Montane ecosystems refers to any ecosystem found in mountains. These ecosystems are affected by climate, which gets colder as elevation increases, they are stratified according to elevation. Dense forests are common at moderate elevations. However, as the elevation increases, the climate becomes harsher, the plant community transitions to grasslands or tundra; as elevation increases, the climate becomes cooler, due to a decrease in atmospheric pressure and the adiabatic cooling of airmasses. The change in climate by moving up 100 meters on a mountain is equivalent to moving 80 kilometers towards the nearest pole; the characteristic flora and fauna in the mountains tend to depend on elevation, because of the change in climate. This dependency causes life zones to form: bands of similar ecosystems at similar altitude. One of the typical life zones on mountains is the montane forest: at moderate elevations, the rainfall and temperate climate encourages dense forests to grow. Holdridge defines the climate of montane forest as having a biotemperature of between 6 and 12 °C, where biotemperature is the mean temperature considering temperatures below 0 °C to be 0 °C.
Above the elevation of the montane forest, the trees thin out in the subalpine zone, become twisted krummholz, fail to grow. Therefore, montane forests contain trees with twisted trunks; this phenomenon is observed due to the increase in the wind strength with the elevation. The elevation where trees fail to grow is called the tree line; the biotemperature of the subalpine zone is between 3 and 6 °C. Above the tree line the ecosystem is called the alpine zone or alpine tundra, dominated by grasses and low-growing shrubs; the biotemperature of the alpine zone is between 1.5 and 3 °C. Many different plant species live in the alpine environment, including perennial grasses, forbs, cushion plants and lichens. Alpine plants must adapt to the harsh conditions of the alpine environment, which include low temperatures, ultraviolet radiation, a short growing season. Alpine plants display adaptations such as rosette structures, waxy surfaces, hairy leaves; because of the common characteristics of these zones, the World Wildlife Fund groups a set of related ecoregions into the "montane grassland and shrubland" biome.
Climates with biotemperatures below 1.5 °C tend to consist purely of ice. Montane forests occur between the subalpine zone; the elevation at which one habitat changes to another varies across the globe by latitude. The upper limit of montane forests, the forest line or timberline, is marked by a change to hardier species that occur in less dense stands. For example, in the Sierra Nevada of California, the montane forest has dense stands of lodgepole pine and red fir, while the Sierra Nevada subalpine zone contains sparse stands of whitebark pine; the lower bound of the montane zone may be a "lower timberline" that separates the montane forest from drier steppe or desert region. Montane forests differ from lowland forests in the same area; the climate of montane forests is colder than lowland climate at the same latitude, so the montane forests have species typical of higher-latitude lowland forests. Humans can disturb montane forests through agriculture. On isolated mountains, montane forests surrounded by treeless dry regions are typical "sky island" ecosystems.
Montane forests in temperate climate are one of temperate coniferous forest or temperate broadleaf and mixed forest, forest types that are well known from northern Europe, northern United States, southern Canada. The trees are, however not identical to those found further north: geology and climate causes different related species to occur in montane forests. Montane forests around the world tend to be more species-rich than those in Europe, because major mountain chains in Europe are oriented east-west. Montane forests in temperate climate occur in Europe, in North America, south-western South America, New Zealand and Himalaya. Montane forests in Mediterranean climate are warm and dry except in winter, when they are wet and mild; these forests are mixed conifer and broadleaf forests, with only a few conifer species. Pine and Juniper are typical trees found in Mediterranean montane forests; the broadleaf trees show more variety and are evergreen, e.g. evergreen Oak. This type of forest is found in the Mediterranean Basin, North Africa and the southwestern US, Iran and Afghanistan.
In the tropics, montane forests can consist of broadleaf forest in addition to coniferous forest. One example of a tropical montane forest is a cloud forest, which gains its moisture from clouds and fog. Cloud forests exhibit an abundance of mosses covering the ground and vegetation, in which case they are referred to as mossy forests. Mossy forests develop on the saddles of mountains, where moisture introduced by settling clouds is more retained. Depending on latitude, the lower limit of montane rainforests on large mountains is between 1,500 and 2,500 metres while the upper limit is from 2,400 to 3,300 metres; the subalpine zone is the biotic zone below the tree line around the world. In tropical regions of Southeast Asia the tree line may be above 4,000 m, whereas in Scotland it may be as low as 450 m. Species that occur in this zone depend on the location of the zone on the Earth, for example, snow gum in Australia, or subalpine larch, mountain h
Ngawal is a village development committee in Manang District in the Gandaki Zone of northern Nepal. At the time of the 2011 Nepal census it had a population of 274. Ngawal VDC is one of the Seven Village Development Committee in Upper Manang. One of the main attraction of this village is a centuries-old cave of Guru Rinpoche, on the hills overlooking Ngawal village; the local people believes. And a monastery in Tibetan Nyingma pa sect, called Portoche Monastery. 16
Nar is a village development committee in Manang District in the Gandaki Zone of northern Nepal. In the 2011 Nepal census it had a population of 362 people, living in 86 individual households
Gandaki Pradesh is one of the seven federal provinces established by the current constitution of Nepal, promulgated on 20 September 2015. Pokhara is the province's capital city, it borders the Tibet of China to the north, Province No. 3 to the east, Karnali Pradesh to the west, Province No. 5 and Uttar Pradesh of India to the south. The total area of the province is 21,504 km². According to the latest census, the population of the province was 2,403,757; the newly elected Provincial Assembly adopted Gandaki Pradesh as the permanent name by replacing its initial name Province no. 4 for in July 2018. The Gandaki Pradesh got its name from River Gandaki. All of the districts of Gandaki Pradesh are irrigated by one of the branches of Gandaki River. Gandaki Pradesh is formed by combining former two Zones of Nepal, they are Gandaki and Dhaulagiri, Nawalpur region of former Nawalparasi District of Lumbini Zone; the name, Gandaki Pradesh is related to Gandaki River Civilization. The province has an area of 21,773 km2, about 14.66% of the total area of Nepal.
The state is extends between 27°-20' N ~ 29°-20' N latitude and 82° 52' E ~ 85°-12' E longitude. In terms of terrain, the province is spread over the Himalayan and Terai region of Nepal; the Governor acts as the head of the province while the Chief Minister is the head of the provincial government. The Chief Judge of the Pokhara High Court is the head of the judiciary; the present Governor, Chief Minister and Chief Judge are Baburam Kunwar, Prithvi Subba Gurung and Purushottam Bhandari. The province has 60 provincial assembly constituencies and 18 federal House of Representative constituencies. Gandaki Pradesh has a unicameral legislature, like that of the other provinces in Nepal; the tenure of provincial assembly is of five years. The Provincial Assembly of Gandaki is temporarily housed at the Town Development Training Centre in Pokhara. Gandaki province is divided into 11 districts. A district is administrated by the head of the District Coordination Committee and the District Administration Officer.
The districts are further dived to rural municipalities. The municipalities include one metropolitan city and 26 municipalities. There are 58 rural municipalities in the province. Baglung District Gorkha District Kaski District Lamjung District Manang District Mustang District Myagdi District Nawalpur District Parbat District Syangja District Tanahun District The province has a population of 2,403,016, just about 9.06% of the total population of Nepal. The population density is about 110 persons per square kilometre; the province has a population growth rate of -0.33%. The sex ratio is 89 males for 100 females, with a total of 948,028 males and 1,144,124 females recorded in 2011; the urban population of the region is 1,452,186 and the rural population is 943,652. About 50.1% of the population in the province are independent population. According to the 2011 Nepal census there are total 88 languages spoken in Gandaki Pradesh. Nepali, Tharu, Kumal, Ghale, Thakali etc are main languages, spoken by communities in Gankldaki Pradesh.
Spoken language is Nepali, spoken by 68.885 percent people of Gandaki Pradesh. Magar is secondly most spoken language with percentage of 9.025 and Gurung is third spoken language with percentage of 7.855. List of provinces of Nepal List of districts of Nepal
Pisang is a village development committee in Manang District in the Gandaki Zone of northern Nepal. At the time of the 2011 Nepal census it had a population of 307 people living in 105 individual households; the village is located in the Marshyangdi River valley, directly south of Pisang Peak, north of Annapurna II, west of Paungda Danda
Bhraka, Nepal is a village development committee in Manang District in the Gandaki Zone of northern Nepal. At the time of the 2011 Nepal census it had a population of 306 people living in 83 individual households
Geography of Nepal
Nepal measures about 800 kilometers along its Himalayan axis by 150 to 250 kilometers across. Nepal has an area of 147,181 square kilometers. Nepal is landlocked by China's Tibet Autonomous Region to the north. West Bengal's narrow Siliguri Corridor or Chicken's Neck separate Bangladesh. To the east are India and Bhutan. Nepal depends on India for goods transport facilities and access to the sea for most goods imported from China. For a small country, Nepal has tremendous geographic diversity, it rises from as low as 59 metres elevation in the tropical Terai—the northern rim of the Gangetic Plain, beyond the perpetual snow line to some 90 peaks over 7,000 metres including Earth's highest 8,848 metres Mount Everest or Sagarmatha. In addition to the continuum from tropical warmth to cold comparable to polar regions, average annual precipitation varies from as little as 160 millimetres in the rainshadow north of the Himalaya to as much as 5,500 millimetres on windward slopes. Along a south-to-north transect, Nepal can be divided into three belts: Terai and Himal.
In the other direction, it is divided into three major river systems, from east to west: Koshi, Gandaki/Narayani and Karnali, all tributaries of the Ganges. The Ganges-Yarlung Zangbo/Brahmaputra watershed coincides with the Nepal-Tibet border, however several Ganges tributaries rise inside Tibet. Terai is a low land region containing some hill ranges; the Terai region begins at the Indian border and includes the southernmost part of the flat, intensively farmed Gangetic Plain called the Outer Terai. By the 19th century and other resources were being exported to India. Industrialization based on agricultural products such as jute began in the 1930s and infrastructure such roadways and electricity were extended across the border before it reached Nepal's pahad; the Outer Terai is culturally more similar to adjacent parts of India's Bihar and Uttar Pradesh than to the Pahad of Nepal. Nepali is taught in schools and spoken in government offices, however the local population uses Maithali and Tharu languages.
The Outer Terai ends at the base of the first range of foothills called the Siwaliks or Churia. This range has a densely forested skirt of coarse alluvium called the bhabhar. Below the bhabhar, less permeable sediments force groundwater to the surface in a zone of springs and marshes. In Persian, terai refers to marshy ground. Before the use of DDT this was dangerously malarial. Nepal's rulers used. Above the bhabhar belt, the Siwaliks rise to about 700 metres with peaks as high as 1,000 metres, steeper on their southern flanks because of faults known as the Main Frontal Thrust; this range is composed of poorly consolidated, coarse sediments that do not retain water or support soil development so there is no agricultural potential and sparse population. In several places beyond the Siwaliks there are dūn valleys called Inner Terai; these valleys have productive soil but were dangerously malarial except to indigenous Tharu people who had genetic resistance. In the mid-1950s DDT came into use to suppress mosquitos and the way was open to settlement from the land-poor hills, to the detriment of the Tharu.
The terai ends and the Pahad begin at a higher range of foothills called the Mahabharat Range. Hilly is a mountain region which doesn't contain snow, it is situated south of the Himal, the hilly is betw altitude. This region begins at the Mahabharat Range where a fault system called the Main Boundary Thrust creates an escarpment 1,000 to 1,500 metres high, to a crest between 1,500 and 2,700 metres; these steep southern slopes are nearly uninhabited, thus an effective buffer between languages and culture in the Terai and hilly. Hindu Paharis populate river and stream bottoms that enable rice cultivation and are warm enough for winter/spring crops of wheat and potato; the urbanized Kathmandu and Pokhara valleys fall within the Hill region. Newars are an indigenous ethnic group with their own Tibeto-Burman language; the Newar were indigenous to the Kathmandu valley but have spread into Pokhara and other towns alongside urbanized Pahari. Other indigenous janajati ethnic groups -— natively speaking localized Tibeto-Burman languages and dialects -— populate hillsides up to about 2,500 metres.
This group includes Magar and Kham Magar west of Pokhara, Gurung south of the Annapurnas, Tamang around the periphery of Kathmandu Valley and Rai, Koinch Sunuwar and Limbu further east. Temperate and subtropical fruits are grown as cash crops. Marijuana was grown and processed into Charas until international pressure persuaded the government to outlaw it in 1976. There is increasing reliance on animal husbandry with elevation, using land above 2,000 metres for summer grazing and moving herds to lower elevations in winter. Grain production has not kept pace with population growth at elevations above 1,000 metres where colder temperatures inhibit double cropping. Food deficits drive emigration out of the pahad in search of employment; the Hilly ends where ridges begin rising out of the temperate climate zone into subalpine zone above 3,000 metres. Himal is a mountain region containing snow; the Mountain Region or Parbat begins where high ridges begin rising above 3,000 metres into the subalpi