The Control Strip is a user interface component introduced in the "classic" System 7 Macintosh operating system. It exists as part of the Touch Bar interface in macOS; the Control Strip was released in 1994 with the PowerBook 500 series of notebook computers and the PowerBook Duo 280 subnotebook computers, at that point shipping with System 7.1. On it was made available to desktop and portable Macintosh computers, beginning with System 7.5.3. Apple removed Control Strip in 2001 as a consequence of its move to Mac OS X. Apple attempted to integrate the Control Strip’s features into the Dock. After this was found to be too clumsy, most of its features were again duplicated in the menu extras of 10.1. An attempt was made at an open source reimplementation of the Control Strip for OS X, but it never received much developer traction and the last release is dated 27 October 2000. Apple revived the Control Strip as a component of its Touch Bar in October 2016. By default, the rightmost portion of the Touch Bar displays a subset of system controls available on the keyboard's function keys.
When Control Strip is expanded the full set of system controls is displayed. Somewhat like the system trays of other operating systems, the Control Strip allowed easy access to status information about and control of simple tasks such as screen resolution, AppleTalk activity, battery status etc; each task appears as a button-like popup menu called a module, these modules are managed in the Finder as individual module files, which have their own folder in the System Folder and are executed alongside the Control Strip as it starts up or can be dragged directly onto the strip while it is running. The Control Strip always anchors itself to the closest vertical screen edge but can be moved up and down both sides of any display by the user, it defaults to the lower left corner of the primary display on fresh systems. Users can choose whether to turn the Control Strip on and off and set a hot key to hide and reveal it using its control panel. Two buttons at either end allow the Strip to be collapsed and expanded, while two more buttons just inside those allow one to scroll through a full Strip.
Holding down the option key while clicking turns the cursor into a distinctive hand shape that allows one to drag the Strip around the screen, rearrange modules within the Strip and drag modules out. Control Strip modules were available from many third parties. For example, Conflict Catcher included a Control Strip module to switch extension sets, while DAVE used one to toggle SMB/NetBIOS networking; some novelty modules consisted of calculators and games. Like the System Trays of other OSs, this was abused to insert a flotsam module that launched and quit a given application. Control strips used in the inner German border Control Strip Outlet at the Wayback Machine Final Update at the Wayback Machine
The Finder is the default file manager and graphical user interface shell used on all Macintosh operating systems. Described in its "About" window as "The Macintosh Desktop Experience", it is responsible for the launching of other applications, for the overall user management of files and network volumes, it was introduced with the first Macintosh computer, exists as part of GS/OS on the Apple IIGS. It was rewritten with the release of Mac OS X in 2001. In a tradition dating back to the Classic Mac OS of the 1980s and 1990s, the Finder icon is the smiling screen of a computer, known as the Happy Mac logo; the Finder uses a view of the file system, rendered using a desktop metaphor. It uses a similar interface to Apple's Safari browser, where the user can click on a folder to move to it and move between locations using "back" and "forward" arrow buttons. Like Safari, the Finder uses tabs to allow the user to view multiple folders. There is a "favorites" sidebar of used and important folders on the left of the Finder window.
The modern Finder uses macOS graphics APIs to display previews of a range of files, such as images, applications and PDF files. The Quick Look feature allows users to examine documents and images in more detail from the finder by pressing the space bar without opening them in a separate application; the user can choose how to view files, with options such as large icons showing previews of files, a list with details such as date of last creation or modification, a Gallery View, a "column view" influenced by macOS's direct ancestor NeXTSTEP. The modern Finder displays some aspects of the file system outside its windows. Mounted external volumes and disk image files can be displayed on the desktop. There is a trash can on the Dock in macOS, to which files can be dragged to mark them for deletion, to which drives can be dragged for ejection; when a volume icon is being dragged, the Trash icon in the Dock changes to an eject icon in order to indicate this functionality. Finder can record files to optical media on the sidebar.
From Yosemite onwards, the Finder contains official support for extensions, allowing synchronization and cloud storage applications such as Dropbox to display sync status labels inside the Finder display. The classic Mac OS Finder uses a spatial metaphor quite different to the more browser-like approach of the modern macOS Finder. In the classic Finder, opening a new folder opens the location in a new window: finder windows are'locked' so that they would only display the contents of one folder, it allows extensive customization, with the user being able to give folders custom icons matching their content. This approach emphasizes the different locations of files within the operating system, but navigating to a folder nested inside multiple other folders fills the desktop with a large number of windows that the user may not wish to have open; these must be closed individually. Holding down the option key when opening a folder would close its parent, but this trick was not discoverable and remained under the purview of power users.
Stewart Alsop II in 1988 said "It is testimony to either the luck or vision of the original designers" of Finder that "the interface has been able to survive tremendous evolution without much essential damage" from 1984. He praised its spatial file manager as "probably a more complete definition of a PC-based universe than any" competitor, with users able to seamlessly use floppies and remote hard disks, large and small file servers. Alsop said that if Apple had stolen Xerox's technology for Finder, it was now different. While criticizing the lack of a right mouse button and Multifinder's clumsiness, he concluded that "Apple remains the king of user interfaces. Finder is the only interface with 1.5 million people sitting in front of it daily. Apple is spending tremendous amounts of money on both development and basic research to remain the leader". Introducing Mac OS X in 2000, Steve Jobs criticized the original Finder, saying that it "generates a ton of windows, you get to be the janitor."Ars Technica columnist John Siracusa has been a long-standing defender of the spatial interface of the classic Mac OS Finder, a critic of the new design.
Daring Fireball blog author John Gruber has voiced similar criticisms. In a 2005 interview he said that the Finder in version 10.3 of Mac OS X had become "worse than in 10.0" and that "the fundamental problem with the OS X Finder is that it's trying to support two opposing paradigms at once – the browser metaphor... and the spatial metaphor from the original Mac Finder... and it ends up doing neither one well." Reviewing the same version of Mac OS X, Siracusa comments that the Finder "provides the same self-destructive combination of spatial and browser-style features as all of its Mac OS X predecessors". Third-party macOS software developers offer Finder replacements that run as stand-alone applications, such as ForkLift, Path Finder and XtraFinder; these replacements are shareware or freeware and aim to include and supersede the functionality of the Finder. After Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger the UNIX command line file management tools understand resource forks and can be used for management of Mac files.
There are minor differences between Finder versions and Classic OS to System 7. From System 6 onward, the version numbers are unified. Since the introduction of Mac OS X, the largest rewrite of the Finder was with the 2009 release of Mac OS X 10.6, into the Cocoa API, though little change was visible to the user. Spatial file manager Miller columns List of file managers
Chooser (Mac OS)
The Chooser is an application program for Macintosh systems using the classic Mac OS. The Chooser started out as a desk accessory and became a standalone application program as of System 7; the Chooser allowed users to connect to AppleShare file servers, enable or disable the network access, select which printer to use. The original Macintosh computer included two high-speed serial ports that were used for most external connectivity; this included printers, which had to be adapted for use on the Mac through the addition of such a port, or an adaptor. Any device could be plugged into either port, which meant that some system needed to be used to identify which port had a printer both. A small desk accessory called Choose Printer allowed the printer driver and serial port to be selected for the connected printer, it did this by listing known printer drivers, displayed as icons of the printer model in question, allowing the user to select it by clicking on the icon. The icons were expected to physically resemble the printer in question and were contained in the drivers' resource fork.
At this point the two serial ports appeared, allowing the user to indicate which port that printer was connected to. When Apple introduced the LaserWriter, its high cost meant that the only cost-effective way to use it was shared among a small workgroup of Macintoshes; this necessitated the inclusion of AppleTalk, a simple networking implementation which used low-cost cabling and the same physical RS-422 serial port hardware. It was a natural extension of Choose Printer to include the ability to select the LaserWriter and which port was used to connect its network connection; as AppleTalk became useful for other types of networking, such as file sharing, the Choose Printer accessory was renamed to Chooser. The Chooser became the main point to add top-level configuration options for both networking and printing. Starting with Mac OS X 10.0, the Chooser was replaced by macOS's integrated networking features in the Finder. For the printing functions, they are now found in the separate Print Center and Printer Setup Utility applications.
"Chooser." Mac & Power Mac Secrets. Ed. Mary Bednarek. 2nd ed. San Mateo: IDG, 1994. 74. Print. Macworld. -----
Scrapbook (Mac OS)
Scrapbook under the Classic Mac OS was a small desk accessory which enabled users to store images and sound clippings. It was included in the original Macintosh system software in 1984 with the Macintosh 128K, was included throughout every Mac OS revision until Mac OS 9. Since early versions of Mac OS were not capable of multitasking—they could only run one application at a time—a specially-written DA such as Scrapbook was the only means of keeping content accessible to be pasted into documents. Starting in Scrapbook version 7.5.2, Scrapbook could store QuickDraw 3D-based 3D models. It came with two 3D models in this version.
The bomb icon has several different applications in computing, indicates a fatal system error. The Bomb icon is a symbol designed by Susan Kare, displayed inside the System Error alert box when the "classic" Macintosh operating system had a crash which the system decided was unrecoverable, it was similar to a dialog box in Windows 9x that said "This program has performed an illegal operation and will be shut down." Since the classic Mac OS offered little memory protection, an application crash would take down the entire system. The bomb symbol first appeared on the original Macintosh in 1984. A reason for the crash, including the error code, was displayed in the dialog. In some cases, a "Resume" button would be available, allowing the user to dismiss the dialog and force the offending program to quit, but most the resume button would be disabled and the computer would have to be restarted; the resume button was unavailable unless the running program had provided the OS with code to allow recovery.
With the advent of System 7, if the OS thought it could handle recovery, a normal error dialog box was displayed, the application was forced to quit. This was helped by the classic Mac OS providing a little bit of protection against heap corruption using guard pages; the debugger program MacsBug was sometimes used by end users to provide basic error recovery, could be used for troubleshooting purposes, much as the output of a Unix kernel panic or a Windows NT Blue Screen of Death could be. Mac OS Classic bomb boxes were ridiculed for providing little or no useful information about the error; the error code was intended to be included in a bug report to the developer. In Mac OS X, the system architecture is vastly different from that in the classic Mac OS, an application crash can not bring down the entire system. A kernel panic screen replaces the bomb symbol but appears less due to the radically different system architecture; the bomb symbol is not used in Mac OS X, but a test application called Bomb.app written to cause a non-fatal crash, is included with Xcode and uses a rendition of the bomb symbol as its icon.
In the original Mac OS, the operating system call to display a "bomb box" was named DSError, the corresponding alert table information was stored in resources of type'DSAT'. "DS", as in the "DS Manager." For documentation purposes, this was renamed the'System Error Manager.' TOS-based systems, such as the Atari ST, used a row of bombs to indicate a critical system error. The number of bombs displayed revealed information about the occurred error; the error is reported by the Motorola 68000 microprocessor. The first version of TOS used mushroom clouds. 1 bomb: Reset, Initial PC2 2 bombs: Bus Error 3 bombs: Address Error 4 bombs: Illegal Instruction 5 bombs: Division by zero 6 bombs: CHK Instruction 7 bombs: TRAPV Instruction 8 bombs: Privilege Violation 9 bombs: Trace 10 bombs: Line 1010 Emulator 11 bombs: Line 1111 Emulator 12–13 bombs: Reserved 14 bombs: Format Error 15 bombs: Uninitialized Interrupt Vector 16–23 bombs: Reserved 24 bombs: Spurious Interrupt 25 bombs: Level 1 Interrupt Autovector 26 bombs: Level 2 Interrupt Autovector 27 bombs: Level 3 Interrupt Autovector 28 bombs: Level 4 Interrupt Autovector 29 bombs: Level 5 Interrupt Autovector 30 bombs: Level 6 Interrupt Autovector 31 bombs: Level 7 Interrupt Autovector 32–47 bombs: Trap Instruction Vectors 48–63 bombs: Reserved 64–255 bombs: User Interrupt Vectors About the System Error Handler
HyperCard is a software application and development kit for Apple Macintosh and Apple IIGS computers. It is among the first successful hypermedia systems predating the World Wide Web. HyperCard combines a flat-file database with a graphical, user-modifiable interface. HyperCard includes a built-in programming language called HyperTalk for manipulating data and the user interface; this combination of features – a database with simple form layout, flexible support for graphics, ease of programming – suits HyperCard for many different projects such as rapid application development of applications and databases, interactive applications with no database requirements and control systems, many examples in the demoscene. HyperCard was released in 1987 for $49.95 and was included for free with all new Macs sold then. It was withdrawn from sale in March 2004, having received its final update in 1998 upon the return of Steve Jobs to Apple. HyperCard runs in the Classic Environment, but was not ported to Mac OS X. HyperCard is based on the concept of a "stack" of virtual "cards".
Cards hold data. Each card contains a set of interactive objects, including text fields, check boxes and similar common graphical user interface elements. Users browse the stack by navigating from card to card, using built-in navigation features, a powerful search mechanism, or through user-created scripts. Users modify stacks by adding new cards, they place GUI objects on the cards using an interactive layout engine based on a simple drag-and-drop interface. HyperCard includes prototype or template cards called backgrounds; this way, a stack of cards with a common layout and functionality can be created. The layout engine is similar in concept to a form as used in most rapid application development environments such as Borland Delphi, Microsoft Visual Basic and Visual Studio; the database features of the HyperCard system are based on the storage of the state of all of the objects on the cards in the physical file representing the stack. The database does not exist as a separate system within the HyperCard stack.
Instead, the state of any object in the system is considered to be editable at any time. From the HyperCard runtime's perspective, there is no difference between moving a text field on the card and typing into it, both operations change the state of the target object within the stack; such changes are saved when complete, so typing into a field causes that text to be stored to the stack's physical file. The system operates in a stateless fashion, with no need to save during operation; this is in common with many database-oriented systems, although somewhat different from document-based applications. The final key element in HyperCard is the script, a single code-carrying element of every object within the stack; the script is a text field. Like any other property, the script of any object can be edited at any time and changes are saved as soon as they were complete; when the user invokes actions in the GUI, like clicking on a button or typing into a field, these actions are translated into events by the HyperCard runtime.
The runtime examines the script of the object, the target of the event, like a button, to see if its script object contains the event's code, called a handler. If it does, the HyperTalk engine runs the handler; these concepts make up the majority of the HyperCard system. Unlike the majority of RAD or database systems of the era, HyperCard combines all of these features, both user-facing and developer-facing, in a single application; this allows rapid turnaround and immediate prototyping without any coding, allowing users to author custom solutions to problems with their own personalized interface. "Empowerment" became a catchword as this possibility was embraced by the Macintosh community, as was the phrase "programming for the rest of us", that is, not just professional programmers. It is this combination of features that makes HyperCard a powerful hypermedia system. Users can build backgrounds to suit the needs of some system, say a rolodex, use simple HyperTalk commands to provide buttons to move from place to place within the stack, or provide the same navigation system within the data elements of the UI, like text fields.
Using these features, it is easy to build linked systems similar to hypertext links on the Web. Unlike the Web, programming and browsing were all the same tool. Similar systems have been created for HTML but traditional Web services are more heavyweight. HyperCard contains an object oriented scripting language called HyperTalk. HyperTalk object classes are predetermined by the HyperCard environment, although others can be added by the use of externals; the weakly typed HyperTalk supports most standard programming structures such as "if-then" and "repeat". HyperTalk is verbose, hence its ease of readability. HyperTalk code segments are referred to as "scripts", a term, considered less daunting to beginning programmers. HyperCard can be extended through the use of external command and external function modules; these are code libraries packaged in a resource fork that in
ResEdit is a discontinued developer tool application for the Apple Macintosh, used to create and edit resources directly in the Mac's resource fork architecture. It is an alternative to tools such as REdit, the resource compiler Rez. For the average user, ResEdit is easier to use, because it uses a graphical user interface. Although it had been intended to be a developer tool, power users use it to edit icons and other elements of an application's GUI, customizing it to their own preferences. Resources on the Macintosh can be of many different types, in fact any arbitrary data can be turned into a resource. While the system defines many standard formats for particular kinds of resources, programmers are free to define their own. ResEdit includes support for editing many of the standard types and for creating arbitrary resources with any structure a programmer saw fit. ResEdit is one of the earliest examples of a GUI layout tool, an essential component for rapid application development. For example, the classic Mac OS defines a standard resource called a dialog template and a dialog items list.
In ResEdit, it's possible to create these types and add GUI elements to them in an WYSIWYG fashion, such that a user interface could be designed directly as it would appear to the end user of the application. The application code can create a functional dialog box using the stored resource data which matches the appearance you lay out in ResEdit. While hardly a revolutionary concept today, when ResEdit first appeared in the mid-1980s, this was a considerable innovation. ResEdit includes standard editors for window templates, dialog boxes, color palettes and various other standard types. One of ResEdit's most powerful features is the ability to define arbitrary data structures as resources using a simple template building feature. Here, the programmer can add elemental data types to a list to define a template; this template allows ResEdit to build a GUI editor on the fly that allows entry of data and package it into the structure defined in the template. It's a simple matter for a programmer to define a matching data structure in a chosen programming language, such as C, load the resource in a standard manner and access the data as the defined C type.
ResEdit includes a number of predefined templates for many standard OS resources that do not require a graphical editor. ResEdit was never upgraded to run natively on Mac OS X, Apple now discourages the use of resource forks in new macOS applications, preferring the more portable NeXT-derived application bundles. A long-standing third-party commercial alternative named Resorcerer remains available, more there have been a number of attempts to build open-source macOS-native resource editors, including one called ResKnife. ResEdit will run in Mac OS X's Classic compatibility mode, but Classic is neither available on Intel Macintosh computers, nor in Mac OS X v10.5 or later. However, an Intel Mac can run ResEdit via an emulator such as SheepShaver or Basilisk II; the last official version of ResEdit is 2.1.3, released in August 1994. Unofficial hacks released as ResEdit 2.1.4 and exist, adding features such as a decompiler and the ability to edit data forks, but these are unsupported by Apple. Creator code Interface Builder Macintosh Programmer's Workshop Resource fork Type code ResEdit Reference Download ResEdit 2.1.3 from apple.com