The Spice Girls are an English pop girl group formed in 1994. The group comprised Melanie Brown, Melanie Chisholm, Emma Bunton, Geri Halliwell, Victoria Beckham, they were signed to Virgin Records and released their debut single "Wannabe" in 1996, which hit number one in 37 countries and established their global success. Their debut album Spice sold more than 31 million copies worldwide, becoming the best-selling album by a female group in history, their follow-up album, Spiceworld sold over 20 million copies worldwide. The Spice Girls have sold 85 million records worldwide, making them the best-selling female group of all time, one of the best-selling pop groups of all time, the biggest British pop success since The Beatles. Among the highest profile acts in 1990s British popular culture, Time called them "arguably the most recognizable face" of Cool Britannia, the mid-1990s celebration of youth culture in the UK. Measures of their success include international record sales, a 2007–2008 reunion tour, iconic symbolism such as Halliwell's Union Jack dress representing "girl power", a film, Spice World.
The group became one of the most successful marketing engines earning up to $75 million per year, with their global gross income estimated at $500–800 million by May 1998. Under the guidance of their mentor and manager Simon Fuller, the Spice Girls embraced merchandising and became a regular feature of the British and global press. In 1996, Top of the Pops magazine gave each member of the group aliases, which were adopted by the group and media. According to Rolling Stone journalist and biographer David Sinclair, "Scary, Ginger and Sporty were the most recognised group of individuals since John, Paul and Ringo". With the "girl power" label, the Spice Girls were popular cultural icons of the 1990s, they are cited as part of the'second wave' 1990s British Invasion of the US. In the mid-1990s, family management team Bob and Chris Herbert of Heart Management decided to create a girl group to compete with popular boy bands, such as Take That and East 17, which dominated the pop music scene at the time.
In February 1994, together with financier Chic Murphy, they placed an advertisement in the trade magazine The Stage asking for singers to audition for an all-female pop band at Danceworks studios. 400 women attended the audition, during which they were placed in groups of 10 and danced a routine to "Stay" by Eternal, followed by solo auditions in which they were asked to perform songs of their own choosing. After several weeks of deliberation, Victoria Adams, Melanie Brown, Melanie Chisholm, Michelle Stephenson were among 12 women chosen to a second round of auditions in April. A week after the second audition, the women were asked to attend a recall at Nomis Studios in Shepherds Bush, performing "Signed, Delivered" on their own and in a group. During the session, Brown, Chisholm and Stephenson were selected for a band named "Touch"; the group moved to a house in Maidenhead and spent most of 1994 practising. During the first two months, they worked on demos at South Hill Park Recording Studios in Bracknell with producer/studio owner Michael Sparkes and songwriter/arranger Tim Hawes.
According to Stephenson, the material the group was given was "very young pop". They worked on various dance routines at the Trinity Studios in Knaphill, near Woking, Surrey. A few months into the training period, Stephenson was fired from the group and replaced with Emma Bunton, it was during this time that Halliwell came up with the band name Spice. The group felt insecure about the lack of a contract and was frustrated by the direction in which Heart Management was steering them. In October 1994, armed with a catalogue of demos and dance routines, they began touring management agencies, they persuaded Bob Herbert to set up a showcase performance for the group in front of industry writers, A&R men in December 1994 at the Nomis Studios, where they received an "overwhelmingly positive" reaction. Due to the large interest in the group, the Herberts set about creating a binding contract for them. Encouraged by the reaction they had received at the Nomis showcase, all five members delayed signing contracts on legal advice from, among others, Adams's father.
In March 1995, the group parted from Heart Management due to their frustration with the company's unwillingness to listen to their visions and ideas. To ensure they kept control of their own work, they stole the master recordings of their discography from the management offices; that same day, the group tracked down Sheffield-based producer Eliot Kennedy, present at the showcase, persuaded him to work with them. They were introduced to record producers Absolute, who in turn brought them to the attention of Simon Fuller of 19 Entertainment, who signed them to his company in March 1995. During the summer of that year, the group toured record labels in London and Los Angeles with Fuller, signing a deal with Virgin Records in September 1995, their name was changed to Spice Girls, as a rapper was using the name "Spice". From this point on until the summer of 1996, the group continued to write and record tracks for their debut album while extensively touring the west coast of the United States, where they signed a publishing deal with Windswept Pacific.
On 7 July 1996, the Spice Girls released their debut single "Wannabe" in the United Kingdom. In the weeks leading up to the release, the video for "Wannabe" (directed by Swedish co
Enrique Miguel Iglesias Preysler is a Spanish singer, songwriter and record producer. He is regarded as the King of Latin Pop. Iglesias started his career in the mid-1990s on an American Spanish-language record label Fonovisa Records under the stage name Enrique Martinez, before switching to his notable surname Iglesias. By the turn of the millennium, after becoming one of the biggest stars in Latin America and the Hispanic market in the United States, he made a successful crossover into the US mainstream market, he signed a multi-album deal with Universal Music Group for US$68 million with Universal Music Latino to release his Spanish albums and Interscope Records to release English albums. In 2010, he parted with Interscope Records and signed with another Universal Music Group label Republic Records to release bilingual albums. In 2015, Iglesias parted ways with Universal Music Group after being there for over a decade, he signed with Sony Music and his subsequent albums to be released by Sony Music Latin in Spanish and RCA Records in English.
Enrique Iglesias has sold over 170 million records worldwide, making him one of the best-selling Spanish artists ever. Iglesias has scored over 150 number-one songs across all of the Billboard charts, he has had five Billboard Hot 100 top five singles, including two number-ones, holds the record for producing 27 number-one Spanish-language singles on the Billboard's Hot Latin Tracks. He holds the record for most number-one hits and the longest-running number-one hit on that chart. Iglesias has 14 number-ones on Billboard's Dance charts, more than any other male artist. In December 2016, Billboard magazine named him the 14th most successful and top male dance club artist of all time. Iglesias was born in Madrid, is the third and youngest child of Spanish singer Julio Iglesias and Filipina socialite and magazine journalist Isabel Preysler, he was raised with two older siblings and Julio Jr. One of his mother's aunts is actress Neile Adams, the first wife of American actor Steve McQueen, mother of actor Chad McQueen, grandmother of actor Steven R. McQueen.
His father Julio Iglesias' family is from Galicia and Andalusia – his father claims some Jewish and Puerto Rican ancestry on his mother's side. The parents divorced in 1979. At first and his two siblings stayed with their mother, but in December 1981, Iglesias' grandfather, Dr. Julio Iglesias Puga, was kidnapped by the armed Basque terrorist group ETA. For their safety and his brother Julio were sent to live with their father and his girlfriend at the moment, Venezuelan top model Virginia Sipli, in Miami. There, they were brought up by the nanny, Elvira Olivares, to whom he dedicated his first album, he lived in Belgrade, for one year with his mother. As his father's career kept him on the road, the young Iglesias was raised by the family nanny, he attended the prestigious Gulliver Preparatory School and went on to study business at the University of Miami. Iglesias did not want his father to know about his plans for a musical career and did not want his famous surname to help advance his career.
He borrowed money from his family nanny and he recorded a demo cassette tape which consisted of a Spanish song and two English songs. Approaching his father's former publicist, Fernán Martínez, the two promoted the songs under the stage name'Enrique Martínez' with the backstory of being a singer from Guatemala. Iglesias was signed on to Fonovisa Records. After dropping out of college, he traveled to Toronto to record his first album. On 12 July 1995, Iglesias released Enrique Iglesias, a collection of light rock ballads, including hits such as "Si Tú Te Vas"; this album Vivir, along with Iglesias next two albums, was released by the Mexican label Fonovisa. The record sold half a million copies in its first week, a rare accomplishment for an album recorded in a language other than English, going Gold in Portugal within the first week of release, sold over a million copies in the next three months, his song "Por Amarte" was included in Televisa's telenovela Marisol, but with a twist: instead of Por amarte daría mi vida, the words were Por amarte Marisol, moriría.
The CD yielded Italian and Portuguese editions of the album, with most of the songs translated into those languages. Five singles released from this album, such as "Por Amarte", "No Llores Por Mí", "Trapecista" topped the Billboard's Latin charts; the album went on to win Iglesias the Grammy Award for Best Latin Pop Performance. In 1997, Iglesias' stardom continued to rise with the release of Vivir, which put him up with other English language music superstars in sales for that year; the album included a cover version of the Yazoo song "Only You", translated into Spanish as "Solo en Tí". Three singles released from Vivir topped the Latin singles chart as well as those in several Spanish-speaking countries. Along with his father and Luis Miguel, Iglesias was nominated for an American Music Award in the first-ever awarded category of Favorite Latin Artist, it was said beforehand. Iglesias did perform the song "Lluvia Cae" at the event. Insisting on playing stadiums for his first concert tour, that summer, backed by sidemen for Elton John, Bruce Springsteen and Billy Joel, played to sold-out audiences in sixteen countries.
Beginning in Odessa, Texas the tour went on to three consecutive nights in Mexico's Plaza de Toros, two consecutive nights at Monterrey's Auditorio Coca-Cola and
Ultimate Fighting Championship
The Ultimate Fighting Championship is an American mixed martial arts promotion company based in Las Vegas, owned and operated by parent company William Morris Endeavor. It is the largest MMA promotion company in the world and features the highest-level fighters on the roster; the UFC produces events worldwide that showcase twelve weight divisions and abide by the Unified Rules of Mixed Martial Arts. As of 2018, the UFC has held over 400 events. Dana White serves as the president of the UFC. White has held that position since 2001; the first event was held in 1993 at the McNichols Sports Arena in Colorado. The purpose of the early Ultimate Fighting Championship competitions was to identify the most effective martial art in a contest with minimal rules and no weight classes between competitors of different fighting disciplines like boxing, Brazilian jiu-jitsu, wrestling, Muay Thai and judo. In subsequent events, fighters began adopting effective techniques from more than one discipline, which indirectly helped create an separate style of fighting known as present-day mixed martial arts.
In 2016, UFC's parent company, was sold to a group led by William Morris Endeavor for $4.025 billion. With a TV deal and expansion in Australia, Asia and new markets within the United States, the UFC has increased in popularity, has achieved greater mainstream media coverage. Art Davie proposed to John Milius and Rorion Gracie an eight-man single-elimination tournament called "War of the Worlds"; the tournament was inspired by the Gracies in Action video-series produced by the Gracie family of Brazil which featured Gracie jiu-jitsu students defeating martial-arts masters of various disciplines such as karate, kung fu, kickboxing. The tournament would feature martial artists from different disciplines facing each other in no-holds-barred combat to determine the best martial art and would aim to replicate the excitement of the matches Davie saw on the videos. Milius, a noted film director and screenwriter, as well as a Gracie student, agreed to act as the event's creative director. Davie drafted the business plan and twenty-eight investors contributed the initial capital to start WOW Promotions with the intent to develop the tournament into a television franchise.
In 1993, WOW Promotions sought a television partner and approached pay-per-view producers TVKO and SET, as well as Campbell McLaren and David Isaacs at the Semaphore Entertainment Group. Both TVKO and SET declined, but SEG – a pioneer in pay-per-view television which had produced such offbeat events as a gender versus gender tennis match between Jimmy Connors and Martina Navratilova – became WOW's partner in May 1993. SEG contacted video and film art director Jason Cusson to design the trademarked "Octagon", a signature piece for the event. Cusson remained the Production Designer through UFC 27. SEG devised the name for the show as The Ultimate Fighting Championship. WOW Promotions and SEG produced the first event called UFC 1, at McNichols Sports Arena in Denver, Colorado on November 12, 1993. Art Davie functioned as the show's matchmaker; the show proposed to find an answer for sports fans' questions such as: "Can a wrestler beat a boxer?" As with most martial arts at the time, fighters had skills in just one discipline and had little experience against opponents with different skills.
The television broadcast featured kickboxers Patrick Smith and Kevin Rosier, savate fighter Gerard Gordeau, karate expert Zane Frazier, shootfighter Ken Shamrock, sumo wrestler Teila Tuli, boxer Art Jimmerson, 175 lb Brazilian jiu-jitsu black belt Royce Gracie—younger brother of UFC co-founder Rorion, whom Rorion handpicked to represent his family in the competition. Royce Gracie's submission skills proved the most effective in the inaugural tournament, earning him the first UFC tournament championship after submitting Jimmerson and Gordeau in succession; the show proved successful with 86,592 television subscribers on pay-per-view. It's disputed whether the promoters intended for the event to become a precursor to a series of future events. "That show was only supposed to be a one-off", eventual UFC president Dana White said. "It did so well on pay-per-view they decided to do another, another. Never in a million years did these guys think they were creating a sport." Art Davie, in his 2014 book Is This Legal?, an account of the creation of the first UFC event, disputes the perception that the UFC was seen by WOW Promotions and SEG as a one-off, since SEG offered a five-year joint development deal to WOW.
He says, "Clearly, both Campbell and Meyrowitz shared my unwavering belief that War of the Worlds would be a continuing series of fighting tournaments—a franchise, rather than a one-night stand."With no weight classes, fighters faced larger or taller opponents. Keith "The Giant Killer" Hackney faced Emmanuel Yarbrough at UFC 3 with a 9 in height and 400 pounds weight disadvantage. Many martial artists believed that technique could overcome these size disadvantages, that a skilled fighter could use an opponent's size and strength against him. With the 175 lb Royce Gracie winning three of the first four events, the UFC proved that size does not always determine the outcome of the fight. During this early part of the organization, the UFC would showcase a bevy of different styles and fighters. Aside from the aforementioned Royce Gracie, Ken Shamrock, Pat
Maroon 5 is an American pop rock band from Los Angeles, California. It consists of lead vocalist Adam Levine and rhythm guitarist Jesse Carmichael, bassist Mickey Madden, lead guitarist James Valentine, drummer Matt Flynn, keyboardist PJ Morton, multi-instrumentalist Sam Farrar. Original members Levine, Carmichael and drummer Ryan Dusick first came together as Kara's Flowers in 1994, while they were still in high school. After self-releasing their independent album We Like Digging?, the band signed to Reprise Records and released the album The Fourth World in 1997. The album garnered a tepid response, after which the record label dropped the band and the members focused on college. In 2001, the band remerged as Maroon 5, pursuing a different direction and adding guitarist Valentine; the band signed with Octone Records, a subsidiary of J Records, released their debut album Songs About Jane in June 2002. Aided by its lead single, "Harder to Breathe", which received heavy airplay, the album peaked at number six on the Billboard 200 chart, went platinum in 2004.
The band won the Grammy Award for Best New Artist in 2005. In 2006, Dusick left the band after suffering from serious wrist and shoulder injuries and was replaced by Matt Flynn; the band's second album, It Won't Be Soon Before Long was released in May 2007. It debuted at number one on the US Billboard 200 chart and the lead single, "Makes Me Wonder", became the band's first number one single on the Billboard Hot 100. In 2010, the band released the third album Hands All Over, to mixed reviews, re-releasing a year to include the single "Moves like Jagger", which topped the Billboard Hot 100. In 2012, Carmichael left the group and was replaced by musician PJ Morton, as the band released the fourth album, with the song "One More Night", topping the Billboard Hot 100 chart for nine consecutive weeks. In 2014, Carmichael rejoined the band alongside Morton to record the fifth album V, with the band signed a new label, Interscope Records and Levine's own label 222 Records. Following the release of V, it reached number one on the Billboard 200 chart.
In 2016, Maroon 5 recruited their long-time collaborator and former Phantom Planet member Sam Farrar, as the band continued for the sixth studio album Red Pill Blues, released in November 2017, with the reveal of the band's lineup as seven official members. The album's single, "Girls Like You", peaking at number one on the Billboard Hot 100, became the band's fourth number one single. Maroon 5 has sold more than 109 million singles and 27 million albums, making them one of the world's best-selling music artists. Adam Levine was introduced to Ryan Dusick by Adam Salzman. Levine was 15 years old and Dusick was 16. Three of the five members of the band started playing together at age 12; the four original members of the band met. While attending Brentwood School, Adam Levine and Jesse Carmichael joined up with Mickey Madden and Ryan Dusick to form Kara's Flowers, a rock band; the name was taken from a girl that went to their high school that the band had a "collective crush" on. In 1997, when the band was playing at a beach party in Malibu, independent producer Tommy Allen heard them play and offered to manage them and record a complete record with his partner, songwriter John DeNicola, known for his work on Dirty Dancing – including " The Time of My Life".
Producer Rob Cavallo's management team heard the record Allen and DeNicola produced, which led Cavallo to offer them a deal with Reprise Records, re-recording the album. However, after the release of The Fourth World, during Levine and Madden's senior year of high school in 1997, it had morphed into a band with a style reminiscent of 1960s Britpop. Despite high expectations from the band and record company, the album failed to catch on and their lead single, "Soap Disco", was a failure. According to Levine, the failure of the album was "a huge disappointment" that nearly led them to break up; the album sold around 5,000 copies and the band was dropped after six months in early 1998. Dusick and Madden attended college locally at University of California, Los Angeles, while Levine and Carmichael relocated to the East coast to attend Five Towns College, in Dix Hills, Long Island, New York. While Levine and Carmichael were in New York, they began to take notice of the urban music surrounding them and let the style influence the songs they wrote.
The band returned to the music industry again in 2001. A new member was introduced, Osiris El Keleni. Producer Tim Sommer signed them to a demo deal with MCA Records and produced three tracks with them in Los Angeles in the middle of 2001 with Mark Dearnley engineering. Against Sommer's advice, MCA declined to pick up the band, these tracks were never released; the band put together a demo, rejected by several labels, before falling into the hands of Octone Records executives James Diener, Ben Berkman and David Boxenbaum. While looking for talent for the Octone label, Berkman was given a bunch of demos by the brother of a former colleague at Columbia Records and the song that caught his attention was "'Sunday Morning'" which he referred it as a "genius song". Berkman was surprised the song was credited to Kara's Flowers, because the band sounded different from the one he had heard while at Warner Bros. Records. Berkman encouraged Diener and Boxenbaum to fly out to Los Angeles to watch a showcase gig at The Viper Room for the four-piece Kara's Flowers.
After watching Levine onstage, they were convinced. Berkman told HitQuarters he believed what the band needed was a "fifth member to play the guitar and free up the singer, so he could be
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined amount of time in a boxing ring. Amateur boxing is both an Olympic and Commonwealth Games sport and is a common fixture in most international games—it has its own World Championships. Boxing is overseen by a referee over a series of one- to three-minute intervals called rounds; the result is decided when an opponent is deemed incapable to continue by a referee, is disqualified for breaking a rule, or resigns by throwing in a towel. If a fight completes all of its allocated rounds, the victor is determined by judges' scorecards at the end of the contest. In the event that both fighters gain equal scores from the judges, professional bouts are considered a draw. In Olympic boxing, because a winner must be declared, judges award the content to one fighter on technical criteria. While humans have fought in hand-to-hand combat since the dawn of human history, the earliest evidence of fist-fighting sporting contests date back to the ancient Near East in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC.
The earliest evidence of boxing rules date back to Ancient Greece, where boxing was established as an Olympic game in 688 BC. Boxing evolved from 16th- and 18th-century prizefights in Great Britain, to the forerunner of modern boxing in the mid-19th century with the 1867 introduction of the Marquess of Queensberry Rules; the earliest known depiction of boxing comes from a Sumerian relief in Iraq from the 3rd millennium BC. Depictions from the 2nd millennium BC are found in reliefs from the Mesopotamian nations of Assyria and Babylonia, in Hittite art from Asia Minor. A relief sculpture from Egyptian Thebes shows both spectators; these early Middle-Eastern and Egyptian depictions showed contests where fighters were either bare-fisted or had a band supporting the wrist. The earliest evidence of fist fighting with the use of gloves can be found on Minoan Crete. Various types of boxing existed in ancient India; the earliest references to musti-yuddha come from classical Vedic epics such as the Ramayana and Rig Veda.
The Mahabharata describes two combatants boxing with clenched fists and fighting with kicks, finger strikes, knee strikes and headbutts. Duels were fought to the death. During the period of the Western Satraps, the ruler Rudradaman - in addition to being well-versed in "the great sciences" which included Indian classical music, Sanskrit grammar, logic - was said to be an excellent horseman, elephant rider and boxer; the Gurbilas Shemi, an 18th-century Sikh text, gives numerous references to musti-yuddha. In Ancient Greece boxing was enjoyed consistent popularity. In Olympic terms, it was first introduced in the 23rd Olympiad, 688 BC; the boxers would wind leather thongs around their hands. There were no boxers fought until one of them acknowledged defeat or could not continue. Weight categories were not used; the style of boxing practiced featured an advanced left leg stance, with the left arm semi-extended as a guard, in addition to being used for striking, with the right arm drawn back ready to strike.
It was the head of the opponent, targeted, there is little evidence to suggest that targeting the body was common. Boxing was a popular spectator sport in Ancient Rome. In order for the fighters to protect themselves against their opponents they wrapped leather thongs around their fists. Harder leather was used and the thong soon became a weapon; the Romans introduced metal studs to the thongs to make the cestus. Fighting events were held at Roman Amphitheatres; the Roman form of boxing was a fight until death to please the spectators who gathered at such events. However in times, purchased slaves and trained combat performers were valuable commodities, their lives were not given up without due consideration. Slaves were used against one another in a circle marked on the floor; this is. In AD 393, during the Roman gladiator period, boxing was abolished due to excessive brutality, it was not until the late 16th century. Records of Classical boxing activity disappeared after the fall of the Western Roman Empire when the wearing of weapons became common once again and interest in fighting with the fists waned.
However, there are detailed records of various fist-fighting sports that were maintained in different cities and provinces of Italy between the 12th and 17th centuries. There was a sport in ancient Rus called Kulachniy Boy or "Fist Fighting"; as the wearing of swords became less common, there was renewed interest in fencing with the fists. The sport would resurface in England during the early 16th century in the form of bare-knuckle boxing sometimes referred to as prizefighting; the first documented account of a bare-knuckle fight in England appeared in 1681 in the London Protestant Mercury, the first English bare-knuckle champion was James Figg in 1719. This is the time when the word "boxing" first came to be used; this earliest form of modern boxing was different. Contests in Mr. Figg's time, in addition to fist fighting contained fencing and cudgeling. On 6 January 1681, the first recorded boxing match took place in Britain when Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle engineered a bout between his butler and his butcher with the latter winning the prize.
Early fighting had no written rules. There were no weight divisions or round limits, no referee. In general, it was chaotic. An early article on boxing was published i
Los Angeles Clippers
The Los Angeles Clippers, abbreviated by the team as the LA Clippers, are an American professional basketball team based in Los Angeles. The Clippers compete in the National Basketball Association as a member of Pacific Division of the league's Western Conference; the Clippers play their home games at Staples Center in downtown Los Angeles, an arena shared with fellow NBA team the Los Angeles Lakers, the Los Angeles Sparks of the Women's National Basketball Association, the Los Angeles Kings of the National Hockey League. The franchise was founded in 1970 as the Buffalo Braves, one of three expansion teams to join the NBA that year; the Braves moved from Buffalo, New York to San Diego, California in 1978 and became known as the San Diego Clippers. In 1984, The Clippers moved to Los Angeles. Through much of its history, the franchise failed to see significant regular season or playoff success; the Clippers were seen as an example of a perennial loser in American professional sports, drawing unfavorable comparisons to the successful Lakers, with whom they have shared a market since 1984 and an arena since 1999.
The Clippers' fortunes turned in the early 2010s with the acquisition of core players Blake Griffin, DeAndre Jordan, Chris Paul. In 2013, the franchise won its first division title, as the team made the playoffs for the ninth time in franchise history and the third time in the previous eight seasons, they added to their budding rivalry with the Lakers, as they finished with a better record than the Lakers for the fifth time and won the season series for the second time since moving to Los Angeles in 1984, this time in a sweep. They repeated as division champions in 2014; the franchise began in Western New York as the Buffalo Braves, one of three NBA expansion franchises that began play in the 1970–71 season, along with the Portland Trail Blazers and Cleveland Cavaliers. They played their home games at the Buffalo Memorial Auditorium, along with another Buffalo team that would begin play that year, the National Hockey League's Buffalo Sabres. After two bad seasons, the Braves' fortunes started to change under coach Jack Ramsay and star forward/center Bob McAdoo.
McAdoo led the NBA in scoring for three consecutive seasons and was named the league's MVP in the 1974–75 season. The Braves qualified for the playoffs three times in a row, losing twice to the eventual Eastern Conference champions. Despite the team's modest success in Buffalo, Braves owner Paul Snyder and the league found it impossible to schedule home games at the auditorium because of the Canisius Golden Griffins men's basketball team, which had a pre-existing lease on the arena and priority on game dates over the Braves; the Griffins saw the Braves as a threat to their own success, purposely scheduled all the best dates at the arena to prevent the Braves from succeeding. As a result, after a failed attempt to sell the team to an owner who intended to move it to South Florida, Snyder sold the team to Kentucky Colonels owner John Y. Brown, Jr. who decimated the team's roster, traded away all of its stars, drove attendance down to the point where they could break their own lease on the arena.
Brown met with Celtics owner Irv Levin in 1978 so they could trade franchise ownerships. Southern California resident Levin decided to move the Braves to San Diego, something the league would have never allowed him to do with the Celtics. In 1978, San Diego welcomed the relocation of the Buffalo Braves franchise because the city had lost their Rockets to Houston seven years earlier as well as their American Basketball Association franchise, the San Diego Sails after the 1974-1975 ABA season. San Diego team officials did not think Braves was a representative nickname for the club and a contest decided on "Clippers", because the city was known for the great sailing ships that passed through San Diego Bay; when the Clippers moved to Los Angeles in 1984, they kept their name. Playing at the San Diego Sports Arena, the Clippers posted a record of 43–39 in their first season in California under new head coach Gene Shue, leaving them two wins shy of the final playoff spot, it would be the Clippers' last winning season for 13 years.
It was in that first season in southern California that long-time announcer Ralph Lawler began his association with the franchise. The Clippers began pursuing star free agents, beginning with World B. Free, acquired in the offseason from the Philadelphia 76ers. Free finished second overall in NBA scoring average, with 28.9 per game, while George Gervin of the San Antonio Spurs had a 29.6 average. The 1979–80 season saw the Clippers begin to struggle, despite adding center Bill Walton, a San Diego native, two years removed from an NBA Championship with the Trail Blazers. Walton missed 68 games due to foot injuries. San Diego finished. Free again finishing second in league scoring, with 30.2 PPG. Paul Silas replaced Shue the following season, the Clippers finished 36–46, again missing the postseason. Walton missed the entire season again due to foot injuries, while Free was traded to the Golden State Warriors in exchange for guard Phil Smith; the 1981–82 season brought changes to the franchise as Levin sold the team to Los Angeles-area real estate developer and attorney Donald Sterling for $12.5 million.
The Clippers experienced poor play and franchise mismanagement in their final years in San Diego, much like in Buffalo, competition from other sports teams in town, namely the ascendant San Diego Chargers, sucked away attention from the Clippers. That season, the Clippers were drawing fewer fans than the Braves had
Jermaine Lamar Cole, known professionally as J. Cole, is an American rapper, singer and record producer. Born on a military base in Germany but raised in Fayetteville, North Carolina, Cole gained recognition as a rapper following the release of his debut mixtape, The Come Up, in early 2007. Intent on further pursuing a solo career as a rapper, he went on to release two additional mixtapes, The Warm Up and Friday Night Lights after signing to Jay-Z's Roc Nation imprint in 2009. Cole released his debut studio album, Cole World: The Sideline Story, in 2011, it debuted at number one on the U. S. Billboard 200, was soon certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America, his next two releases, 2013's Born Sinner and 2014's 2014 Forest Hills Drive, received positive reviews from critics, both were certified platinum in the United States. The latter earned him his first Grammy Award nomination for Best Rap Album. In December 2016, Cole released his fourth studio album 4 Your Eyez Only.
The album debuted at number one on the Billboard 200 chart and was certified platinum in April 2017. His fifth album, KOD, was released in April 2018; the album debuted atop the Billboard 200, making it his fifth album to reach number one on the chart. Self-taught on piano, Cole acts as a producer alongside his hip-hop career, producing singles for artists such as Kendrick Lamar and Janet Jackson, as well as handling the majority of the production in his own projects, he has developed other ventures, including Dreamville Records, as well as a non-profit organization called the Dreamville Foundation. In January 2015, Cole decided to house single mothers rent-free at his childhood home in Fayetteville, North Carolina. Jermaine Lamarr Cole was born on January 28, 1985, at an American military base in Frankfurt, West Germany, his father is an African-American veteran, who served in the U. S. Army, his mother, Kay, is a white American, a postal worker for the United States Postal Service. Cole's father abandoned the family during his youth.
At the age of eight months his mother moved with him and his older brother Zach to the United States, to Fayetteville, North Carolina. Cole grew up in a multi-ethnic environment, when asked about how his ethnicity impacts him, Cole commented, "I can identify with white people, because I know my mother, her side of the family, who I love, but at the end of the day, never felt white. I can identify but never have I felt. I identify more with what I look like, because that's how I got treated not in a negative way". During his youth, Cole expressed an affinity for basketball and music, served as a first-chair violinist for the Terry Sanford Orchestra until 2003. Cole began rapping at the age of twelve, saw it as an ideal profession in 2000, when his mother purchased an ASR-X musical sampler as a Christmas gift. During this period, Cole heightened emphasis on improving his production skills beginning initial production under the pseudonym Therapist. Cole collaborated with local group Bomm Sheltuh and producing as a member of the group.
Upon graduating high school with a 4.2 GPA, Cole decided that his chances of securing a recording contract would be better in New York City. He accepted a scholarship to St. John's University. Majoring in computer science, Cole switched to communication and business after witnessing the life of a lonely computer science professor. At the college, Cole was the president of a pan-African student coalition, he graduated magna cum laude in 2007, with a 3.8 GPA. Despite graduating, Cole would receive his degree during a homecoming concert in 2015, revealing that he had owed money for a library book, causing the university to hold back from granting him his degree. Cole worked in various part-time jobs in Fayetteville, including a working ad salesman for a newspaper, a bill collector, a file clerk, a kangaroo mascot at a skate rink. After becoming musically inspired by Canibus, Nas and Eminem, Cole and his cousin worked on developing their basic understanding of rhyming and wordplay, as well as beginning to learn how to interpolate storytelling within their lyrics.
By 14, Cole had various notebooks filled with song ideas, was unable to produce beats further than sampling. Cole's mother purchased him the Roland TR-808 drum machine in order to further Cole's understanding of production. Over the next three years, he began posting songs on various internet forums under the moniker Blaza, but switched to the name Therapist. Cole expanded his production to create an entire CD's worth of instrumentals, traveled to Roc the Mic Studio, hoping to play it for Jay Z while he was in recording sessions for American Gangster. Cole waited for over three hours, before being dismissed by Jay Z. Cole used the CD as the backdrop for his debut mixtape, The Come Up. J. Cole released The Warm Up, on June 15, 2009 to positive reviews. Cole appeared on Jay Z's album The Blueprint 3, on the track "A Star Is Born." He is featured on both Wale's debut album, Attention Deficit and mixtape Back to the Feature, respectively. In January 2010, along with label mate Jay Electronica and Mos Def appeared on Talib Kweli and Hi-Tek's single, "Just Begun" for the follow-up of Reflection Eternal's album Train of Thought, titled Revolutions Per Minute.
Cole appeared on B.o. B's mixtape May 25, on the song "Gladiators", produced by The Alchemist. In early 2010, Cole was chosen as one of Beyond Race magazine's "50 Great Breakthrough Artists," he ranked 49, resulting in the cover story of the publication's #11 issue, a