Boston and Maine Corporation
The Boston and Maine Corporation, known as the Boston and Maine Railroad, was a U. S. Class I railroad in northern New England, it became part of what is now the Pan Am Railways network in 1983. At the end of 1970, B&M operated 1,515 route-miles on 2,481 miles of track, not including Springfield Terminal; that year it reported 2,744 million ton-miles of 92 million passenger-miles. The Andover and Wilmington Railroad was incorporated March 15, 1833, to build a branch from the Boston and Lowell Railroad at Wilmington, north to Andover, Massachusetts; the line opened to Andover on August 8, 1836. The name was changed to the Andover and Haverhill Railroad on April 18, 1837, reflecting plans to build further to Haverhill and yet further to Portland, with the renaming to the Boston and Portland Railroad on April 3, 1839, opening to the New Hampshire state line in 1840; the Boston and Maine Railroad was chartered in New Hampshire on June 27, 1835, the Maine, New Hampshire and Massachusetts Railroad was incorporated March 12, 1839, in Maine, both companies continuing the proposed line to South Berwick, Maine.
The railroad opened in 1840 to Exeter, New Hampshire, on January 1, 1842, the two companies merged with the Boston and Portland to form a new Boston and Maine Railroad. On February 23, 1843, the B&M opened to Agamenticus, on the line of the Portland and Portsmouth Railroad in South Berwick. On January 28 of that year, the B&M and Eastern Railroad came to an agreement to both lease the PS&P as a joint line to Portland; the Boston and Maine Railroad Extension was incorporated March 16, 1844, due to a dispute with the Boston and Lowell Railroad over trackage rights rates between Wilmington and Boston. That company was merged into the main B&M on March 19, 1845, opened July 1, leading to the abandonment of the old connection to the B&L. In 1848 another original section was abandoned, as a new alignment was built from Wilmington north to North Andover, Massachusetts, in order to better serve Lawrence, Massachusetts. A new alignment to Portland opened in 1873, splitting from the old route at Maine.
The old route was abandoned. This completed the B&M "main line" which would become known as the Western Route to distinguish it from the Eastern Route which connected Boston and Portland; as the B&M grew, it gained control of former rivals, including: The Eastern Railroad was leased by the B&M on December 23, 1883, on May 9, 1890, the B&M bought the Eastern. This provided a second route to Maine, ending competition along the immediate route between Boston and Portland. Along with the Eastern, the B&M acquired many branch lines, including the Conway Branch, the Saugus Branch, the South Reading Branch, branches to Marblehead and Rockport, Massachusetts; the Worcester and Nashua Railroad was organized in 1845 and the Nashua and Rochester Railroad in 1847, forming a line between Worcester and Rochester, New Hampshire, via Nashua. The W&N leased the N&R in 1874, the two companies merged into the Worcester and Rochester Railroad in 1883; the B&M leased the line on January 1, 1886. This acquisition included the continuation from Rochester to Portland, incorporated in 1846 as the York and Cumberland Railroad.
It opened in 1851 and 1853, was reorganized as the Portland and Rochester Railroad in 1867, opened the rest of the way in 1871. It was again reorganized in 1881 and operated in conjunction with the line to Worcester. On April 1, 1887 the B&M leased the Boston and Lowell Railroad, adding not only trackage in the Boston area, but the Central Massachusetts Railroad west to Northampton, the Boston and Montreal Railroad into northern New Hampshire, the St. Johnsbury and Lake Champlain Railroad to northwestern Vermont, the Connecticut and Passumpsic Rivers Railroad from White River Junction into Quebec. However, the BC&M was separated in 1889 and merged with the Concord Railroad to form the Concord and Montreal Railroad, which the B&M leased on April 1, 1895, gaining the Concord Railroad's direct line between Nashua and Concord. Additionally, the St. Johnsbury and Lake Champlain Railroad, owned by the B&M through stock, was leased to the Maine Central Railroad by 1912; the Central Massachusetts Railroad stayed a part of the B&M, as did the Connecticut and Passumpsic Rivers Railroad.
The Northern Railroad was leased to the Boston and Lowell in 1884, but that lease was cancelled and the Northern was on its own until 1890, when it was released to the B&L part of the B&M. The Northern owned a number of lines running west from Concord. On January 1, 1893, the B&M leased the Connecticut River Railroad, with the main line from Springfield, Massachusetts north along the Connecticut River to White River Junction, where the Connecticut and Passumpsic Rivers Railroad continued north. Along with this railroad came the Ashuelot Railroad, acquired in 1877; the B&M acquired the Boston and Montreal Railroad in 1887, but gave it up in 1889, allowing it to merge with the Concord Railroad to form the Concord and Montreal Railroad. That company did poorly on its own and was leased by the B&M on April 1, 1895, giving the B&M the majority of lines in New Hampshire; the B&M leased the Fitchburg Railroad on July 1, 1900. This was the main line from Boston west via the Hoosac Tunnel to the Albany, New York, with various branches.
On December 1, 1919, the B&M purchased the Fitchburg Railroad. At one point, the B&M owned a majority of stock of the Maine Central Railroad, stretching from
Richmond Locomotive Works
Richmond Locomotive Works was a steam locomotive manufacturing firm located in Richmond, Virginia. It began operation in 1887, produced upward of 4,500 engines during its 40 years of operation; the Richmond Locomotive Works was the largest and most significant manufacturer of locomotives in Virginia during its years of production. Its only contemporary in Virginia was the Roanoke Shops, which produced locomotives for Norfolk & Western. In 1901 the works merged with several others to form the American Locomotive Company, which continued production at the Richmond works until 1927. Among the locomotives Richmond produced was #H2-293 for the Finnish State Railways, the locomotive that pulled Lenin's train into Petrograd on the last leg of his return from exile during the Russian Revolution of 1917, Southern Railway 1401, which pulled President D. Franklin Roosevelt's Funeral Train; the Richmond Locomotive Works grew out of Tredegar Iron Works to become a nationally known manufacturer of steam locomotive engines and an integral part of the industrial landscape of the city of Richmond.
The engines it produced were shipped across America, as well as several countries in Europe and the South Pacific. Most Richmond Locomotive engines were sold to Southern carriers. Many were sold to Virginia lines, including Richmond City Railway, as well as the Richmond and Potomac Railroad, the Richmond and Danville Railroad and the Seaboard Air Line. Other buyers included the Nashville Railroad. Richmond locomotives were delivered as far away as the Southwestern Arkansas and Indian Territory Railroad and the Alameda and San Joaquin Railroad. Richmond locomotives had a significant market in the Midwest and West as well. Midwestern purchasers included the Cleveland, Chicago and St. Louis Railway; the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad purchased several trains, including two constructed for carrying passengers to the 1893 Chicago World’s Fair. Trains from the Richmond works reached further west, as locomotives were sold to the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe. One 4-6-0 locomotive was shipped to New Zealand in 1901 as a sample for the New Zealand Railways to try.
It was classed in the'Ub' family and given the road number of #371. It was considered too light for mainline running, steaming poorly on New Zealand's ungraded coals but found a home on a local Canterbury Plains branchline serving it for 30 years, it has been rediscovered for possible restoration. In 1901, the Richmond Locomotive Works was purchased by Joseph Leiter for $3 million. At the time, the company was producing two locomotives a day; that year and seven other manufacturing companies merged to form American Locomotive Company. Locomotive production at Richmond Locomotive Works ceased in September 1927; the following locomotives built by Richmond. All locations are in the United States; the following preserved Richmond locomotives were built post-merger: ^ Sunshine Software, Steam Locomotive Information. Retrieved October 4, 2005
Henry Ford was an American captain of industry and a business magnate, the founder of the Ford Motor Company, the sponsor of the development of the assembly line technique of mass production. Although Ford did not invent the automobile or the assembly line, he developed and manufactured the first automobile that many middle-class Americans could afford. In doing so, Ford converted the automobile from an expensive curiosity into a practical conveyance that would profoundly impact the landscape of the 20th century, his introduction of the Model T automobile revolutionized American industry. As the owner of the Ford Motor Company, he became one of the richest and best-known people in the world, he is credited with "Fordism": mass production of inexpensive goods coupled with high wages for workers. Ford had a global vision, with consumerism as the key to peace, his intense commitment to systematically lowering costs resulted in many technical and business innovations, including a franchise system that put dealerships throughout most of North America and in major cities on six continents.
Ford left most of his vast wealth to the Ford Foundation and arranged for his family to control the company permanently. Ford was widely known for his pacifism during the first years of World War I, for promoting antisemitic content, including The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, through his newspaper The Dearborn Independent and the book The International Jew, having an influence on the development of Nazism and Adolf Hitler. Henry Ford was born July 1863, on a farm in Greenfield Township, Michigan, his father, William Ford, was born in County Cork, Ireland, to a family, from Somerset, England. His mother, Mary Ford, was born in Michigan as the youngest child of Belgian immigrants. Henry Ford's siblings were Margaret Ford, his father gave him a pocket watch in his early teens. At 15, Ford dismantled and reassembled the timepieces of friends and neighbors dozens of times, gaining the reputation of a watch repairman. At twenty, Ford walked four miles to their Episcopal church every Sunday. Ford was devastated when his mother died in 1876.
His father expected him to take over the family farm, but he despised farm work. He wrote, "I never had any particular love for the farm—it was the mother on the farm I loved."In 1879, Ford left home to work as an apprentice machinist in Detroit, first with James F. Flower & Bros. and with the Detroit Dry Dock Co. In 1882, he returned to Dearborn to work on the family farm, where he became adept at operating the Westinghouse portable steam engine, he was hired by Westinghouse to service their steam engines. During this period Ford studied bookkeeping at Goldsmith, Bryant & Stratton Business College in Detroit. Ford married Clara Jane Bryant on April 11, 1888, supported himself by farming and running a sawmill, they had one child: Edsel Ford. In 1891, Ford became an engineer with the Edison Illuminating Company of Detroit. After his promotion to Chief Engineer in 1893, he had enough time and money to devote attention to his personal experiments on gasoline engines; these experiments culminated in 1896 with the completion of a self-propelled vehicle which he named the Ford Quadricycle.
He test-drove it on June 4. After various test drives, Ford brainstormed ways to improve the Quadricycle. In 1896, Ford attended a meeting of Edison executives, where he was introduced to Thomas Edison. Edison approved of Ford's automobile experimentation. Encouraged by Edison, Ford designed and built a second vehicle, completing it in 1898. Backed by the capital of Detroit lumber baron William H. Murphy, Ford resigned from the Edison Company and founded the Detroit Automobile Company on August 5, 1899. However, the automobiles produced were of higher price than Ford wanted; the company was not successful and was dissolved in January 1901. With the help of C. Harold Wills, Ford designed and raced a 26-horsepower automobile in October 1901. With this success and other stockholders in the Detroit Automobile Company formed the Henry Ford Company on November 30, 1901, with Ford as chief engineer. In 1902, Murphy brought in Henry M. Leland as a consultant. With Ford gone, Murphy renamed the company the Cadillac Automobile Company.
Teaming up with former racing cyclist Tom Cooper, Ford produced the 80+ horsepower racer "999" which Barney Oldfield was to drive to victory in a race in October 1902. Ford received the backing of an old acquaintance, Alexander Y. Malcomson, a Detroit-area coal dealer, they formed a partnership, "Ltd." to manufacture automobiles. Ford went to work designing an inexpensive automobile, the duo leased a factory and contracted with a machine shop owned by John and Horace E. Dodge to supply over $160,000 in parts. Sales were slow, a crisis arose when the Dodge brothers demanded payment for their first shipment. In response, Malcomson brought in another group of investors and convinced the Dodge Brothers to accept a portion of the new company. Ford & Malcomson was reincorporated as the Ford Motor Company on June 16, 1903, with $28,000 capital; the original investors included Ford and Malcomson, the Dodge brothers, Malcomson's uncle John S. Gray, Malcolmson's secretary James Couzens, two of Malcomson's lawyers, John W. Anderson and Horace Rackham.
Ford demonstrated a newly designed car on the ice of Lake St. Clair, driving 1 mile in 39.4 seconds and setting a ne
Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad
The Chicago and Quincy Railroad was a railroad that operated in the Midwestern United States. Referred to as the Burlington Route, the Burlington or as the Q, it operated extensive trackage in the states of Colorado, Iowa, Kentucky, Montana, Wisconsin, in New Mexico and Texas through subsidiaries Colorado and Southern Railway, Fort Worth and Denver Railway, Burlington-Rock Island Railroad, its primary connections included Chicago, Minneapolis-St. Paul, St. Louis, Kansas City and Denver; because of this extensive trackage in the midwest and mountain states, the railroad used the advertising slogans "Everywhere West", "Way of the Zephyrs", "The Way West". In 1967, it reported 19,565 million net ton-miles of revenue freight and 723 million passenger miles. At the end of the year CB&Q operated 8,538 route-miles, C&S operated 708 and FW&D operated 1362. In 1970, it merged with the Northern Pacific and Great Northern Railroads to form the Burlington Northern Railroad; the earliest predecessor of the Chicago and Quincy, the Aurora Branch Railroad, was chartered by act of the Illinois General Assembly on October 2, 1848.
The charter was obtained by citizens of Aurora and Batavia, who were concerned that the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad would bypass their towns in favor of West Chicago on its route. The Aurora Branch was built from Aurora, through Batavia, to Turner Junction in what is now West Chicago; the line was built with minimal, if any, grading. Using a leased locomotive and cars, the Aurora Branch ran passenger and freight trains from Aurora to Chicago via its own line from Aurora to Turner Junction and one of the G&CU's two tracks east from there to Chicago; the G&CU required the Aurora Branch to turn over 70 percent of their revenue per ton-mile handled on that railroad. The line from Aurora to Chicago was built through the fledgling towns of Naperville, Downers Grove, Hinsdale and the west side of Chicago, it was opened in 1864, passenger and freight service began. Regular commuter train service started in 1864 and remains operational to this day, making it the oldest surviving regular passenger service in Chicago.
Both the original Chicago line, to a much lesser extent, the old Aurora Branch right of way, are still in regular use today by the Burlington's present successor BNSF Railway. The company was renamed Chicago and Aurora Railroad on June 22, 1852, given expanded powers to extend from Aurora to a point north of LaSalle. Another amendment, passed February 28, 1854, authorized the company to build east from Aurora to Chicago via Naperville, changed its name to Chicago and Southwestern Railroad; the latter provision was never acted upon, was repealed by an act of February 14, 1855, which instead reorganized the line as the Chicago and Quincy Railroad. With a steady acquisition of locomotives, cars and trackage, the Burlington Route was able to enter the trade markets in 1862. From that year to date, the railroad and its successors have paid dividends continuously, never run into debt or defaulted on a loan—the only Class I U. S. railroad for which this is true. After extensive trackwork was planned, the Aurora Branch changed its name to the Chicago and Aurora Railroad in June 1852, to Chicago and Quincy Railroad in 1856, shortly reached its two other namesake cities, Burlington and Quincy, Illinois.
In 1868 CB&Q completed bridges over the Mississippi River both at Burlington and Quincy, Illinois giving the railroad through connections with the Burlington and Missouri River Railroad in Iowa and the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad in Missouri; the first Railway Post Office was inaugurated on the H&StJ to sort mail on the trains way across Missouri, passing the mail to the Pony Express upon reaching the Missouri River at St. Joseph, Missouri; the B&MR continued building west into Nebraska as a separate company, the Burlington & Missouri River Rail Road, founded in 1869. During the summer of 1870 it reached Lincoln, the newly designated capital of Nebraska and by 1872 it reached Kearney, Nebraska; that same year the B&MR across Iowa was absorbed by the CB&Q. By the time the Missouri River bridge at Plattsmouth, Nebraska was completed the B&MR in Nebraska was well on its way to the Mile High city of Denver, Colorado; that same year, the Nebraska B&MR was purchased by the CB&Q, which completed the line to Denver by 1882.
Burlington's rapid expansion after the American Civil War was based upon sound financial management, dominated by John Murray Forbes of Boston and assisted by Charles Elliott Perkins. Perkins was a powerful administrator who forged a system out of loosely held affiliates tripling Burlington's size during his presidency from 1881 to 1901. Perkins believed the Burlington Railroad must be included into a powerful transcontinental system. Though the railroad stretched as far west as Denver and Billings, Montana, it had failed to reach the Pacific Coast during the 1880s and 1890s, when construction was less expensive. Though approached by E. H. Harriman of the Union Pacific Railroad, Perkins felt his railroad was a more natural fit with James J. Hill's Great Northern Railway. With its river line to the Twin Cities, the Burlington Route formed a natural connection between Hill's
Progress Rail Services
Progress Rail Services Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Caterpillar since 2006, is a supplier of railroad and transit system products and services headquartered in Albertville, United States. Founded as a recycling company in 1982, Progress Rail has increased the number of its product and service offerings over time to become one of the largest integrated and diversified suppliers of railroad and transit system products and services in North America. Progress Rail markets products and services worldwide and maintains 110 facilities in the United States, 34 in Mexico, four in Canada, two in Brazil, five in UK, one in Italy, one in Germany. Progress Rail is organized into two divisions: Engineering & Track Services and Locomotive & Railcar Services. "Progress Rail Services Corporation" traces its roots to a recycling company founded in Albertville, United States in 1982. With the merger of Progress Rail's owner Florida Progress Corporation and Carolina Power & Light Company in 2000, it became owned by the new entity Progress Energy.
In February 2005, Progress Energy announced it was selling Progress Rail to One Equity Partners for $405 million. The sale closed on March 2005, with Progress Rail becoming a separate private company. On May 17, 2006, Caterpillar Inc. announced it would purchase Progress Rail from One Equity Partners for $1 billion in cash and debt. The acquisition by Caterpillar was announced as part of its long-term strategy, Vision 2020. In July 2011 the company announced it was to assemble EMD locomotives at a plant leased in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. On May 24, 2008 Caterpillar agreed to acquire all of the capital stock of MGE - Equipamentos e Serviços Ferroviários Ltda. A São Paulo, Brazil-based locomotive component and transit car services company to become part of Caterpillar's Progress Rail Services Corporation; the acquisition of MGE marked Progress Rail's first entry into the South American market. On June 1, 2010, Caterpillar announced Progress Rail Services Corporation would buy Electro-Motive Diesel from Berkshire Partners LLC and Greenbriar Equity Group LLC for US$820 million.
The purchase was completed on August 2, 2010, making Electro-Motive Diesel a wholly owned subsidiary of Progress Rail Services Corporation. During 2010, Progress Rail acquired two makers of signal equipment, Coast to Coast Signal Engineering and C&S Signaling, as well as a General Electric subsidiary involved in the signal industry. During October 2013, Caterpillar announced that a federal criminal indictment had been secured against Progress Rail Services. In 2017 the company pleaded guilty including dumping parts into the ocean. A $5,000,000 fine was paid as well as $20,000,000 in restitution. Progress Rail and its subsidiary Electro-Motive Diesel offer freight, passenger and used locomotives. Progress Rail PR22L Progress Rail PR30C Progress Rail PR43C Progress Rail's Signal Division makes grade crossing and wayside signals under the name Lincoln Industries. "Progress Rail Services Corporation", progressrail.com, company website
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti