The British Isles are a group of islands in the North Atlantic off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, the Isle of Man, the Hebrides and over six thousand smaller isles. They have a total area of about 315,159 km2 and a combined population of 72 million, include two sovereign states, the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; the islands of Alderney, Jersey and Sark, their neighbouring smaller islands, are sometimes taken to be part of the British Isles though, as islands off the coast of France, they do not form part of the archipelago. The oldest rocks in the group are in the north west of Scotland and North Wales and are 2.7 billion years old. During the Silurian period, the north-western regions collided with the south-east, part of a separate continental landmass; the topography of the islands is modest in scale by global standards. Ben Nevis rises to an elevation of only 1,345 metres, Lough Neagh, notably larger than other lakes in the island group, covers 390 square kilometres.
The climate is temperate marine, with warm summers. The North Atlantic drift brings significant moisture and raises temperatures 11 °C above the global average for the latitude; this led to a landscape, long dominated by temperate rainforest, although human activity has since cleared the vast majority of forest cover. The region was re-inhabited after the last glacial period of Quaternary glaciation, by 12,000 BC, when Great Britain was still part of a peninsula of the European continent. Ireland, which became an island by 12,000 BC, was not inhabited until after 8000 BC. Great Britain became an island by 5600 BC. Hiberni and Britons tribes, all speaking Insular Celtic, inhabited the islands at the beginning of the 1st millennium AD. Much of Brittonic-occupied Britain was conquered by the Roman Empire from AD 43; the first Anglo-Saxons arrived as Roman power waned in the 5th century, dominated the bulk of what is now England. Viking invasions began in the 9th century, followed by more permanent settlements and political change in England.
The Norman conquest of England in 1066 and the Angevin partial conquest of Ireland from 1169 led to the imposition of a new Norman ruling elite across much of Britain and parts of Ireland. By the Late Middle Ages, Great Britain was separated into the Kingdoms of England and Kingdom of Scotland, while control in Ireland fluxed between Gaelic kingdoms, Hiberno-Norman lords and the English-dominated Lordship of Ireland, soon restricted only to The Pale; the 1603 Union of the Crowns, Acts of Union 1707 and Acts of Union 1800 attempted to consolidate Britain and Ireland into a single political unit, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, with the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands remaining as Crown Dependencies. The expansion of the British Empire and migrations following the Irish Famine and Highland Clearances resulted in the dispersal of some of the islands' population and culture throughout the world, a rapid depopulation of Ireland in the second half of the 19th century. Most of Ireland seceded from the United Kingdom after the Irish War of Independence and the subsequent Anglo-Irish Treaty, with six counties remaining in the UK as Northern Ireland.
The term "British Isles" is controversial in Ireland, where there are nationalist objections to its usage. The Government of Ireland does not recognise the term, its embassy in London discourages its use. Britain and Ireland is used as an alternative description, Atlantic Archipelago has seen limited use in academia; the earliest known references to the islands as a group appeared in the writings of sea-farers from the ancient Greek colony of Massalia. The original records have been lost. In the 1st century BC, Diodorus Siculus has Prettanikē nēsos, "the British Island", Prettanoi, "the Britons". Strabo used Βρεττανική, Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, used αἱ Πρεττανικαί νῆσοι to refer to the islands. Historians today, though not in absolute agreement agree that these Greek and Latin names were drawn from native Celtic-language names for the archipelago. Along these lines, the inhabitants of the islands were called the Πρεττανοί; the shift from the "P" of Pretannia to the "B" of Britannia by the Romans occurred during the time of Julius Caesar.
The Greco-Egyptian scientist Claudius Ptolemy referred to the larger island as great Britain and to Ireland as little Britain in his work Almagest. In his work, Geography, he gave these islands the names Alwion and Mona, suggesting these may have been names of the individual islands not known to him at the time of writing Almagest; the name Albion appears to have fallen out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Great Britain, after which Britain became the more commonplace name for the island called Great Britain. The earliest known use of the phrase Brytish Iles in the English language is dated 1577 in a work by John Dee. Today, this name is seen by some as carrying imperialist overtones although it is still used. Other names used to describe the islands include the Anglo-Celtic Isles, Atlantic archipelago, British-Irish Isles and Ireland, UK
Sir Robert William Robson was an English footballer and football manager. His career included periods playing for and managing the England national team and being a UEFA Cup-winning manager at Ipswich Town F. C. Robson's professional playing career as an inside forward spanned nearly 20 years, during which he played for three clubs: Fulham, West Bromwich Albion, Vancouver Royals, he made 20 appearances for England, scoring four goals. After his playing career, he found success as both a club and international manager, winning league championships in both the Netherlands and Portugal, earning trophies in England and Spain, taking England to the semi-finals of the 1990 FIFA World Cup, which remained the national team's best run in a World Cup since 1966 until they reached the semi-finals of the 2018 World Cup, his last management role was as a mentor to the manager of the Republic of Ireland national team. Robson was created a Knight Bachelor in 2002, was inducted as a member of the English Football Hall of Fame in 2003, was the honorary president of Ipswich Town F.
C. From 1991 onwards, he suffered recurrent medical problems with cancer, in March 2008, put his name and efforts into the Sir Bobby Robson Foundation, a cancer research charity which has so far collected over £12 million. In August 2008, his lung cancer was confirmed to be terminal. I am going to die sooner rather than later, but everyone has to go sometime and I have enjoyed every minute." He died just under a year later. Robson was born in the fourth of five sons of Philip and Lilian Robson; when he was a few months old, Robson's family moved to the nearby village of Langley Park where his father was a coal miner. Their two-bedroom house had an outside toilet; as a boy, he was taken by his father to watch Newcastle United play at St James' Park on Saturday afternoons, requiring a 34-mile round trip. Robson described Len Shackleton as his childhood heroes. Both played for Newcastle in the inside-forward position, the position Robson would assume during his playing career. Robson attended Langley Park primary school and Waterhouses secondary modern school, but the headmaster did not allow the school football team to join a league.
Instead, he began to play for Langley Park Juniors on Saturday mornings at age 11, by the time he was 15, he was representing the club at under-18 level. Robson played football whenever he could but left school aged 15 to start work as an electrician's apprentice for the National Coal Board in the Langley Park colliery. In May 1950, Bill Dodgin, the manager of Fulham, made a personal visit to the Robson household to offer Bobby a professional contract. Despite being offered a contract by nearby Middlesbrough, the offer made by Dodgin was too attractive to turn down, so he signed for Fulham and moved to London, playing as a wing half and inside forward. Robson had interested his beloved Newcastle, but he opted to join Fulham as, in his opinion, "Newcastle made no appreciable effort to secure signature." He thought he stood a better chance of breaking into the first team at Fulham. Robson suffered from partial deafness in one ear, which rendered him ineligible to be called up for national service.
Although Robson had signed professionally, his father insisted he continue to work as an electrician. He spent the day trained three nights a week at Fulham; this took its toll on Robson and he gave up his trade for full-time professional football. In 1950, Robson made his first-team debut for Fulham promoted to the First Division, in a match against Sheffield Wednesday, he came to regard Fulham as "a nice club, a social club...", but "never... a serious, championship-challenging club". Indeed, he and Fulham were relegated from the top-flight in the 1951–52 season, but he made his return to the First Division, four years when he signed for Vic Buckingham's West Bromwich Albion in March 1956; the transfer fee of £25,000 was a club record for West Brom at the time. He made his West Brom debut in a 4–0 home defeat to Manchester City on 10 March 1956. In 1957–58, he was the club's top league goalscorer. Playing as a midfielder, he went on to play 257 matches and score 61 goals for West Brom, he captained the team for the 1960–61 and 1961–62 seasons.
However, in August 1962, he returned to Fulham after a disagreement with West Brom vice-chairman Jim Gaunt over his salary. The ongoing dispute over both minimum and maximum wages in the game, instigated by Robson's teammate Jimmy Hill and the Professional Footballers' Association, combined with the birth of Robson's second son, prompted Robson to demand a higher salary. Gaunt refused to negotiate Robson's contract, so Robson placed a transfer request and was sold to Fulham for £20,000 in a deal which doubled his salary. Soon after Robson joined Fulham, the club sold Alan Mullery and Rodney Marsh, meaning Robson's chances of securing any significant honour there were reduced. Robson himself stated, "In all my time as a footballer, I didn't win a thing."Despite press reports of interest from Arsenal, the offer of a player-manager role by Southend United, Robson left Fulham in 1967 and accepted a three-year deal with Canada's Vancouver Royals. He was to be player-manager in their inaugural 1968 season in the North American Soccer League and believed it "was a chance too good to miss".
He began scouting and holding tryout camps for the new team in the Fall of 1967. The position proved difficult.
Formation (association football)
In association football, the formation describes how the players in a team position themselves on the pitch. Association football is a fluid and fast-moving game, a player's position in a formation does not define their role as rigidly as for, for instance, a rugby player, nor are there episodes in play where players must expressly line up in formation. A player's position in a formation defines whether a player has a defensive or attacking role, whether they tend to play towards one side of the pitch or centrally. Formations are described by three or four numbers, which denote how many players are in each row of the formation from the most defensive to the most forward. For example, the popular "4–5–1" formation has four defenders, five midfielders, a single forward. Different formations can be used depending on whether a team wishes to play more attacking or defensive football, a team may switch formations between or during games for tactical reasons; the choice of formation is made by a team's manager or head coach.
Skill and discipline on the part of the players is needed to implement a given formation in professional football. Formations need to be chosen bearing in mind; some formations were created to address strengths in different types of players. In the early days of football, most team members would play in attacking roles, whereas modern formations always have more defenders than forwards. Formations are described by categorising the players according to their positioning along the pitch, with the more defensive players given first. For example, 4–4–2 means four defenders, four midfielders, two forwards. Traditionally, those within the same category would play as a flat line across the pitch, with those out wide playing in a more advanced position. In many modern formations, this is not the case, which has led to some analysts splitting the categories in two separate bands, leading to four- or five-numbered formations. A common example is 4–2–1–3, where the midfielders are split into two defensive and one offensive player.
An example of a five-numbered formation would be 4–1–2–1–2, where the midfield consists of a defensive midfielder, two central midfielders and an offensive midfielder. The numbering system was not present; the choice of formation is related to the type of players available to the coach. Narrow formations. Teams with a surfeit of central midfielders, or teams who attack best through the centre, may choose to adopt narrow formations such as the 4–1–2–1–2 or the 4–3–2–1 which allow teams to field up to four or five central midfielders in the team. Narrow formations, depend on the full-backs to provide width and to advance upfield as as possible to supplement the attack in wide areas. Wide formations. Teams with a surfeit of forwards and wingers may choose to adopt formations such as 4–2–3–1, 3–5–2 and 4–3–3, which commit forwards and wingers high up the pitch. Wide formations allow the attacking team to stretch play and cause the defending team to cover more ground. Teams may change formations during a game to aid their cause: Change to attacking formations.
When chasing a game for a desirable result, teams tend to sacrifice a defensive player or a midfield player for a forward in order to chase a result. An example of such a change is a change from 4–5–1 to 4–4–2, 3–5–2 to 3–4–3, or 5–3–2 to 4–3–3. Change to defensive formations; when a team is in the lead, or wishes to protect the scoreline of a game, the coach may choose to revert to a more defensive structure by removing a forward for a more defensive player. The extra player in defence or midfield adds solidity by giving the team more legs to chase opponents and recover possession. An example of such a change is a change from 4–4–2 to 5–3–2, 3–5–2 to 4–5–1, or 4–4–2 to 5–4–1. Formations can be deceptive in analysing a particular team's style of play. For instance, a team that plays a nominally attacking 4–3–3 formation can revert to a 4–5–1 if a coach instructs two of the three forwards to track back in midfield. In the football matches of the 19th century, defensive football was not played, the line-ups reflected the all-attacking nature of these games.
In the first international game, Scotland against England on 30 November 1872, England played with seven or eight forwards in a 1–1–8 or 1–2–7 formation, Scotland with six, in a 2–2–6 formation. For England, one player would remain in defence, picking up loose balls, one or two players would hang around midfield and kick the ball upfield for the other players to chase; the English style of play at the time was all about individual excellence and English players were renowned for their dribbling skills. Players would attempt to take the ball forward as far as possible and only when they could proceed no further, would they kick it ahead for someone else to chase. Scotland surprised England by passing the ball among players; the Scottish outfield players were organised into pairs and each player would always attempt to pass the ball to his assigned partner. With so much attention given to attacking play, the game ended in a 0–0 draw; the first long-term successful formation was first recorded in 1880.
In Association Football, published by Caxton in 1960, the following
Premier League Manager of the Season
The Premier League Manager of the Season is an annual association football award presented to managers in England. It recognises the most outstanding manager in the Premier League each season; the recipient is chosen by a panel assembled by the league's sponsors and is announced in the second or third week of May. The award was established during the 1993–94 season by then-league title sponsor Carling. For sponsorship purposes, it was called the Carling Manager of the Year from 1994 to 2001, the Barclaycard Manager of the Year from 2001 to 2004, since 2004 known as the Barclays Manager of the Season. In 1994, the inaugural Manager of the Season award was given to Manchester United manager Alex Ferguson for retaining the league championship; the current holder of the award is Manchester City manager Pep Guardiola. The most number of awards won by a single manager is eleven, achieved by Alex Ferguson between 1994 and his retirement in 2013, he accounted for more than half of the awards in that period of time.
In 1998 Arsène Wenger became the first non-British manager to win the award, has so far received it on two further occasions with Arsenal. José Mourinho is the only manager other Ferguson and Wenger to have won the award on more than on one occasion, the only manager other than Ferguson to win the award in consecutive seasons. Four managers have won the award without winning the Premier League trophy in the same season, reflecting the weight of their achievements: George Burley in 2000–01, having guided Ipswich Town to fifth place in the league, after only securing the club's promotion from the First Division the previous season; the Premier League was formed in 1992, when the members of the First Division resigned from The Football League. These clubs set up a new commercially independent league that negotiated its own broadcast and sponsorship agreements; the inaugural season had no sponsor until Carling agreed to a four-year £12 million deal that started the following season. That same season, Carling introduced the Manager of the Month and Manager of the Season awards, in addition to the existing manager of the year award presented by the League Managers Association.
The first Manager of the Season award was presented to Alex Ferguson after winning the Premier League with Manchester United for the second consecutive season. Kenny Dalglish was awarded the accolade in the 1994–95 season, having guided Blackburn Rovers to their first league title in 81 years. Despite losing to Liverpool on the final matchday, Blackburn secured the championship when Manchester United failed to beat West Ham United the same day. Manchester United regained the Premier League the following season, resisting Newcastle United's threat, retained the championship in 1996–97, ensuring that Ferguson became the first manager to win two consecutive awards. Arsène Wenger was the first non–British manager to receive the Manager of the Season award, having led Arsenal to the top of the Premier League in 1997–98, his first full season at the club; this achievement was significant given that Arsenal were, at one stage, 12 points behind leaders Manchester United. After a climactic finish to the 1998–99 season, Ferguson was presented with his fifth managerial award for winning the Premier League with Manchester United.
The club beat Tottenham Hotspur on the last matchday to secure their fifth championship in seven years, in the following week completed a treble of trophies consisting of the domestic league, FA Cup and UEFA Champions League. Ferguson received the accolade again in 1999–2000, as Manchester United finished 18 points above second-placed Arsenal. Ipswich Town manager George Burley was the winner in 2000–01, the first time the award did not go to a league-winning manager. Ipswich Town, who won promotion to the Premier League from the First Division in the previous season, finished fifth and qualified for the UEFA Cup. Burley triumphed over Ferguson, who led Manchester United to their third consecutive championship title, Liverpool manager Gérard Houllier, who guided his team to three trophies and a berth in the Champions League. Wenger was named the Manager of the Season for 2001–02 after guiding Arsenal to thirteen consecutive wins towards the end of the season – a run which ensured the club regained the Premier League trophy.
For winning his eighth Premier League title with Manchester United, Ferguson was given the award in the 2002–03 season. Wenger was the outstanding winner for the award in 2003–04 as he managed Arsenal to an unprecedented achievement of winning the league without a single defeat. Reflecting on Wenger's accomplishment, a Barclaycard Awards Panel spokesperson said "Arsène Wenger is a worthy recipient of this accolade and has sent his team into the history books. Arsenal have played exciting attacking football throughout the season and finishing it unbeaten is a feat that may not be repeated for another 100 years."Chelsea manager José Mourinho was chosen as the recipient for the 2004–05 season for taking the club to its first league championship in 50 years. Chelsea finished the season with a league-record 95 points, 12 points ahead of runners-up Arsenal, scoring 72 goals and conceding 15 in the process. Mourinho won the award a second successive time the following season – the first foreign manager to do so – as Chelsea won their second Premier League title.
Ferguson collected the award for the 2006–07, 2007–08 and 2008–09 seasons, in a period when Manchester United regained the domestic title after a four-year drought and re
Transfer (association football)
In professional football, a transfer is the action taken whenever a player under contract moves between clubs. It refers to the transferring of a player's registration from one association football club to another. In general, the players can only be transferred during a transfer window and according to the rules set by a governing body; some sort of compensation is paid for the player's rights, known as a transfer fee. When a player moves from one club to another, their old contract is terminated and they negotiate a new one with the club they are moving to, unlike in American and Australian sports, where teams trade existing player contracts. In some cases, transfers can function in a similar manner to player trades, as teams can offer another player on their squad as part of the compensation. According to FIFA, from January to September 2018 there were 15,049 international transfers of male players with fees totalling US$7.1 billion dollars, 577 international transfers of female players for US$493,235.
The concept of a football transfer first came into existence in England after The Football Association introduced player registration sometime after 1885. Before that, a player could agree to play one or more matches for any football club. After the FA recognised professionalism in 1885, it sought to control professional players by introducing a player registration system. Players had to register with a club each season if he remained with the same club as in the season before. A player was not allowed to play. Once a player was registered with a club he was not allowed to be registered with or play for another club during the same season without the permission of the FA and the club that held his registration; however players were free to join another club before the start of each season if their former club wished to retain them. Sometime after the Football League was formed in 1888 the Football League decided to introduce the retain-and-transfer system, which restricted clubs from luring players from other clubs, thereby preventing clubs from losing their players and preventing the league from being dominated by a handful of rich clubs.
From the start of the 1893–94 season onwards, once a player was registered with a Football League club, he could not be registered with any other club in subsequent seasons, without the permission of the club he was registered with. It applied if the player's annual contract with the club holding their registration was not renewed after it expired; the club was not obliged to play them and, without a contract, the player was not entitled to receive a salary. If the club refused to release his registration, the player could not play for any other Football League club. Football League clubs soon began to demand and earn a transfer fee from any other Football League club as consideration for agreeing to release or transfer the player's registration. In 1912 Charles Sutcliffe helped establish the legality of this retain-and-transfer system when he represented his club Aston Villa during the Kingaby case; the former Villa player Herbert Kingaby had brought legal proceedings against the club for preventing him from playing.
However an erroneous strategy pursued by Kingaby's counsel resulted in the suit being dismissed. In England, the "retain" aspect of the system was removed after a decision by the High Court in 1963 in Eastham v Newcastle United that it was unreasonable; the transfer system remained unchanged until the Bosman ruling. The ruling is named after Jean-Marc Bosman, a former Belgian footballer who in 1990 was registered with Belgian Cup winners RFC Liège, his contract had expired and he was looking to move to French team Dunkerque, but Dunkerque refused to pay the transfer fee of £500,000 that Liège were asking for. Bosman was left in limbo and his wages were cut by 75% due to him not playing. After a lengthy legal battle, Bosman won his case on 15 December 1995 when the European Court of Justice ruled players should be free to move when their contract expired; the first high-profile "Bosman transfer" was Edgar Davids, who departed Ajax for Milan, but lasted just one year in Milan before moving to rivals Juventus for a fee of over £5 million.
The same summer, Luis Enrique made the controversial decision to let his Real Madrid contract run down by signing for rivals Barcelona. In 1999, Steve McManaman departed his boyhood club Liverpool for Real Madrid, while Sol Campbell was arguably the most controversial Bosman transfer of all-time when he moved from Tottenham Hotspur to fierce rivals Arsenal. In 2014, it was announced Borussia Dortmund striker Robert Lewandowski would leave the club for Bayern Munich in the upcoming summer when his contract expired. Another impact the case had was the rules regarding foreign players. Before the ruling was made, clubs throughout Europe were limited to the number of foreign players they could employ, could only play a maximum of three in European competition. FIFA noted it was "disappointed" in the ruling, while Gordon Taylor thought the decision would have a major impact and would "lead to a flood of foreign players... to the detriment of our game". The ruling ensured a team could now choose to play a team of 11 foreign players if it wanted, as was the case when Chelsea became the first team to do so.
By 2007, the percentage of foreign players in England and Germany had reached 57%, compared with 39% in Spain and France and 30% in Italy. The last team to field an all-English starting line-up was Aston Villa, ten months before Chelsea's all-foreign starting 11. Although there were leagues implementing the practice, UEFA decided to enforce a continental transfer window in time for the 2002–03 season. UEFA chief executive Gerhard Aigner said that
In sports, a coach is a person involved in the direction and training of the operations of a sports team or of individual sportspeople. A coach may be a teacher; the original sense of the word coach is that of a horse-drawn carriage, deriving from the Hungarian city of Kocs where such vehicles were first made. Students at the University of Oxford in the early nineteenth century used the slang word to refer to a private tutor who would drive a less able student through his examinations just like horse driving. Britain took the lead in upgrading the status of sports in the 19th century. For sports to become professionalized, "coacher" had to become established, it professionalized in the Victorian era and the role was well established by 1914. In the First World War, military units sought out the coaches to supervise physical conditioning and develop morale-building teams. A coach in a professional league, is supported by one or more assistant coaches and specialist support staff; the staff may include coordinators and fitness specialists, trainers.
In elite sport, the role of nutritionists and physiotherapists will all become critical to the overall long-term success of a coach and athlete. They work on the over all responsibility of their athletes. In association football, the duties of a coach can vary depending on the level they are coaching at and the country they are coaching in, amongst others. In youth football, the primary objective of a coach is to aid players in the development of their technical skills, with emphasis on the enjoyment and fair play of the game rather than physical or tactical development. In recent decades, efforts have been made by governing bodies in various countries to overhaul their coaching structures at youth level with the aim of encouraging coaches to put player development and enjoyment ahead of winning matches. In professional football, the role of the coach or trainer is limited to the training and development of a club's "first team" in most countries; the coach is aided by a number of assistant coaches, one of which carries the responsibility for the training and preparation of the goalkeepers.
The coach is assisted by medical staff and athletic trainers. The medium to long term strategy of a football club, with regard to transfer policies, youth development and other sporting matters, is not the business of a coach in most football countries; the presence of a sporting director is designed to give the medium term development of a club the full attention of one professional, allowing the coach to focus on improving and producing performances from the players under their charge. The system provides a certain level of protection against overspending on players in search of instant success. In football, the director of a professional football team is more awarded the position of manager, a role that combines the duties of coach and sporting director; the responsibilities of a European football manager tend to be divided up in North American professional sports, where the teams have a separate general manager and head coach, although a person may fill both roles of general manager and head coach.
While the first team coach in football is an assistant to the manager who holds the real power, the American style general manager and head coach have distinct areas of responsibilities. For example, a typical European football manager would have the final say on player lineups and contract negotiations, while in American sports these duties would be handled separately by the head coach and general manager, respectively. In baseball, at least at the professional level in North America, the individual who heads the coaching staff does not use the title of "head coach", but is instead called the field manager. Baseball "coaches" at that level are members of the coaching staff under the overall supervision of the manager, with each coach having a specialized role; the baseball field manager is equivalent a head coach in other American professional sports leagues. The term manager used without qualification always refers to the field manager, while the general manager is called the GM. At amateur levels, the terminology is more similar to that of other sports.
The person known as the "manager" in professional leagues is called the "head coach" in amateur leagues. S. college baseball. In American football, like many other sports, there are assistant coaches. American football includes a head coach, an assistant head coach, an offensive coordinator, a defensive coordinator, a special teams coordinator and defensive line coaches, coaches for every position, a strength and conditioning coach, among other positions; the Guardian describes the social conservatism that has defined American football coaches for decades: Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, the enemies of football were civil rights, the campus protest movement, anti-war activism, long hair, other offenses against grooming. In August 1969 Sports Illustrated devoted a cover story to the plight of “the desperate coach,” adrift in a world unmoored from its old verities and tasked with managing a generation of hirsute, anti-authoritarian “free thinkers”. There was, no struggle to get coaches to go on the record.
Dallas Cowboys coach Tom Landry lamented in the late 1960s that without football, “society would lose on the great strongholds – paying the price. There’s not much discipline left in this country.” Around the same time University of Southern California assistant coach Marv Goux, surveying the alarming growth of his charges’ hair, groused: “The bums eat the
A football team is a group of players selected to play together in the various team sports known as football. Such teams could be selected to play in a match against an opposing team, to represent a football club, state or nation, an all-star team or selected as a hypothetical team and never play an actual match. There are several varieties of football, notably association football, gridiron football, Australian rules football, Gaelic football, rugby league and rugby union; the number of players selected for each team within these varieties and their associated codes can vary substantially. Sometimes, the word "team" is limited to those who play on the field in a match and does not always include other players who may take part as replacements or emergency players. "Football squad" may be used to be inclusive of these reserve players. The term football club is the most used for a sports club, an organised or incorporated body with a president, committee and a set of rules responsible for ensuring the continued playing existence of one or more teams which are selected for regular competition play.
The oldest football clubs date back to the early 19th century. The words team and club are sometimes used interchangeably by supporters, although they refer to the team within the club playing in the highest division or competition; the number of players that take part in the sport thus forming the team are: Association football: 11Indoor soccer: 6 Futsal, beach soccer, five-a-side football: 5 American football: 11 Arena football: 8 Canadian football: 12 Rugby league: 13 Rugby union: 15 Rugby sevens: 7 Gaelic football: 15 Australian rules football: 18 List of association football clubs List of men's national association football teams List of women's association football clubs List of women's national association football teams List of Australian rules football clubs