Servia is one of the main towns in the Kozani regional unit, West Macedonia, Greece. It is one of the most historical places in the region, with a 6th-century Byzantine castle and the Kamvounia mountain dominating the landscape. There are a number of 10th century Byzantine cave hermitages and small churches located nearby, which add to the Byzantine atmosphere of the area. Since the local government reform of 2011, it is the seat of the extended municipality of Servia-Velventos. Prior to 2011, the town was the seat of the Municipality of Servia. Τhe town itself has a population of 3,540 people. The municipal unit Servia has an area of 400.116 km2, the community has an area of 51.603 km2. Its name derives from the Latin verb servo, meaning "to watch over" and it was given by the Romans during the 2nd century A. D. replacing what is thought to be the ancient name of the town Phylacae from the Greek verb φυλάσσω "to watch over". The ancient name of the town of Servia is mentioned by Roman writer Pliny the Elder as well as on an Ancient Greek inscription found at the city of Veroia which reads: "Παρμενίων Γλαυκία Φυλακήσιος νικητής εν Δολίχω", i.e. "Parmenion son of Glauceas from Phylacae winner at Doliche".
Servia has given its name to the prehistoric settlement site beside the former bridge across the Haliakmon river to the west and now submerged deep below the surface of Lake Polyphytos. This was first reported by Alan John Bayard Wace and first excavated by the British School at Athens under the direction of Walter Heurtley in 1930. Renewed excavations were jointly conducted by the Greek Archaeological Service and the British School at Athens under the direction of Aikaterina Rhomiopoulou and Cressida Ridley between 1971 and 1973; the site is a low mound created by the debris of successive phases of human occupation, starting in the Middle Neolithic period before 5000 BCE. The square or rectangular buildings, one or two storeys in height, were framed with massive oak posts and the walls were created with wattle and daub. The'classic' red on cream ceramic repertoire of this phase is related to that of Thessaly at such sites as Sesklo and Achilleion. Typical shapes are fruitstands, shallow beakers.
Bone and stone tools are frequent while ornaments of sea shell are quite frequent. Occupation continued for a thousand years until the early stages of the Late Neolithic period, characterised by black burnished and grey-on-grey pottery. Occasional fragments of pottery of other styles, together with occasional pieces of obsidian from Melos show that long distance'trade' links had been established with coastal Thessaly and Eastern Macedonia. After a long interval, occupation resumed in the Early Bronze Age when the ceramic repertoire suggests a cultural orientation towards Central Macedonia rather than Thessaly. Palaeobotanical studies of seeds and other plant remains recovered from all periods at the site and studied by R. Housely and R. Hubbard provide important information about early Greek agricultural practices. During ancient times, Servia served as a fort for the passageway between Macedonia and Thessaly, hence its name; as time passed people settled around the area and the town of Phylacae was created.
People that have passed through the town of Servia, include Alexander the Great, on his way to Thebes in 335 B. C. and Apostle Paul during his journey to Macedonia in the first century A. D. Servia reached its peak as part of the Eastern Roman Empire when it developed as a strong castle-city guarding the ancient passage from Macedonia to Thessaly; the Ottomans captured Servia in 1393. From 1864 it was the seat of the Sanjak of Serfiğe in Manastir Vilayet and the town was known as Serfiçe in Ottoman Turkish. Servia was the seat of the Bishop of Servia and Kozani until 1745; the Greek army entered Servia on 10 October 1912, during the First Balkan War, after its victory against the Ottoman army in the Battle of Sarantaporo. On the same day, 117 prominent citizens of Servia were gathered and executed by the Ottomans who were leaving the city. From on the main road of the town leading to the Town Hall is called "117 Εθνομαρτύρων", i.e. "Of the 117 National martyrs", in remembrance of this dreadful event.
Servia was granted to the Kingdom of Greece by the Treaty of Bucharest in 1913. During the Second World War, on 6 March 1943, Italian troops set the town on fire in response to the defeat and capture of an Italian battalion at the Battle of Fardykambos by the Greek Resistance. After this fire the whole town was left in ruins and most of Greek neoclassical architecture was lost apart from 3 houses which remain until today. One of them was turned into the Folk Museum of Servia. Today Servia stands as one of the main towns and agricultural centres of the surrounding region, with its extended Servia-Velventos municipality having a population of 14,830 people. Main road access into Servia is provided by Greek National Road 3, which passes through the town and is part of the European route E65, connecting the cities of Florina and Kozani with Larissa. A recent historical event that occurred in Servia, was a holy liturgy, celebrated by Metropolitan Paulos of Servia and Kozani at the 7th century Metropolitan Church of St. Demetrius.
The event which took place during the summer of 2008 was the first liturgy at the site after 600 years. On Thursday 28 June 2012, the Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew visited Servia taking
Principality of Albania
The Principality of Albania refers to the short-lived monarchy in Albania, headed by William, Prince of Albania, that lasted from the Treaty of London of 1913 which ended the First Balkan War, through the invasions of Albania during World War I and the subsequent disputes over Albanian independence during the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, until 1925, when the monarchy was abolished and the Albanian Republic declared. Albania had been under Ottoman rule from around 1478; the Great Powers recognized the independence of Albania in the Treaty of London in May 1913 and the Principality was established on February 21, 1914. The Great Powers selected Prince William of Wied, a nephew of Queen Elisabeth of Romania to become the sovereign of the newly independent Albania. A formal offer was made by 18 Albanian delegates representing the 18 districts of Albania on February 21, 1914, an offer which he accepted. Outside of Albania William was styled prince, but in Albania he was referred to as Mbret so as not to seem inferior to the King of Montenegro.
The first government under the rule of the House of Wied was a kind of "princes privy council" because of its members, who were representatives of the Albanian nobility: Prince Turhan Pasha Përmeti, Aziz Pasha Vrioni, Prince Bib Doda of Gjomarkaj-Mirdita, Prince Essad Pasha Toptani, Prince George Adamidi bey Frashëri, Mihal Turtulli bey Koritza, others. Prince William arrived in Albania at his provisional capital of Durrës on March 7, 1914 along with the Royal family; the security of Albania was to be provided by an International Gendarmerie commanded by Dutch officers. William left Albania on September 3, 1914 following a pan-Islamic revolt initiated by Essad Pasha and headed by Haxhi Qamili, the latter the military commander of the "Muslim State of Central Albania" centered in Tirana. William never renounced his claim to the throne. World War I interrupted all government activities in Albania, the country was split into a number of regional governments. Political chaos engulfed Albania after the outbreak of World War I.
Surrounded by insurgents in Durrës, Prince William departed the country in September 1914, just six months after arriving, subsequently joined the German army and served on the Eastern Front. The Albanian people split along tribal lines after the prince's departure. Muslims demanded a Muslim prince and looked to Ottoman Empire as the protector of the privileges they had enjoyed, hence many beys and clan chiefs, recognized no superior authority. In late October 1914, Greek forces entered Albania in the Protocol of Corfu's recognized Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus. Italy occupied Vlorë, Serbia and Montenegro occupied parts of northern Albania until a Central Powers offensive scattered the Serbian army, evacuated by the French to Thessaloniki. Austro-Hungarian and Bulgarian forces occupied about two-thirds of the country. Under the secret Treaty of London signed in April 1915, Triple Entente powers promised Italy that it would gain Vlorë and nearby lands and a protectorate over Albania in exchange for entering the war against Austria-Hungary.
Serbia and Montenegro were promised much of northern Albania, Greece was promised much of the country's southern half. The treaty was to leave a tiny Albanian state that would be represented by Italy in its relations with the other major powers, thus would have no foreign policy. In September 1918, the Entente forces broke through the Central Powers' lines north of Thessaloniki, within days Austro-Hungarian forces began to withdraw from Albania; when the war ended on November 11, 1918, Italy's army had occupied most of Albania, Serbia held much of the country's northern mountains, Greece occupied a sliver of land within Albania's 1913 borders. Albania's political confusion continued in the wake of World War I; the country lacked a single recognized government, Albanians feared, with justification, that Italy and Greece would succeed in extinguishing Albania's independence and carve up the country. Italian forces controlled Albanian political activity in the areas; the Serbs, who dictated Yugoslavia's foreign policy after World War I, strove to take over northern Albania, the Greeks sought to control southern Albania.
A delegation sent by a postwar Albanian National Assembly that met at Durrës in December 1918 defended Albanian interests at the Paris Peace Conference, but the conference denied Albania official representation. The National Assembly, anxious to keep Albania intact, expressed willingness to accept Italian protection and an Italian prince as a ruler so long as it would mean Albania did not lose territory. Serbian troops conducted actions in Albanian-populated border areas, while Albanian guerrillas operated in both Serbia and Montenegro. In January 1920, at the Paris Peace Conference, negotiators from France and Greece agreed to divide Albania among Yugoslavia and Greece as a diplomatic expedient aimed at finding a compromise solution to the territorial conflict between Italy and Yugoslavia; the deal was done in the absence of a United States negotiator. Members of a second Albanian National Assembly held at Lushnjë in January 1920 rejected the partition plan and warned that Albanians would take up arms to defend their country's independence and territorial integrity.
The Lushnjë National Assembly appointed a four-man regency to rule the country. A bicameral parliament was created, in which an elected lower chamber, the Ch
Kozani is a city in northern Greece, capital of Kozani regional unit and of West Macedonia region. It is located in the northern part of the Aliakmonas river valley; the city lies 710 metres above sea level, 15 kilometres northwest of the artificial lake Polyfytos, 120 km south-west of Thessaloniki, between the mountains Pieria, Vermio and Askio. The population of the Kozani municipality is over 70,000 people; the climate of the area is continental with cold and dry winters, hot summers. Kozani is the home of the Technological Educational Institute of Western Macedonia and the University of Western Macedonia, with about 15,000 students from all over Greece and other places, it is the seat of West Macedonia's court of appeal, police department, fire brigade, the seat of the 1st Army Corps of the Hellenic Army and of the Bishop of Servia and Kozani. One of the most important aspects of local folklore is Kozani's carnival at the end of the winter, which retains much of the profanity of the ancient Dionysiac cult.
Kozani is abroad for the production of Saffron, in the nearby town of Krokos. Kozani is a transport node between Central Macedonia and Epirus; the nearest airport is Filippos Airport, 4 kilometres from the city, IATA code: KZI. The airport was first opened in the mid-20th century. Kozani is situated near the Egnatia Highway, which connects the coast of the Ionian Sea with Thessaloniki and Turkish borders. According to prevailing opinion in Greece, the name comes from the village of Epirus Kósdiani, the origin of settlers of Kozani in 1392; the settlement was first named Kózdiani, which it was changed into Kóziani, in the end into Kozáni. Antiquities from the prehistoric to the Byzantine period have been unearthed in many sectors of the city. In the east part of Kozani, an ancient necropolis has been found. During Philip II of Macedon's reign, the region was named Elimeia, part of Upper Macedonia and in the same place there was a town named Tyrissa. In the south-west of the modern city, on Siopoto hill, there was a settlement named Kalyvia, between 1100 and 1300, traces of which are still preserved.
Kozani was founded by Christian settlers who, after the Ottoman conquest, withdrew from the plains of Macedonia into the mountains, during the 14th and 15th centuries. Its secure position soon attracted other Christians expelled from Epirus, in 1392. Together with the settlers from Epirus, many cattle-breeders moved in the region; the first recorded mention of Kozani is in an Ottoman register of 1528, as a settlement with 91 houses, 23 singles and 15 widows. One of the most important colonizers of Kozani was the chief shepherd Ioannis Trantas, who settled about 100 families, his son, Charisios Trantas, managed to obtain a Sultan's firman in 1664, according to the terms of which the town came under the protection of the Sultan's mother, was endowed with many privileges, became forbidden for the Turks to settle in. In 1664, the magnificent church of Agios Nikolaos was built. In 1668, the library and the famous school of Kozani were founded. During the 17th and 18th century, commercial relations with the countries of central Europe gave the opportunity for the city to flourish economically.
During the 19th century, as foreign travellers relate, the population of the town was Greek, was growing. The town's growth was disrupted in 1770, because of conflict that erupted between Kozani's local inhabitants and Kozanite merchants in central Europe, who contributed to the town's prosperity. A subsequent incursion by Aslan bey, in 1830, ravaged the city immensely. In 1855 next to St. Nicholas Church a 26 meters high bell tower was built, which would become the symbol of the city. In 1939, a clock was added to the top of the tower, donated by Greek-American, Konstantinos Mamatsios. According to the 1904 population census, 12,000 Greeks and 350 Aromanians were living in Kozani at the time. In the late 19th and early 20th century, Kozani was part of the Manastir Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire; the Greek army entered Kozani on 11 October 1912, during the First Balkan War, after its victory against the Ottoman army in the Battle of Sarantaporo. By this time, the population of the town was 12,000 Orthodox Greeks.
In 1923, during the population exchange between Greece and Turkey, about 1,400 Greek families from Pontus and Asia Minor were settled in Kozani. In the 20th century, the city grew tremendously, as lignite reserves in the area started being used by Public Power Corporation, making Kozani the foremost producer of electrical power in Greece. An earthquake that occurred in the region on 13 May 1995, with a magnitude of 6.6 on the Richter scale caused only property damage. The city now combines modern with old faries architecture; some magnificent buildings are the clock tower, the town hall, the folklore museum, the "Valtadoreio" Gymnasium, the National Bank of Greece building, the "Ermioneion" Hotel and the mansions of Georgios Lassanis and Grigorios Vourkas. The Municipal Library of Kozani called "Kovendareios" is the second biggest in Greece, it has 150,000 books, rare publications, valuable documents, one of the rare copies of Rigas Feraios' charter. For this reason Kozani was included in the National Cultural Network of Cities with object the promotion of the Book and Reading.
The Institute of Book and Reading was established and Kozani is now known as City of Books. Today Kozani is the administrative, commercial and transport centre of the region of West Macedonia; the city is known for its importa
Gramsh is a town and a municipality in Elbasan County, central Albania. The municipality was formed at the 2015 local government reform by the merger of the former municipalities Gramsh, Kukur, Kushovë, Pishaj, Poroçan, Skënderbegas and Tunjë, that became municipal units; the seat of the municipality is the town Gramsh. The total population is 24,231, in a total area of 739.22 km2. The population of the former municipality at the 2011 census was 8,440; the town is connected with Elbasan, Korça, Skrapar and Berat. The town is crossed by the river Devoll. During the Ottoman period and before the Albanian Declaration of Independence in 1912, it was known as Grameç in Turkish. Gramsh has been inhabited since ancient times, as is confirmed by archaeological findings in the Tumulus of Cëruja. In the Middle Ages, the area was under the possession of Prince George Arianiti. During Ottoman rule, it was a kaza administrative division within the Sanjak of Elbasan of the Monastir Vilayet. From 1912 until 1947, this was the center of Gramsh area.
With the new administrative division, it became the center of Gramsh district, in which were placed various state institutions. Gramsh was declared a city on July 10, 1960. Since 1965, it has been a municipality; the southern part of the district was part of the ethnographic region of Tomorrica, its population was Bektashi, a Sufi order linked to Shiism, while the northern part of the district was more Sunni, but there is a Bektashi tekke in the town of Dushk, in the Sult municipality. There are Orthodox Christians in addition to Muslims in the southeastern region of Lenie in Aromanian towns such as Grabovë. There were ethnically Albanian Orthodox Christians from in the nearby Shpat region of the former Elbasan district, which borders Gramsh. Evangelist missionaries made some headway among the population but today, there are many people who don't practice any of the four faiths listed. Many of Gramsh's municipalities saw less than 50% of the population declare themselves for any religion, including Tunjë, Poroçan, Gramsh the city itself, Kodovjat, as well as the neighboring Mollas region, linked to Gramsh although it wasn't part of the municipality recently.
The city was home of one of the main military weaponry factories during the communist era. Devolli Hydro Power started in 1980, but was left between work due to the death of communist leader Enver Hoxha, the beginning of a Transitional period until the 1990s that culminated in the overthrow of that system. On October 2013, it was reported that the municipality debt was high and the municipality was close to bankruptcy due to poor management of funds by former mayor, Dritan Bici; the football club is KF Gramshi, in the Albanian Second Division. Adriatik Llalla, General Prosecutor of Albania Architect Kasemi, famous architect of the 16th century Ismail Qemali Gramshi, signatory of the Albanian Declaration of Independence The name of Antonio Gramsci, famous Italian politician with Arbëresh origins refers back to an ancestry in Gramsh, Albania. Dritan Abedin Bici, former mayor and one of the most corrupted mayors of all time after Bujar Kllogjri
Bitola (. It is located in the southern part of the Pelagonia valley, surrounded by the Baba, Nidže and Kajmakčalan mountain ranges, 14 kilometres north of the Medžitlija-Níki border crossing with Greece; the city stands at an important junction connecting the south of the Adriatic Sea region with the Aegean Sea and Central Europe, is an administrative, industrial and educational centre. It has been known since the Ottoman period as "The City of The Consuls", since many European countries had consulates in Bitola. Bitola is one of the oldest cities on the territory of the Republic of North Macedonia, having been founded as Heraclea Lyncestis in the middle of the 4th century BC by Philip II of Macedon; the city was the last capital of Ottoman Rumelia, from 1836 to 1867. According to the 2002 census, Bitola is the second-largest city in the country. Bitola is the seat of the Bitola Municipality; the name Bitola is derived from the Old Church Slavonic word ѡ҆би́тѣл҄ь as the city was noted for its monastery.
When the meaning of the name was no longer understood, it lost its prefix "o-". The name Bitola is mentioned in the Bitola inscription, related to the old city fortress built in 1015 during the ruling of Gavril Radomir of Bulgaria when Bitola served as capital of the First Bulgarian Empire. Modern Slavic variants include the Serbian Bitolj and Bulgarian Bitolya. In Byzantine times, the name was Hellenized to Voutélion or Vitólia, hence the names Butella used by William of Tyre and Butili by the Arab geographer al-Idrisi; the Aromanian name is Bituli. The Greek name for the city meaning "monastery", is a calque of the Slavic name; the Turkish name Manastır is derived from the Greek name, as is the Albanian name, the Ladino name. Bitola is located in the southwestern part of North Macedonia; the Dragor River flows through the city. Bitola lies at the foot of Baba Mountain, its magnificent Pelister mountain is a national park with exquisite flora and fauna, among, the rarest species of pine, known as Macedonian pine or pinus peuce, as well as a well-known ski resort.
Covering an area of 1,798 km2. and with a population of 122,173, Bitola is an important industrial, commercial and cultural center. It represents an important junction that connects the Adriatic Sea to the south with the Aegean Sea and Central Europe. Bitola has a mild humid continental climate typical of the Pelagonija region, experiencing warm and dry summers, cold and snowy winters; the Köppen climate classification for this climate is Cfb, which would be an oceanic climate, going by the original −3 °C threshold. Bitola is rich in monuments from the prehistoric period. Two important ones are Veluška Tumba, Bara Tumba near the village of Porodin. From the Copper Age there are the settlements of Tumba near the village of Crnobuki, Šuplevec near the village of Suvodol, Visok Rid near the village of Bukri; the Bronze Age is represented by the settlements of Tumba near the village of Kanino and the settlement with the same name near the village of Karamani. The area of the town is located in ancient Lynkestis, a region of Upper Macedonia, ruled by semi-independent chieftains till the Argead rulers of Macedon.
The tribes of Lynkestis were known as Lynkestai. They belonged to the Molossian group of the Epirotes. There are important metal artifacts from the ancient period at the necropolis of Crkvishte near the village of Beranci. A golden earring dating from the 4th century BC is depicted on the obverse of the Macedonian 10-denar banknote, issued in 1996. Heraclea Lyncestis was an important settlement from the Hellenistic period till the early Middle Ages, it was founded by Philip II of Macedon by the middle of the 4th century BC, named after the Greek hero Heracles. With its strategic location, it became a prosperous city; the Romans destroyed the political power of the city. However, its prosperity continued due to the Roman Via Egnatia road which passed near the city. Several monuments from the Roman times remain in Heraclea, including a portico, thermae, an amphitheater and a number of basilicas; the theatre was once capable of housing an audience of around 3,000 people. In the early Byzantine period Heraclea was an important episcopal centre.
Some of its bishops were mentioned in the acts of the Church Councils, including Bishop Evagrius of Heraclea in the Acts of the Sardica Council of 343. A small and a great basilica, the bishop's residence, a funeral basilica near the necropolis are some of the remains of this period. Three naves in the Great Basilica are covered with mosaics of rich floral and figurative iconography. During the 4th and 6th centuries, the names of other bishops from Heraclea were recorded; the city was sacked by Ostrogothic forces, commanded by Theodoric the Great in 472 and, despite a large gift to him from the city's bishop, it was sacked again in 479. It was restored in early 6th centuries. In the late 6th century the city suffered successive attacks by Slavic tribes and was abandoned. In the 6th and 7th centuries, the region around Bitola experienced a demographi
Mat District was one of the thirty-six districts of Albania, now part of Dibër County. It is named after the Mat River, it had a population of 48,803, an area of 1,029 km². Its capital was Burrel; the district consisted of the following municipalities: Note: - urban municipalities in bold At the beginning of the 15th century the Lord of Matja was Gjon Kastrioti, father of Skanderbeg. When Skanderbeg began his rebellion against Ottomans he became the lord of Mat and some other territories as well. A synod of Catholic archdiocese was held in Matja in 1462 by Pal Egnelli known for his baptismal formula. Zog of Albania, King of the Albanians Tarhoncu Ahmed Pasha, Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire
North Macedonia the Republic of North Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. It is one of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, from which it declared independence in September 1991 under the name Republic of Macedonia; the country became a member of the United Nations in April 1993, but as a result of a dispute with Greece over the name, it was admitted under the provisional description the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, a term, used by some other international organisations. In June 2018, Macedonia and Greece resolved the conflict with an agreement that the country should rename itself Republic of North Macedonia; this renaming came into effect in February 2019, with a several-months-long transition for passports, licence plates, customs, border signs, government websites, among other things. A landlocked country, North Macedonia has borders with Kosovo to the northwest, Serbia to the northeast, Bulgaria to the east, Greece to the south, Albania to the west.
It constitutes the northern third of the larger geographical region of Macedonia, which comprises the neighbouring parts of northern Greece and southwestern Bulgaria. The country's geography is defined by mountains and rivers; the capital and largest city, Skopje, is home to a quarter of the nation's 2.06 million inhabitants. The majority of the residents are a South Slavic people. Albanians form a significant minority at around 25%, followed by Turks, Serbs, Bosniaks and Bulgarians; the history of the region dates back to antiquity, beginning with the kingdom of Paeonia a mixed Thraco-Illyrian polity. In the late sixth century BC, the area was incorporated into the Persian Achaemenid Empire annexed by the kingdom of Macedonia in the fourth century BC; the Romans conquered the region in the second century BC and made it part of the much larger province of Macedonia. Τhe area remained part of the Byzantine Empire, but was raided and settled by Slavic tribes beginning in the sixth century of the Christian era.
Following centuries of contention between the Bulgarian and Serbian Empire, it was part of the Ottoman dominion from the mid-14th until the early 20th century, when following the Balkan Wars of 1912 and 1913, the modern territory of North Macedonia came under Serbian rule. During the First World War it was ruled by Bulgaria, but after the end of the war, it returned under Serbian rule as part of the newly formed Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. During the Second World War, it was ruled by Bulgaria again, in 1945 it was established as a constituent communist republic into the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, which it remained until its peaceful secession in 1991. North Macedonia is of the Council of Europe. Since 2005, it has been a candidate for joining the European Union and has applied for NATO membership. One of the poorest countries in Europe, North Macedonia has made significant progress in developing an open, market-based economy; the state's name derives from a kingdom named after the ancient Macedonians.
Their name, Μακεδόνες, derives from the ancient Greek adjective μακεδνός, meaning tall or taper, which shares the same root as the adjective μακρός, meaning long, tall, or high, in ancient Greek. The name is believed to have meant either highlanders or the tall ones descriptive of the people. According to linguist Robert S. P. Beekes, both terms are of Pre-Greek substrate origin and cannot be explained in terms of Indo-European morphology. Prior to June 2018, the use of the name Macedonia was disputed between Greece and the then-Republic of Macedonia; the Prespa agreement, signed by Macedonia and Greece on 17 June, saw the country change its name to the Republic of North Macedonia eight months later. A non-binding national referendum on the matter passed with 90% approval but did not reach the required 50% turnout due to a boycott, leaving the final decision with parliament to ratify the result. Parliament approved of the name change on 19 October, reaching the required two-thirds majority needed to enact constitutional changes.
The vote to amend the constitution and change the name of the country passed on 11 January 2019 in favour of the amendment. The amendment entered into force on 12 February, following the ratification of the Prespa agreement and the Protocol on the Accession of North Macedonia to NATO by the Greek Parliament. On 25 January, the Greek parliament had narrowly voted to back the agreement, with 153 approving and 146 against. Prior to February 2019, in Macedonian the country name was Македонија Република Македонија. North Macedonia geographically corresponds to the ancient kingdom of Paeonia, located north of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia. Paeonia was inhabited by the Paeonians, a Thracian people, whilst the northwest was inhabited by the Dardani and the southwest by tribes known as the Enchelae and Lyncestae. In the late 6th century BC, the Achaemenid Persians under Darius the Great conquered the Paeonians, incorporating w