Manchester Central F.C.
Manchester Central was an English football club based in Manchester, formed in 1928. The team was formed in 1928 by Manchester City Director, John Ayrton and the owner of Belle Vue, John Iles. Ayrton created Manchester Central. City had moved out of the area in 1923, but had considered moving to Belle Vue; the club played at the Belle Vue Athletics stadium, more known as the Speedway Stadium. One of the coaches was Billy Meredith, the Welsh international and former Manchester City and Manchester United player, their manager was James McMahon. The club joined the Lancashire Combination in its first year finishing seventh in the twenty team competition; this led to an immediate application to join the Football League for the 1929–30 season. The 1929–30 season, the club finished as runners up in the Combination and the reserves played in the Cheshire County League, the only other reserve teams in that league being from Football League clubs. After a successful season another application for League status was failed again.
The 1930–31 season was less successful finishing seventh in the Combination and the reserves bottom. A further application for League status failed with Chester gaining membership; this led to withdrawal from the Combination and focus on the Cheshire County League. After Wigan Borough had to resign from the Football League in October 1931, Central applied to take their place; this was accepted by the leaders of Division Three, but a formal complaint was made jointly by First Division Manchester City and Second Division Manchester United. They believed that a third Manchester side would damage Manchester United, who were struggling for support and finance; the Football League backed Central were denied. The Manchester clubs, in particular United, received bad media coverage as a result and this act damaged their image and support further. At the end of the season Central resigned from the Cheshire County League and became defunct, realising their ambitions would be unfulfilled. Central were an ambitious side and attracted many significant crowds, such as 8,500 for the visit of Wrexham during 1929–30.
They signed international players, such as Welsh international Bert Gray. It is believed that Manchester Central was considered as a new name for Newton Heath F. C. prior to them becoming Manchester United in 1902, but there is no factual evidence from the period to suggest this is true – all comments come from histories, while detailed records and media reports from the period make no reference whatsoever to this idea. In fact it seems improbable as Manchester Central was the name of another soccer side competing in the Manchester region during the 1890s; this first Manchester Central played at Alexandra Park and ceased to exist around the turn of the century. The directors of Newton Heath would not have selected that name for fear of confusion; the name Manchester Central was considered as a name for F. C. United of Manchester. Notes Bibliography Twydell, Dave — Denied F. C. ISBN 1-874427-98-4 Inglis, Simon — Played in Manchester ISBN 1-873592-78-7
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
North West Counties Football League
The North West Counties Football League is a football league in the North West of England, is known as the Hallmark Security League for sponsorship reasons. As of 2018–19, the league covers Cheshire, Greater Manchester, Merseyside, Northern Staffordshire, Northern Shropshire, the far west of West Yorkshire, the High Peak area of Derbyshire. In the past, the league has hosted clubs from North Wales; as from season 2018–19 the league has three divisions: the Premier Division, at level nine in the English football league system, two geographically separate Division Ones and South, at level ten. The league is a member of the Joint Liaison Council which administers the Northern arm of the National Football System in England; the league was formed in 1982 by the merger of the Cheshire County League and the Lancashire Combination. It consisted of three divisions, but this was reduced to two in 1987 because of the creation of an extra division in the Northern Premier League. At the same time and relegation between the two leagues was introduced, with either the first or second placed club in the North West Counties Football League being entitled to a place in the NPL, subject to their ground meeting that league's requirements.
The NWCFL has six feeder leagues of its own with eligibility for promotion to the First Division being accorded to champions of the Cheshire Association Football League, Liverpool County Premier League, West Cheshire Amateur Football League, Staffordshire County Senior League, West Lancashire Football League, Manchester Football League, subject to their grounds meeting the NWCFL's requirements. The first sponsorship of the NWCFL came in with Bass who remained the league sponsors until 1995. In 1998, the regional train operating company, First North Western became the new sponsor in a two-year deal. In the 2008–09 season, Division One was renamed the Premier Division and Division Two became the First Division. A new division at level ten was announced for the 2018–19 season, therefore the First Division was recreated as North and South divisions. Four clubs have won a league and cup double, Ashton United in 1991–92, Kidsgrove Athletic in 1997–98, F. C. United of Manchester in 2006–07 and Glossop North End in 2014–15, while Atherton Laburnum Rovers are the only club to have won consecutive championships in 1992–93 and 1993–94.
For three consecutive seasons in the 1980s Clitheroe won each of the NWCFL divisions. In 1983–84 they were Division Three champions, the following season they won the Division Two championship and in 1985–86 they were crowned Division One champions; the league is home to one former Football League club. The Bootle club is not the same one as the former Football League club. Former NWCFL members Accrington Stanley have risen to play in the Football League. For sixteen years the record attendance for a NWCFL match was 1,353 for a First Division championship decider between Radcliffe Borough and Caernarfon Town in the 1982–83 season. In the 1998–99 season a crowd of 2,281 saw Workington's championship deciding match with Mossley at Borough Park. In the 2005–06 season a new record was set, with 6,023 at Gigg Lane for a Division Two match between FC United of Manchester and Great Harwood Town on 23 April 2006; the following season, due to the large support for FC United of Manchester, saw attendances rise and included a record 4,058 for an evening match, with Salford City's Division One home game against FC United of Manchester.
The league has two cup competitions – the League Challenge Cup, open to all clubs, the First Division Challenge Cup. For sponsorship reasons the League Challenge Cup is known as The Macron Challenge Cup; until it was disbanded in 2014, the league ran a reserve league together with its own dedicated League Cup. From 1990 to 1991 to 1999–2000 the league ran a Floodlit Trophy competition; the league was formed with three divisions. Due to the expansion of the Northern Premier League, the withdrawal of clubs who could no longer meet the ground requirements, the third division was disbanded and a two division format was instigated, a format that still remains in place. In the 2008–09 season, the league renamed their divisions to the Premier Division and First Division; as from the 2018–19 the league has operated three division, the step 6 division being split geographically into North and South components. The NWCFL League Challenge Cup is for all members of the league; the First Division Challenge Cup is for all members of the First Division.
It was known as the Second Division Trophy from 1989 to 2008. The NWCFL Floodlit Trophy was for all members of the First divisions. Official website Current league tables NWCL at Non League UK
Stand Athletic F.C.
Stand Athletic F. C. was a football club based in Greater Manchester, England. The club was founded in 1964 and played at Elms Park in Whitefield from 1969; the Club was in the Bury Sunday School League but in 1970 was accepted into the South East Lancashire League where it became a successful Club running two teams managed by Harry Molineux with John Roebuck as Secretary and assisted by Warren Derbyshire with Coaching until 1973. In 2000, the club moved from Whitefield to the Ewood Bridge ground used by Haslingden F. C. on a seven-year lease but financial difficulties meant that they returned to Whitefield after two years. The club secretary said. It's a large site and it could be a great opportunity for someone", they joined the North West Counties League in 2001. In their first season at the higher level, they won the Division Two title, but were not accepted for promotion to Division One due to issues with this new ground. After 12 matches of the 2002–03 season, they resigned from the North West Counties League, rejoined the Manchester League for 2003–04.
They finished fourth in the Manchester League Division One in 2008–09 and had fielded a team in Division Three. They were forced to leave the Elms Park site in the summer of 2008 when the local council closed the changing facilities, which were used by various local sports teams; the club played one season at Agecroft in Salford and in the summer of 2009, merged with another local club, called Standians F. C., to be managed by former Bury F. C. striker Kevin Hulme. The new arrangements were fractious, with on-field brawls in pre-season training, the merged club resigned from the Manchester League. A team calling itself Standians F. C. comprising players from the former club of that name, went on to play in the Lancashire and Cheshire League for the 2009-10 season, leading to accusations from the Athletic coach that his players had been "stabbed in the back", although he did acknowledge that there were disciplinary problems. The club's home kit was black stripes; the club's overgrown pitch and dilapidated home supporters' stand at Ewood Bridge can be seen from the East Lancashire Railway, close to the Irwell Vale railway station.
The ground is located just off Blackburn Road between the River Irwell. The ground included a match pitch, a synthetic training pitch, a two-story clubhouse with changing rooms, a function room and bar, a stand. North West Counties Football League Division Two Champions 2001–02 Manchester League Premier Division Champions 1998–99, 1999–2000, 2000–01 Manchester League Division One Champions 1995–96
The Football Association
The Football Association is the governing body of association football in England, the Crown dependencies of Jersey and the Isle of Man. Formed in 1863, it is the oldest football association in the world and is responsible for overseeing all aspects of the amateur and professional game in its territory; the FA sanctions all competitive football matches within its remit at national level, indirectly at local level through the County Football Associations. It runs numerous competitions, the most famous of, the FA Cup, it is responsible for appointing the management of the men's, women's, youth national football teams. The FA is a member of both UEFA and FIFA and holds a permanent seat on the International Football Association Board, responsible for the Laws of the Game; as the first football association, it does not use the national name "English" in its title. The FA is based at London; the FA is a member of the British Olympic Association, meaning that the FA has control over the men's and women's Great Britain Olympic football team.
All of England's professional football teams are members of the Football Association. Although it does not run the day-to-day operations of the Premier League, it has veto power over the appointment of the League Chairman and Chief Executive and over any changes to league rules; the English Football League, made up of the three professional divisions below the Premier League, is self-governing, subject to the FA's sanctions. For centuries before the first meeting of the Football Association in The Freemasons' Tavern on Great Queen Street, London on 26 October 1863, there were no universally accepted rules for playing football. Six meetings near London's Covent Garden, at 81-82 Long Acre, ended in a split between the Football Association and what would have become the future rugby ten years later. Both of them had their own uniforms, rituals and formalised rules. In each public school the game was formalised according to local conditions. Another set of rules, the Sheffield Rules, was used by a number of clubs in the North of England from the 1850s.
Eleven London football clubs and schools representatives met on 26 October 1863 to agree on common rules. The founding clubs present at the first meeting were Barnes, Civil Service, Forest of Leytonstone, N. N. Club, the original Crystal Palace, Kensington School, Perceval House and Blackheath Proprietary School. F. declined the offer to join. Many of these clubs play rugby union. Civil Service FC, who now plays in the Southern Amateur League, is the only one of the original eleven football clubs still in existence and playing Association Football. Although Forest School has been a member since the fifth meeting in December 1863. Central to the creation of the Football Association and modern football was Ebenezer Cobb Morley, he was a founding member of the Football Association in 1863. In 1862, as captain of Barnes, he wrote to Bell's Life newspaper proposing a governing body for the sport that led to the first meeting at The Freemasons' Tavern that created the FA, he was the FA's first secretary and its second president and drafted the Laws of the Game called the "London Rules" at his home in Barnes, London.
As a player, he played in the first-ever match in 1863. The first version of the rules for the modern game was drawn up over a series of six meetings held in The Freemasons' Tavern from October till December. Of the clubs at the first meeting, Crusaders and Charterhouse did not attend the subsequent meetings, replaced instead by the Royal Navy School, Wimbledon School and Forest School. At the final meeting, F. M. Campbell, the first FA treasurer and the Blackheath representative, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting, the first which allowed for the running with the ball in hand and the second, obstructing such a run by hacking and holding. Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA but instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union; the term "soccer" dates back to this split to refer to football played under the "association" rules. After six clubs had withdrawn as they supported the opposing Rugby Rules, the Football Association had just nine members in January 1864: Barnes, Crystal Palace, War Office, Forest Club, Forest School, Sheffield and Royal Engineers.
An inaugural game using the new FA rules was scheduled for Battersea Park on 2 January 1864, but enthusiastic members of the FA could not wait for the new year and an experimental game was played at Mortlake on 19 December 1863 between Morley's Barnes team and their neighbours Richmond, ending in a goalless draw. The Richmond side were unimpressed by the new rules in practice because they subsequently helped form the Rugby Football Union in 1871; the Battersea Park game was the first exhibition game using FA rules, was played there on Saturday 2 January 1864. The members of the opposing teams for this game were chosen by the President of the FA and the Secretary and included many well-known footballers of the day. After the first match according to the new FA rules a toast was given "Success to football, irrespective of class or creed". Another notable match was London v Sheffield, in which a r
Promotion and relegation
In sports leagues and relegation is a process where teams are transferred between multiple divisions based on their performance for the completed season. The best-ranked team in the lower division are promoted to the higher division for the next season, the worst-ranked team in the higher division are relegated to the lower division for the next season. In some leagues, playoffs or qualifying rounds are used to determine rankings; this process can continue through several levels of divisions, with teams being exchanged between levels 1 and 2, levels 2 and 3, levels 3 and 4, so on. During the season, teams that are high enough in the league table that they would qualify for promotion are sometimes said to be in the promotion zone, those at the bottom are in the relegation zone. An alternate system of league organisation, used in the US and Canada is a closed model based on licensing or franchises; this maintains the same teams from year to year, with occasional admission of expansion teams and relocation of existing teams, with no team movement between the major league and minor leagues.
The number of teams exchanged between the divisions is always identical. Exceptions occur when the higher division wishes to change the size of its membership, or has lost one or more of its clubs and wishes to restore its previous membership size, in which case fewer teams are relegated from that division, or more teams are accepted for promotion from the division below; such variations cause a "knock-on" effect through the lower divisions. For example, in 1995 the Premier League voted to reduce its numbers by two and achieved the desired change by relegating four teams instead of the usual three, whilst allowing only two promotions from Football League Division One. In the absence of such extraordinary circumstances, the pyramid-like nature of most European sports league systems can still create knock-on effects at the regional level. For example, in a higher league with a large geographical footprint and multiple feeder leagues each representing smaller geographical regions, should most or all of the relegated teams in the higher division come from one particular region the number of teams to be promoted or relegated from each of the feeder leagues may have to be adjusted, or one or more teams playing near the boundary between the feeder leagues may have to transfer from one feeder league to another to maintain numerical balance.
The system is said to be the defining characteristic of the "European" form of professional sports league organization. Promotion and relegation have the effect of allowing the maintenance of a hierarchy of leagues and divisions, according to the relative strength of their teams, they maintain the importance of games played by many low-ranked teams near the end of the season, which may be at risk of relegation. In contrast, a low-ranked US or Canadian team's final games serve little purpose, in fact losing may be beneficial to such teams, yielding a better position in the next year's draft. Although not intrinsic to the system, problems can occur due to the differing monetary payouts and revenue-generating potential that different divisions provide to their clubs. For example, financial hardship has sometimes occurred in leagues where clubs do not reduce their wage bill once relegated; this occurs for one of two reasons: first, the club can't move underperforming players on, or second, the club is gambling on being promoted back straight away and is prepared to take a financial loss for one or two seasons to do so.
Some leagues offer "parachute payments" to its relegated teams for the following year. The payouts are higher than the prize money received by some non-relegated teams and are designed to soften the financial hit that clubs take whilst dropping out of the Premier League. However, in many cases these parachute payments just serve to inflate the costs of competing for promotion among the lower division clubs as newly relegated teams retain a financial advantage. In some countries and at certain levels, teams in line for promotion may have to satisfy certain non-playing conditions in order to be accepted by the higher league, such as financial solvency, stadium capacity, facilities. If these are not satisfied, a lower-ranked team may be promoted in their place, or a team in the league above may be saved from relegation. While the primary purpose of the promotion/relegation system is to maintain competitive balance, it may be used as a disciplinary tool in special cases. On several occasions, the Italian Football Federation has relegated clubs found to have been involved in match-fixing.
This occurred most in 2006, when the season's initial champions Juventus were relegated to Serie B, two other teams were relegated but restored to Serie A after appeal. In some Communist nations several in Europe after World War II, clubs were promoted and relegated for political reasons rather than performance; this was made evident in the late eighties by teams such as Romanian Steaua București and Yugoslav Red Star Belgrade, both winners of the European Champions League despite the rampant level of corruption in their Communist local leagues. Promotion and relegation may be used in international sports tournaments. In tennis, the Davis Cup and Fed Cup have promotion and relegation, with a'World Group' (split into two divisions in the Fe
Prestwich Heys A.F.C.
Prestwich Heys A. F. C. is a semi-professional football club based in Greater Manchester, England. Heys run two senior sides with the first team competing in the North West Counties League Division One North and the reserves team competing in the Manchester Football League Division Two. Heys are a Chartered Standard senior club. 1968–69 – Joined the Lancashire Combination 1969–70 – Lancashire Combination Runners-Up 1970–71 – Lancashire Combination Champions 1971–72 – Joined the Cheshire County League 1978–79 – Dropped down to become founder members of Division Two 1982–83 – Founder Members of the North West Counties League 1985–86 – Final season in the North West Counties League 1986–87 – Joined the Manchester Football League Division One 1987–88 – Manchester Football League Division One Champions 1987–88 – Promoted to the Premier Division 1995–96 – Relegated to Division One 1996–97 – Manchester Football League Division One Champions 1996–97 – Promoted to the Premier Division 2003–04 – Premier Division Runners-Up 2004–05 – Premier Division Champions 2005–06 – Premier Division Champions 2006–07 – Premier Division Champions 2015–16 – Premier Division Champions 2016–17 – Joined North West Counties League Division One League Positions: 1st in the Lancashire Combination 1970–71 4th in the North West Counties League Division Three 1982–83 1st in the Manchester Football League Premier Division 2004–05, 2005–06, 2006–07 and 2015–16 FA Cup: Second Round Qualifying v Mossley 1973–74 Second Round Qualifying v Stalybridge Celtic 1978–79 Second Round Qualifying v Southport, 1983–84 FA Amateur Cup: Quarter-final v Enfield 1969–70 FA Trophy Second Round Qualifying v Leeds & Carnegie College 1974–75 FA Vase Preliminary Round Official Prestwich Heys Website Official Prestwich Heys Juniors Website Prestwich Heys at the Football Club History Database