Management science is the broad interdisciplinary study of problem solving and decision making in human organizations, with strong links to management, business, management consulting, other fields. It uses various scientific research-based principles and analytical methods including mathematical modeling and numerical algorithms to improve an organization's ability to enact rational and accurate management decisions by arriving at optimal or near optimal solutions to complex decision problems. Management science helps businesses to achieve goals using various scientific methods; the field was an outgrowth of applied mathematics, where early challenges were problems relating to the optimization of systems which could be modeled linearly, i.e. determining the optima of some objective function. Today, management science encompasses any organizational activity for which a problem is structured in mathematical form to generate managerially relevant insights. Management science is concerned with a number of different areas of study: One is developing and applying models and concepts that may prove useful in helping to illuminate management issues and solve managerial problems.
The models used can be represented mathematically, but sometimes computer-based, visual or verbal representations are used as well or instead. Another area is developing new and better models of organizational excellence. Management science research can be done on three levels: The fundamental level lies in three mathematical disciplines: probability and dynamical systems theory; the modeling level is about building models, analyzing them mathematically and analyzing data, implementing models on computers, solving them, experimenting with them—all this is part of management science research on the modeling level. This level is instrumental, driven by statistics and econometrics; the application level, just as in any other engineering and economics disciplines, strives to make a practical impact and be a driver for change in the real world. The management scientist's mandate is to use rational, science-based techniques to inform and improve decisions of all kinds; the techniques of management science are not restricted to business applications but may be applied to military, public administration, charitable groups, political groups or community groups.
Its origins can be traced to operations research, which became influential during World War II when the Allied forces recruited scientists of various disciplines to assist with military operations. In these early applications, the scientists used simple mathematical models to make efficient use of limited technologies and resources; the application of these models to the corporate sector became known as management science. In 1967 Stafford Beer characterized the field of management science as "the business use of operations research"; some of the fields that management science involves include: as well as many others. Applications of management science are abundant in industries such as airlines, manufacturing companies, service organizations, military branches, in government. Management science has contributed insights and solutions to a vast range of problems and issues, including: scheduling airlines, both planes and crew deciding the appropriate place to site new facilities such as a warehouse or factory managing the flow of water from reservoirs identifying possible future development paths for parts of the telecommunications industry establishing the information needs of health services and appropriate systems to supply them identifying and understanding the strategies adopted by companies for their information systemsManagement science is concerned with so-called soft-operational analysis, which concerns methods for strategic planning, strategic decision support, problem structuring methods.
At this level of abstraction, mathematical modeling and simulation will not suffice. Therefore, since the late 20th century, new non-quantified modelling methods have been developed, including morphological analysis and various forms of influence diagrams. Kenneth R. Baker, Dean H. Kropp. Management Science: An Introduction to the Use of Decision Models Stafford Beer. Management Science: The Business Use of Operations Research David Charles Heinze. Management Science: Introductory Concepts and Applications Lee J. Krajewski, Howard E. Thompson. "Management Science: Quantitative Methods in Context" Thomas W. Knowles. Management science: Building and Using Models Kamlesh Mathur, Daniel Solow. Management Science: The Art of Decision Making Laurence J. Moore, Sang M. Lee, Bernard W. Taylor. Management Science William Thomas Morris. Management Science: A Bayesian Introduction. William E. Pinney, Donald B. McWilliams. Management Science: An Introduction to Quantitative Analysis for Management Gerald E. Thompson.
Management Science: An Introduction to Modern Quantitative Analysis and Decision Making. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Co
Charfield is a village and civil parish in Gloucestershire, south-west of Wotton-under-Edge near the Little Avon River and the villages of Falfield and Cromhall. Charfield is a medium-sized village of about 2,500 residents with three pubs, the Pear Tree, Railway Tavern and The Plough Inn, a convenience store with Post Office and two churches. There are six main housing areas. Farm Lees, Longs View, Manor Lane and Woodlands have existed for some time. Two new housing developments were built in 2018-2019: St James Mews, opposite St James Church, Charfield Village, at the eastern end of the village near the Renishaw PLC site; the primary school has around 250 students. An electoral ward with the same name exists; this ward starts in the east in Charfield and stretches west to Falfield. The ward's population at the 2011 census was 4,678; the parish council has responsibility for local issues, including setting an annual precept to cover the council's operating costs and producing annual accounts for public scrutiny.
The parish council evaluates local planning applications and works with the local police, district council officers, neighbourhood watch groups on matters of crime and traffic. The parish council's role includes initiating projects for the maintenance and repair of parish facilities, such as the Memorial Hall and playing field and playground, as well as consulting with the district council on the maintenance and improvement of highways, footpaths, public transport, street cleaning. Conservation matters and environmental issues are of interest to the council; the parish council is a burial authority, has its own burial ground in nearby Churchend. The Bristol-Birmingham main railway line runs through the village. Charfield railway station closed in January 1965 but still stands, discussions continue about the viability of re-opening it; the costs of re-opening would be shared between Gloucestershire and South Gloucestershire Councils since, although the station would be in South Gloucestershire, the nearby Gloucestershire town of Wotton-under-Edge would be a principal beneficiary.
The railway line marks the division of the village between two different telephone areas. The village is on the outer limits of both areas; the village has now been fibre-enabled. The Charfield railway disaster was a fatal train crash which occurred on 13 October 1928; the Leeds to Bristol LMS night mail train crashed under a road bridge near Charfield railway station, killing 15 and injuring 23. Amongst the dead were two children. Charfield Memorial Hall and Playing Field is in the centre of Charfield; the Hall has been refurbished and the play area upgraded with new equipment. St James' Church, Charfield Charfield Community Website Charfield Parish Council Web Site Charfield Burial Ground
The Estádio Municipal Parque do Sabiá known as Parque do Sabiá, is a multi-use stadium in Uberlândia, Brazil. It is used for football matches, it is the home ground of Uberlândia Esporte Clube and Clube Atlético Portal, is the biggest stadium in Minas Gerais state countryside. The stadium is able to hold 53,350 people, it is owned by the Uberlândia City Hall. The stadium was inaugurated on May 27, 1982, as Parque do Sabiá. In 1995, the stadium was renamed to Estádio Municipal João Havelange, after a suggestion of the city councilor Leonídio Bouças. However, the name change was not popular among the city's football fans, the stadium is still called the Parque do Sabiá; the inaugural match was played on May 27, 1982, when the Brazil national football team beat the Republic of Ireland national football team 7–0. The first goal of the stadium was scored by Brazil's Falcão; the stadium's attendance record stands at 80,000, set on the inaugural match. In 2015, the stadium was renamed to Estádio Municipal Parque do Sabiá, due to FIFA scandals.
Enciclopédia do Futebol Brasileiro, Volume 2 - Lance, Rio de Janeiro: Aretê Editorial S/A, 2001. Templos do Futebol
Aural Vampire is a Japanese group led by EXO-CHIKA and RAVEMAN from Tokyo, Japan. EXO-CHIKA and RAVEMAN met at high school, they recorded several tapes together performing as a duo alongside their friends' hardcore band. After this first performance, they began to perform live shows and record tapes under the name Aural Vampire. Aural Vampire released an indie album Vampire Ecstasy in 2004 and a single called Death Folder in 2005, made available to download online. In 2008, the band announced they had been signed to the label Avex Trax and, at the end of the year, they released a set of three self-titled EPs on iTunes, their second album Zoltank was released on May 5, 2010. In 2008 and 2010, Aural Vampire made musical appearances at the annual Anime Matsuri in Houston, Texas. In 2009, Aural Vampire made a musical appearance at Katsucon 15, as well as at AnimagiC in Germany. Aural Vampire toured North America in 2010 as a support act for the Canadian band The Birthday Massacre, making musical appearances at Anime Central and Convencion de Juegos de Mesa y Comics.
Aural Vampire released an EP, Kerguelen Vortex, on November 18, 2011. EXO-CHIKA has made a guest appearance in the Visual Kei band AND -Eccentric Agent-'s promotional video for the song LIBERATE. Aural Vampire performed a song for the video game Let It Die. 2004-presentEXO-CHIKA - Vocals, Lyrics RAVEMAN - Total Sound Master2012-presentWu-CHY - Bass Higuchuuhei - Guitar ZEN - Keyboard IZU - Drums Vampire Ecstasy Zoltank Razors on Backstreet Official website 2009 Interview J-Pop World Interview Aural Vampire artist database+ at musicJAPAN+
In the field of astrology, generational planets are planets that affect an entire generation of people. The generational planets are the outer planets Uranus, Pluto and Quaoar. Uranus was discovered by amateur astronomer William Herschel on 13 March 1781. Uranus exhibits the ideals of the 18th century, where people such as Benjamin Franklin endeavoured to use their inventive mind to move man into a more enlightened era, it has an orbit of 84 years, staying in each sign of the zodiac for 7 years. Uranus is considered to be a higher octave of Mercury, which means that as people develop within their selves, their character and means of communication will exhibit more influences of the sign and house of Uranus. In essence, Uranus can be seen as a person's higher self; because it takes Uranus 84 years to travel through the zodiac, transiting Uranus just might conjoin the natal Uranus within a person's lifetime. Neptune was discovered on 23 September 1846. Neptune is a 19th-century planet in that it heralded in many of the varied assortment of Protestant religions, as well as spiritualism, took hold.
Visionaries such as Edgar Cayce and Rudolf Steiner were born in the second half of the 19th century, their psychic abilities are indicative of the Neptunian themes of this time. It has an orbit of 165 years, twice the time of Uranus. Neptune is considered to be the higher octave of Venus because both planet's are gaseous and both strive to achieve the higher ideals of mankind; because Neptune has such a long orbit, an individual may see transiting Neptune form an opposition to their natal Neptune. Pluto was discovered by Clyde W. Tombaugh on 18 February 1930; when Pluto was first discovered, it was known as Planet X. Astronomers had been searching for another planet past Neptune, hoping to solve the dilemma of its rather irregular orbit, it is now known, that the perceived irregular orbit of Neptune was the result of a mathematical error because Pluto, being a planetoid smaller than our own Moon, was far too small to affect any type of gravitational pull on the gas giant. Pluto is much a 20th-century planet and refers to the two world wars, weapons of mass destruction, nuclear power, a desire to control the world we live in.
It is a planet that reveals to us the extremes we are capable of if we do not set necessary boundaries in our lives. This planet governs the compulsions in our life: those things we are compelled to do but know we should not, such as murder, drug addiction, overeating if it is of such an extent that it threatens our health. Pluto is considered to be a higher octave of Mars, this is evidenced by the fact that both planets co-rule Scorpio. Pluto, circling the Sun in 248 years, has a rather elliptical orbit, which means that it stays in the sign it rules, for a mere 9 years, the sign of its fall, Taurus for 30! With this in mind, some astrologers believe that Pluto should rightfully rule Taurus, but for the time being it still rules Scorpio; as other trans-Neptunian object planets are discovered, this placement just might have to be reconsidered. Quaoar is considered to be a trans-Neptunian object. Although a planetoid, it is considered by many to be more of a planet than Pluto because its orbit is more circular in nature, being 286 years.
When a person is around 71 years old, transiting Quaoar will form a square aspect to his natal placement. Since this is a discovered object, not much is yet known about its astrological significance and what part it plays in the universe. Sedna was discovered by a team using the Samuel Oschin telescope on 14 November 2003 and is a trans-Neptunian object, it has an orbit of 11,250 years, so stays in a sign for a millennium. Because this planet has been discovered, not much is yet known about it. Personal planet Planets in Astrology - Modern Planets
Human is the fifth studio album by American singer Brandy, first released in France in December 2008 and by March 2009 in most international music markets. Distributed by Koch Records and Sony Music, the album marked Norwood's debut on the Epic Records label, following her split with Atlantic Records in 2005, her reunion with long-time contributor and mentor Rodney "Darkchild" Jerkins, who wrote and executive produced most of the album with his songwriting collective. Well received by critics, Human debuted at number fifteen on the US Billboard 200 with opening week sales of 73,000 copies, becoming Brandy's lowest-charting debut since her first album fourteen years prior. With a domestic sales total of 214,000 copies, it failed to revive the success of its predecessors. While leading single "Right Here" scored Norwood her biggest chart success since 2002's "Full Moon," the album failed to impact elsewhere, resulting in lackluster sales in general and the release of just one other single, "Long Distance."In mid-2009 during the recording sessions for Norwood's second album with Epic Records, Brandy ended her management contract with Roc Nation.
This was followed by the termination of her contract with Epic, after singer-songwriter Amanda Ghost was appointed the new president of the label. Disappointed by its performance, Norwood expressed her dislike of the album itself. Brandy Norwood released her fourth studio album Afrodisiac in June 2004, amidst the well-publicized termination of her short-lived business relationship with record executive and entertainment manager Benny Medina. Norwood ended her contract with his Los Angeles-based Handprint Entertainment after less than a year of representation following controversies surrounding Medina's handling of the lead single "Talk About Our Love", failed negotiations of a purported co-headlining tour with fellow R&B singer Usher. Despite the negative publicity, Afrodisiac emerged as Norwood's most critically acclaimed album by but became a moderate seller on most music markets; the album debuted at number three on the Billboard 200 albums chart but while it went on to sell more than 416,000 copies in the United States, it failed to chart or sell noticeably elsewhere.
Kanye West-produced "Talk About Our Love" reached number six on the UK Singles Chart but singles such as "Afrodisiac" and "Who Is She 2 U" failed to score on the popular music charts and promotion for the album soon ended. At the end of 2004, after eleven years with the company, Norwood asked for and received an unconditional release from her original label Atlantic Records. By the time her contract expired, several of her longtime patrons such as music producer Darryl Williams and industry executive Sylvia Rhone had left the company and Norwood felt mismanaged by her new team of which she found was "looking more towards the hip-hop artists" on the label and "didn't know what to do with." Completing her contract with Atlantic Records, a compilation album compiling her first four studio albums with the company, entitled The Best of Brandy, was released in March 2005. Thereupon, Norwood started shopping for a new record deal under Knockout Entertainment, her brother's Ray J's vanity label, which would co-venture her subsequent releases, including her fifth album, which she started recording independently.
Norwood began recording the album in 2005. Breaking away from her usual formula which saw her setting up projects with former main producers such as Keith Crouch, Rodney "Darkchild" Jerkins and Timbaland, she entered the studio with several songwriters and producers to record new music, including Louis Winding and Frederik Tao from Danish production team Maximum Risk; the duo produced several songs for Norwood, including both "Honey" and "Sweet Nothings", all of which were penned by frequent collaborator Kenisha Pratt. Over the following months, Norwood continued recording contract-free with a vast of producers such as Rockwilder and production duo Tim & Bob who finished several demos with her. Norwood's new management arranged further recording sessions with fellow client Bryan Michael Cox and his production partners Adonis Shropshire and WyldCard at the Track Record Studios in North Hollywood. Supposed to produce her whole album at the time, they worked on a number of ballads and midtempo songs reminiscent of their other productions, including a song called "Cry".
In June 2006, Cox announced that he would serve as the album's executive producer, but direction changes resulting from additional sessions left his songs unused. In December 2006, Norwood was involved in a fatal automobile accident on Los Angeles' San Diego Freeway; the accident claimed the life of the 38-year-old driver of a Toyota, struck by Norwood's Range Rover. Norwood was neither charged with vehicular manslaughter due to insufficient evidence. Multiple lawsuits were filed against Norwood, all of which were settled out of court by her civil attorney. Posing an extraordinary hardship for Brandy and her family, Norwood stepped down from her role as a judge on the second season of the amateur talent contest America's Got Talent and went into hiatus. Expanding on dealing with the aftermath of the tragedy, Norwood explained, "I just wanted people to know that this wasn't news. It's not something. You don't like me? Fine, but don't use this situation to try to hurt me, because the guilt of being involved is enough.
It's something that I'll never truly get over." While the accident put a halt on the album's production, Norwood soon resumed recording which she found to be therapeutic: "I had to face it and find the strength to move forward. Connecting back with music has helped me through everything. Once I got ba