-day cuisine, while other cultures consider consumption of dog meat a taboo where it had been consumed in the past. It was estimated in 2014. In 2018, Humane Society International stated that South Korea was now the only country in Asia where dogs were reported to be and intensively farmed for human consumption; the Nureongi is a yellowish landrace from Korea. Similar to other native Korean dog breeds, such as the Jindo, nureongi are medium-sized spitz-type dogs, but are larger with greater musculature and a distinctive coat pattern, they are quite uniform in yellow hair and melanistic masks.
Nureongi are most used as a livestock dog, raised for its meat, not kept as pets. The Hawaiian Poi Dog or ʻīlio is an extinct breed of pariah dog from Hawaiʻi, used by Native Hawaiians as a spiritual protector of children and as a source of food; the Tahitian Dog or ʻūrī Mā’ohi were a food source, served by high ranking chiefs to the early European explorers who visited the islands. Captain James Cook and his crew developed a taste for the dog, with Cook noting, "For tame Animals they have Hogs and Dogs, the latter of which we learned to Eat from them, few were there of us but what allow'd that a South Sea dog was next to an English Lamb." The Xoloitzcuintli, or Xolo for short, is a hairless breed of dog, found in toy and standard sizes. The Xolo comes in a coated variety and all three sizes can be born to a single litter, it is known as Mexican hairless dog in English speaking countries, is one of several breeds of hairless dog and has been used as a historical source of food for the Aztec Empire.
In 2015, The Korea Observer reported that many different pet breeds of dog are eaten in South Korea, including labradors and cocker spaniels, that the dogs slaughtered for their meat may include former pets. Among the Vame people, domestic dogs are only eaten for specific rituals. Despite tests showing 156 dogs were infected with Ebola, the consumption of dog meat is no longer taboo; the Tallensi, the Akyims, the Kokis, the Yaakuma, one of many cultures of Ghana, consider dog meat a delicacy. While the Mamprusi avoid dog meat, it is eaten in a "courtship stew" provided by a king to his royal lineage. Two Tribes in Ghana and Dagaaba are known to be "tribal playmates" and consumption of dog meat is the common bond between the two tribes; every year around September, games are organised between these two tribes and the Dog Head is the trophy at stake for the winning tribe. Islamic law bans the eating of dog meat as does the government of Morocco. However, the consumption of dog meat still occurs in poorer regions being passed off as other meats as was the situation in 2009 and 2013 cases.
Dogs are eaten by various groups in some states of Nigeria, including Ondo State, Akwa Ibom, Cross River, Kalaba and Gombe of Nigeria. They are believed to have medicinal powers. In late 2014, the fear of contracting the Ebola virus disease from bushmeat led at least one major Nigerian newspaper to imply that eating dog meat was a healthy alternative; that paper documented a thriving trade in dog meat and slow sales of well smoked bushmeat. While it is not explicitly illegal to sell and serve dog meat, in order to be able to serve any meat at all for human consumption in a restaurant and for the public, the meat has to have come from a provincially licensed meat plant operator and meet the standards of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency for meat inspection — and there are no provincially licensed plants approved to slaughter dogs. If a dog is killed without justification the killing could be considered cruelty, which would violate the Criminal Code, those convicted may be sentenced to up to 5 years in prison.
In the time of the Aztec Empire in what is now central Mexico, Mexican Hairless Dogs were bred, for among other purposes, their meat. Hernán Cortés reported when he arrived in Tenochtitlan in 1519, "small gelded dogs which they breed for eating" were among the goods sold in the city markets; these dogs, were depicted in pre-Columbian Mexican pottery. The breed was extinct in the 1940s, but the British Military Attaché in Mexico City, Norman Wright, developed a thriving breed from some of the dogs he found in remote villages. Reports of families eating dog meat out of choice, rather than necessity, are newsworthy. Stories of families in Ohio and Newark, New Jersey, who did so made it into editions of The New York Times in 1876 and 1885. In the early 20th century, dog meat was consumed during times of meat shortage. On December 20, 2018, the federal Dog and Cat Meat Trade Prohibition Act was signed into law, it is now illegal to slaughter a cat for food in the United States. The traditional culture surrounding the consumption of dog meat varied from tribe to tribe among the original inhabitants of North America, with some tribes relishing it as a delicacy, others treating it as a forbidden food.
Native peoples of the Great Plains, such as the Sioux and Cheyenne, consumed it, but there was a concurrent religious taboo against the meat of wild canines. During their 1803–1806 expedition, Meriwether Lewis and the other
Manado is the capital city of the Indonesian province of North Sulawesi. Manado is located at the Bay of Manado, is surrounded by a mountainous area; the city had 675,411 inhabitants at the 2010 Census, making it the second-largest city in Sulawesi after Makassar. The latest official estimate is 701,390; the name Manado, derived from the Minahasan language, comes from the word manadou or wanazou meaning "on the far coast" or "in the distance" and referred to the further of two islands which can be seen from the mainland. When the settlement on this island was relocated to the mainland, the name Manado was brought with it, after which the island itself became referred to as Manado Tua; the name for Manado in the Sangir language is Manaro. The first mention of Manado comes from a world map by French cartographer Nicolas Desliens, which shows the island of Manarow. Before Europeans arrived in North Sulawesi, the area was under the rule of the Sultan of Ternate, who exacted tribute and introduced the Muslim religion among some of its inhabitants.
The Portuguese made the Sultan their vassal, taking possession of the Minahasa and establishing a factory in Wenang. Meanwhile, the Spanish had set themselves up in the Philippines and Minahasa was used to plant coffee that came from South America because of its rich soil. Manado was further developed by Spain as a center of commerce for the Chinese traders who traded the coffee in China. With the help of native allies the Spanish took over the Portuguese fortress in Amurang in the 1550s and Spanish settlers established a fort at Manado so that Spain controlled all of the Minahasa, it was in Manado where one of the first Indo-Eurasian communities in the archipelago developed during the 16th century. The first King of Manado named. Spain renounced to her possessions in Minahasa by means of a treaty with the Portuguese in return for a payment of 350,000 ducats. Minahasan natives made an alliance treaty with the Dutch and expelled the last of the Portuguese from Manado a few years later; the Dutch East India Company or Verenigde Oost Indische Compagnie built a fortress in Manado named Fort Amsterdam in 1658.
As with regions in eastern Indonesia, Manado has undergone Christianization by Dutch missionaries, including Riedel and John Gottlieb Schwarz. The Dutch missionaries built the first Christian church in Manado called Oude Kerk, which still stands and is now called Gereja Sentrum. HMS Dover captured Manado in June 1810; the Javanese prince Diponegoro was exiled to Manado by the Dutch government in 1830 for leading a war of rebellion against the Dutch. In 1859, the English biologist Alfred Wallace praised the town for its beauty. In 1919, the Apostolic Prefecture of Celebes was established in the city. In 1961, it was promoted as the Diocese of Manado; the Japanese captured Manado in the Battle of Manado in January 1942. The city was damaged by Allied bombing during World War II. In 1958, the headquarters of the rebel movement Permesta was moved to Manado; when Permesta confronted the central government with demands for political and regional reform, Jakarta responded by bombing the city in February 1958, invading in June 1958.
Manado experiences tropical rainforest climate according to Köppen Climate Classification as there's no real dry season. The wettest month is January with an annual precipitation of 465 millimetres, while the driest is September with an annual precipitation of 121 millimetres; the abundance of total precipitation seems to be influenced by the monsoon. As its location is near the equator, the temperature seems constant throughout the year; the hottest month is August with an average temperature of 26.6 °C, while the coolest month are January and February with an average temperature of 25.4 °C. Unlike other cities in Indonesia, the temperature seems to be cooler; the city is divided into 11 districts. The table below lists population totals from the 2010 Census, it does not include the districts of Bunaken Kepulauan and Paal 2, which were established in 2012. The boundaries of Manado City are as follows: North = North Minahasa Regency and Mantehage straits South = Minahasa Regency West = Manado Bay East = Minahasa Regency Currently the majority of Manado city residents are from the Minahasa ethnic, because Manado is located in Minahasan lands.
The indigenous people of Manado are sub Tombulu sub-tribes seen from several urban villages in Manado from the Tombulu language, for example: Wenang, Mahakeret, Tikala Ares, Winangun, Pinaesaan, Teling, Tuminting, Wanea, etc. While the Malalayang area has residents from the Bantik tribe, other tribes in Manado today are from the Sangir tribe, the Gorontalo tribe, the Mongondow tribe, Arabian tribe, the Babontehu tribe, the Talaud, the Tionudese, the Siau and the Borgo. Most of the Minahasan people are other European descent. Due to the large number of Arabian peranakan communities, the existence of the Kampung Arab, within a radius near Pasar'45 still survives until now and has become one of the religious tourism destinations. Other ethnicities represented include Javanese, Batak, Mak