New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –
New Jersey Route 47
Route 47 is a state highway in the southern part of New Jersey, United States. It runs 75.20 mi from Atlantic Avenue in Wildwood, Cape May County north to U. S. Route 130 in Camden County, it is referred to as Delsea Drive, as it connects the Delaware River near Brooklawn to the Atlantic Ocean in Wildwood. This name was assigned by the New Jersey Legislature in 1933; the route runs through rural areas of southern Cumberland counties as a two-lane road. Traffic jams along this portion of Route 47 are commonplace in the summer vacation season and can stretch for miles due to the missing southern section of Route 55, where all Jersey Shore-bound traffic enters the small two-lane road. North of here, the route runs through the cities of Millville and Vineland before entering Gloucester County, where it passes through more rural areas as well as Clayton and Glassboro. Past Glassboro, it heads through suburban areas in Washington and Deptford townships before running through Westville and Brooklawn.
Route 47 is the longest signed state route in New Jersey. What is now Route 47 was designated as part of pre-1927 Route 15 between Rio Grande in 1917 and as a branch of pre-1927 Route 20 between Millville and Westville in 1923. In 1927, Route 47 was designated to run from Tuckahoe to Brooklawn, following current Route 49 south of Millville. Meanwhile, current Route 47 was a part of Route 49 between South Dennis and Millville and Route S49 between Rio Grande and South Dennis; the latter was extended to Wildwood in 1938. Route 47 and Route 49 were shifted onto their current alignments south of Millville in 1953. Since Route 47 has seen a few improvements and modifications including realignment in Millville and the reconstruction of the intersection with Route 83 in Dennis Township. Route 47 begins at a traffic light with Atlantic Avenue in the Jersey Shore city of Wildwood, Cape May County, heading to the northwest on Rio Grande Avenue, a four-lane divided highway, county maintained and signed as County Route 661.
From this intersection, Rio Grande Avenue continues southeast a block to an intersection with Ocean Avenue near the Wildwood Boardwalk. The road passes through residential and commercial areas before crossing County Route 621, where it becomes a four-lane undivided road. Upon crossing Park Boulevard, the route passes intersects Susquehanna Avenue. Here, Route 47 becomes signed and maintained by the New Jersey Department of Transportation, turning into a divided highway again a short distance at the intersection with County Route 624. At this intersection, the route enters Lower Township and crosses over the Grassy Sound via the George Reading Wildwood Bridge, a drawbridge; the road turns more to the west-northwest and runs through wetlands with some homes to the south of the road, with the Wildwoods Welcome Center accessible from the southbound lanes. Route 47 enters Middle Township and continues past more marshland as well as some marinas adjacent to the Richardson Sound on the south side of the road.
The route turns northwest again and comes to a partial cloverleaf interchange with the Garden State Parkway. Past this interchange, Route 47 heads into a commercial district in the Rio Grande section of Middle Township. At the intersection with Fifth Street, the route becomes a three-lane undivided road with a center left-turn lane and continues to an intersection with U. S. Route 9. Past the U. S. Route 9 intersection, Route 47 becomes Delsea Drive and continues past more businesses, crossing the Cape May Seashore Lines railroad before intersecting County Route 626. Here, the route becomes a two-lane road and heads into more residential areas with some commercial establishments. At the intersection with County Route 654, Route 47 turns north and leaves the Rio Grande area, heading into woods with some farm fields, it intersects County Route 603 in Green Creek. From here, the road continues past homes with some areas of farms. Route 47 comes to an intersection with County Route 618 which, along with Route 147, provides an alternate route to The Wildwoods.
Past this intersection, the road passes more rural dwellings and enters the community of Dias Creek, where it intersects County Route 612. The route crosses over Bidwell Creek near heads into forests, it reaches the residential community of Goshen, where there is an intersection with County Route 615. Past Goshen, Route 47 turns northeast and heads through rural woods and farms with some homes and wetlands. Upon crossing Sluice Creek, the route enters Dennis Township and heads into residential areas in the community of South Dennis. Here, the road intersects County Route turns to the north. Route 47 widens into a two-lane divided highway as it intersects the western terminus of Route 83. Past this intersection, the road crosses over the Dennis Creek, it continues into Dennisville, where the route intersects County Route 610 before turning west near Johnson Pond and intersecting County Route 611. Route 47 passes more homes before coming to the southern terminus of County Route 557. Past the County Route 557 intersection, the road runs through woodland before coming to the southern terminus of Route 347.
Here, Route 47 turns to the west and passes a mix of residences and fields. It turns northwest and crosses East Creek before coming to an intersection with County Route 550 Spur. Past this intersection, the road intersects Old State Highway, a connector road to County Route 550 Spur, before turning west into wooded areas. Upon crossing West Creek, Route 47 enters Maurice River Township, Cumberland County and continues west through more forests, it enters a mix of residences an
Millville, New Jersey
Millville is a city in Cumberland County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population was 28,400, reflecting an increase of 1,553 from the 26,847 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 855 from the 25,992 counted in the 1990 Census. Millville and Vineland are the three principal New Jersey cities of the Vineland-Millville-Bridgeton Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses those cities and all of Cumberland County for statistical purposes. Millville was incorporated as a township by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 24, 1801, from portions of Fairfield Township. Portions of the township were taken to form Landis Township on March 7, 1864. Millville was reincorporated as a city on March 1, 1866, based on the results of a referendum passed that same day; the city derives its name from a proposal to create a mill town in the area. A sawmill was believed to have existed at Leaming's Mill - known as "Shingle Landing" in its earliest days - around 1720.
The area had a public road, a boat landing, a bridge-like structure. In 1790, Joseph Smith and Henry Drinker purchased 24,000 acres of land known as the Union Mills Tract, they formed the Union Estates Company, built lumber mills along the Maurice River and established a dam to power these new mills. Joseph Buck, an American Revolutionary War veteran who served under General George Washington, was part of a group that purchased the land in the area in 1795 and laid out the plans for what would become Millville. In 1806, an Irish immigrant, James Lee, opened the area's first glass factory, making use of the large amounts of silica sand and the ample wood that could be used to operate the plant. In the early 1850s, the Smith and Wood Iron Foundry and New Jersey Mills were constructed. In 1860, a bleachery and dye house were added to New Jersey Mills, which became Millville Manufacturing. David Wood constructed a dam, forming the largest man-made lake in the state, which powered the entire manufacturing organization.
By 1870, the mill had 600 employees, in 40 years this number doubled. In 1862, Charles K. Landis laid out the city of Vineland about two and a half miles east of the Maurice River. In 1864, Vineland joined the new Landis Township. In 1936, the town was the site of Roosevelt Park, a project proposed by Effie Maud Aldrich Morrison as the country's first housing development for the elderly; the retirement colony was built on land, repossessed by the town of Millville for back taxes, became known as the "Roosevelt Colony". It was renamed to the "Roosevelt Park" old age colony, was sometimes referred to as the Colony for the Aged at Roosevelt Park and Roosevelt Park Colony for Aged; when it opened on October 23, 1936, it became the first senior citizens retirement colony in the United States. The Millville Airport was dedicated "America's First Defense Airport" on August 2, 1941, by local and federal officials. In less than a year, construction of military base facilities began, in January 1943, the Millville Army Air Field opened as a gunnery school for fighter pilots.
Gunnery training began with Curtiss P-40 Warhawk aircraft, but after a few weeks was changed over to the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt. During its three-year existence, thousands of soldiers and civilians served here, with about 1,500 pilots receiving advanced fighter training in the Thunderbolt. Following World War II, the airfield was declared excess to the governments needs, returned to the City of Millville. Most of the airport buildings were converted to apartments for the many veterans returning from the war; the last of the apartments vanished in the early 1970s, the airport soon became a hub of industry and aviation for Southern New Jersey. Up to the late 1990s the Millville downtown area was depressed and somewhat isolated, as illustrated by the abandoned Levoy Theatre and Wheaton Glass Factory, with investors reluctant to venture in its development. Major redevelopment has occurred in the past several years, establishing the scenic Riverfront and Downtown areas into an artists' haven, including many studios and restaurants.
Older abandoned buildings have been restored, continued major development is planned. Millville has an arts district named the Glasstown Arts District. A public art center with galleries and studios is the hub of activity, is open six days a week; the district includes seven full-time galleries, along with ten part-time galleries and studios, which are open on weekends and on the third Friday of each month. Wheaton Arts and the Creative Glass Center of America includes a major collection of early American glass with contemporary glass from CGCA Fellows and working glass artists in a restored 19th century glass factory; the Levoy Theatre re-opened on September 9, 2012. One of Millville's claims to fame is an original paperweight making technique which originated there. Fine paperweights from the classic period were made with one of three techniques: millefiori, lampwork or cameo incrustations. In the first decade of the twentieth century, crimp flowers roses, originated in Millville, with several glassworkers making them in their off duty time.
These paperweights are called "Millville roses," when sometimes made elsewhere. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 44.489 square miles, including 42.001 square miles of land and 2.488 square miles of water. Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the city include Clarks Mill, Manatico, North Newark and Union Lake; the city borders Deerf
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together refers to the joining of tributaries; the opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream. Distributaries are most found in river deltas. "Right tributary" and "left tributary" are terms stating the orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream. In the United States, where tributaries sometimes have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks; these are designated by compass direction. For example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks.
The Chicago River's North Branch has the East and Middle Fork. Forks are sometimes left. Here, the "handedness" is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream. For instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary, called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river and ending with those nearest to the mouth of the river; the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary. Another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure. A gallery of major river basins with tributaries Estuary
Vineland, New Jersey
Vineland is a city in Cumberland County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a total population of 60,724, reflecting an increase of 4,453 from the 56,271 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 1,491 from the 54,780 counted in the 1990 Census. Vineland and Bridgeton are the three principal New Jersey cities of the Vineland–Millville–Bridgeton Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses those three cities and all of Cumberland County for statistical purposes and had a population of 156,898 as of the 2010 Census. Vineland was formed on July 1, 1952, through the merger of Landis Township and Vineland Borough, based on the results of a referendum held on February 5, 1952. Festivities on July 1, 1952, when the merger took effect, included a parade and speeches from such notables as Senator Estes Kefauver; the name is derived from the plans of its founder to use the land to grow grapes. Charles K. Landis purchased 30,000 acres of land in 1861 and another 23,000 acres in 1874, near Millville, New Jersey, along the West Jersey railroad line with service between Camden and Cape May, to create his own alcohol-free utopian society based on agriculture and progressive thinking.
The first houses were built in 1862, train service was established to Philadelphia and New York City, with the population reaching 5,500 by 1865 and 11,000 by 1875. Established as a Temperance Town, where the sale of alcohol was prohibited, Landis required that purchasers of land in Vineland build a house on the purchased property within a year of purchase, that 2 1⁄2 acres of the heavily wooded land be cleared and farmed each year, that adequate space be placed between houses and roads to allow for planting of flowers and shade trees along the routes through town. Landis Avenue was constructed as a 100-foot wide and about 1-mile long road running east-west through the center of the community, with other, narrower roads connecting at right angles to each other. After determining that the Vineland soil was well-suited for growing grapes, Landis started advertising to attract Italian grape growers to Vineland, offering 20 acres of land that had to be cleared and used to grow grapes. Thomas Bramwell Welch founded Welch's Grape Juice, purchased the locally grown grapes to make "unfermented wine".
The fertile ground attracted the glass-making industry and was home to the Progresso soup company. Throughout the first half of the 20th century, most of the city was involved in the poultry industry, which led to the city being dubbed "The Egg Basket of America."Vineland Poultry Laboratories was started by Arthur Goldhaft. Dr. Goldhaft is credited with putting "a chicken in every pot" after developing the fowl pox chicken vaccine that saved millions of chickens from death. Dr. Goldhaft's work at Vineland Poultry Laboratories in Vineland, helped protect the world's chicken supply from the fowl pox disease. Vineland had New Jersey's first school for the intellectually disabled, the Vineland Developmental Center, which now has an east and west campus; these institutions housed mentally handicapped women in staffed cottages. Henry H. Goddard, an American psychologist, coined the term "Moron" while directing the Research Laboratory at the Training School for Backward and Feeble-minded Children in Vineland.
This facility was so sufficiently well known that one American Prison Association pamphlet in 1955 heralded Vineland as "famous for its contributions to our knowledge of the feebleminded". The city of Vineland celebrated its 150th birthday in 2011. Mayor Robert Romano ordered a custom cake from Buddy Valastro of Carlo's Bake Shop in Hoboken. After outcry from local business owners, the order was canceled and five Vineland bakeries were commissioned to create elaborate cakes for the event. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 69.029 square miles, including 68.424 square miles of land and 0.605 square miles of water. Of all the municipalities in New Jersey to hold the label of City, Vineland is the largest in total area. Vineland borders Deerfield Township and Maurice River Township. Vineland borders Salem County, Gloucester County, Atlantic County; the city is 38 miles from the Atlantic Ocean. Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the city include Clayville, Hances Bridge, Leamings Mill, North Vineland, Parvins Branch, South Vineland and Willow Grove.
Vineland has a Ukrainian community and is home to the Ukrainian Evangelical Baptist Church among several other Ukrainian churches. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 60,724 people, 21,450 households, 15,229.500 families residing in the city. The population density was 887.5 per square mile. There were 22,661 housing units at an average density of 331.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 67.03% White, 14.16% Black or African American, 0.67% Native American, 1.71% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 12.91% from other races, 3.48% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 38.03% of the population. There were 21,450 households out of which 31.3% had children under the age of 18
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Cumberland County, New Jersey
Cumberland County is a county located in the U. S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 152,538, making it the state's 16th-largest county, representing a 2.8% decrease from the 156,898 enumerated at the 2010 United States Census, in turn increasing by 10,460 from the 146,438 counted in the 2000 Census, retaining its position as the state's 16th-most populous county. Its county seat is Bridgeton. Cumberland County is named for Duke of Cumberland; the county was formally created from portions of Salem County as of January 19, 1748. This county is part of the Vineland-Millville-Bridgeton Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the Delaware Valley Combined Statistical Area. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 677.62 square miles, including 483.70 square miles of land and 193.92 square miles of water. Cumberland is a low-lying featureless coastal county, with many salt marshes near the Delaware Bay; the highest elevation is at one of 12 areas in Upper Deerfield Township that stand 140 feet above sea level.
Gloucester County, New Jersey – north Atlantic County, New Jersey – northeast Cape May County, New Jersey – southeast Kent County, Delaware – southwest1 Salem County, New Jersey – northwest1across Delaware Bay. The population density was 324.4 per square mile. There were 55,834 housing units at an average density of 115.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 62.74% White, 20.23% Black or African American, 1.11% Native American, 1.22% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 11.15% from other races, 3.52% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 27.06% of the population. There were 51,931 households out of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.2% were married couples living together, 18.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.6% were non-families. 24% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.26.
In the county, the population was spread out with 24% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 25.3% from 45 to 64, 12.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.5 years. For every 100 females there were 106.2 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 106.9 males. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 146,438 people, 49,143 households, 35,186 families residing in the county; the population density was 299 people per square mile. There were 52,863 housing units at an average density of 108 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 65.88% White, 20.20% Black or African American, 0.97% Native American, 0.95% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 9.08% from other races, 2.85% from two or more races. 19.00% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Among those residents listing their ancestry, 15.6% of residents were of Italian, 12.1% German, 10.7% Irish and 8.4% English ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 49,143 households out of which 34.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.70% were married couples living together, 17.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.40% were non-families.
23.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.19. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.40% under the age of 18, 8.50% from 18 to 24, 31.20% from 25 to 44, 21.90% from 45 to 64, 13.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 104.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $39,150, the median income for a family was $45,403. Males had a median income of $35,387 versus $25,393 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,376. About 11.3% of families and 15.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.1% of those under age 18 and 12.9% of those age 65 or over. Cumberland County is governed by a Board of Chosen Freeholders consisting of seven members; each Freeholder is assigned responsibility for one of the County's departments.
These individuals are elected at large by the citizens of Cumberland County in partisan elections and serve staggered three-year terms in office, with either two or three seats coming up for election each year in a three-year cycle. In 2016, freeholders were paid $15,000 and the freeholder director was paid an annual salary of $16,000; as of 2018, members of the Cumberland County Board of Chosen Freeholders are: Freeholder Director Joseph Derella Jr. Deputy Freeholder Director Darlene R. Barber George Castellini Carol Musso James F. Quinn Joseph V. Sparacio Jack Surrency Then-Freeholder Director Bill Whelan, whose term was to run to December 2014, announced in July 2013 that he was resigning from office; that month, Joe Derella was chosen to replace Whelan as