The Mandara people known as Wandala or Mandwara, are a Central African Muslim ethnic group found in north Cameroon northeastern Nigeria, southeastern Chad. They speak the Wandala language, Chadic branch of Afro-Asiatic languages found in northeastern Africa, their origins are unclear. They live in the mountainous region and valleys north of the Benue River in Cameroon, have long been a part of the Mandara Sultanate, their region witnessed slave sub-Saharan caravans till the 19th century. The Mandara people were known for their horse raising and iron working skills, featured a society, stratified; the origins of the Mandara people are in the Mandara Kingdom, once found in the Mandara Mountains, along the northern Cameroon at its border with northeastern Nigeria between the Benue River and Mora, Cameroon. Their prehistory is unclear. One oral traditions trace their start to a king Agamakiya in the 13th century, who led them as invasions came from the Sahel, they converted to Sunni Islam under Sultan Bukar Aaji in the 1720s.
Another tradition states Wandala Mbra was one of the sons of Mbra of Turu and Katala, the daughter of Vaya, he adopted Islam and it is his lineage that formed this patrilineal Muslim ethnic group. These oral traditions may have been reconstructed when Mandara came under the influence of and cooperated in Fulani jihads, slave raids on other ethnic groups. Islamic historians mention the Mandara people, but provide inconsistent accounts of their history. One account by Ibn Fartuwa states that they were unbelievers, but they converted to Islam in the 16th century. Another account states that It is their ruler who invited two Moroccans from Fez returning from Mecca, to stay with him, they converted him, he mandated the Islamic traditions of circumcision, prayer and fasting among his Mandara people in early 18th-century. Between the 18th and 19th centuries, the Mandara people's region was surrounded by pagan people, these were a source of slaves through raiding, for trade to the African slave caravans.
Their historic lands have been midst a densely populated river valley surrounded by volcanic mountains rich in iron ore, famed as a horse breeding area. Their Sultans have had Mora in Cameroon as their capital; the Mandara people have lived in dispersed villages, each with a mosque, growing sorghum as their principal crop and producing iron tools that were sought by traders and other ethnic groups. The Mandara people wear Muslim dress of northern Africa, they carry leather amulets around their neck that contains verses from the Quran; the Mandara society developed into a stratified system, with Sultan and royalty, horse breeders, iron workers and smiths forming a distinct endogamous occupation-inheriting castes. The caste system among the Mandara people integrated the concept that the strata have innate pollution and therefore they are stigmatized, however there is no evidence that their Islamic belief integrated the differences between the differentiated castes in their society to have been divinely sanctioned
The Mandara Mountains are a volcanic range extending about 190 km along the northern part of the Cameroon-Nigeria border, from the Benue River in the south to the north-west of Maroua in the north. The highest elevation is the summit of Mount Oupay, at 1,494 m above sea level; the region is densely populated by speakers of Chadic languages, including both the Mofu and the Kirdi ethnic groups. Extensive archaeological research has been undertaken in the Mandara Mountains, including work at Diy-Gid-Biy sites; the Mandara Mountains were formed millions of years ago when a continental plate of basement rock deep beneath the African continent rose up, fragmenting and splitting as it was pushed to the surface. The climate was wetter in those times, so enormous amounts of precipitation formed numerous rivers that rushed through these fractures, carving them deeper and wider, resulting in the range's notably rugged terrain. Volcanic activity played a role in the formation of the range. Eruptions of lava formed volcanic cones whose vents were plugged with hardening magma.
These hardened cores are called volcanic plugs. In the case of the Mandara Mountains, the plugs were much more erosion-resistant than the exterior of the cones, which wore away over time. Only the plugs remained, forming the stark, needle-like spires such as Kapsiki Peak that the range is known for. Pico Cão Grande Tororo Rock Mandaras.info
Calotropis gigantea is a species of Calotropis native to Cambodia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, China, Nepal, Booc Booc in Somalia and tropical Africa. It is a large shrub growing to 4 m tall, it has clusters of waxy flowers that are either lavender in colour. Each flower consists of five pointed petals and a small "crown" rising from the center which holds the stamens; the aestivation found in calotropis is valvate i.e. sepals or petals in a whorl just touch one another at the margin, without overlapping. The plant has light green leaves and milky stem; the latex of Calotropis gigantea contains cardiac glycosides, fatty acids, calcium oxalate. This plant plays host to a variety of butterflies, it is the host plant for Hawaii's non-migratory monarch butterflies. Calotropis is an example of entomophily pollination and pollination is achieved with the help of bees. In Calotropis, gynostegium is present; the pollen are in a structure named pollinia, attached to a glandular, adhesive disc at the stigmatic angle.
These sticky discs get attached to the legs of visiting bees that pull out pollinia when a bee moves away. When such a bee visits another flower, this flower might be pollinated by the pollinium; the flowers are long lasting, in Thailand they are used in floral arrangements. The extract of flowers and leaves has shown hypoglycemic effect in preclinical studies, they were favored by the Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani, who considered them a symbol of royalty and wore them strung into leis. In Cambodia, they are used in funerals to decorate the urn or sarcophagus and the interior of the house holding the funeral; the fruit is a follicle and when dry, seed dispersal is by wind. In Indonesia its flowers are called widuri. According to Shivpuran the madar flower/crown flower is much liked by Lord Shiva; the Crown flower is one of the major parts of the nine astrological trees. Calotropis yields a durable fiber useful for ropes, fishing nets, sewing thread. Floss, obtained from seeds, is used as stuffing. Crown flower cotton can be used to make a pillow.
A fermented mixture of Calotropis and salt is used to remove the hair from goat skins for production of nari leather and from sheep skins to make leather, much used for inexpensive book binding. Fungicidal and insecticidal properties of Calotropis have been reported. In India, the plant is common in the compounds of temples and is known as madar in Hindi: मदार, its leaf is one of the five leaves used in the Panch Pallava, a ritual assortment of five different leaves used as a totem by the Maratha culture in India. It is known as වරා in Sinhala, আকন in Assamese, aakonda in Bengali, erukku in Malayalam, yakka in Kannada, jilledu in Telugu, ark in Sanskrit. Allelopathic effects of Calotropis on different agricultural crops have been well studied. Extracts of plant parts such as root and leaf affect germination and seedling vigor of many agricultural crops. However, extracts of Calotropis failed to produce any detrimental effects on weeds such as Chenopodium album, Melilotus alba, Melilotus indica, Sphaeranthus indicus, Phalaris minor.
Many plant and animal extracts have been used as arrow poisons all over the world. In many cases, the poison was applied to the spear to aid the hunting of prey. Alkaloids are among the most powerful plant poisons, extracts of Strychnos species are used. Other arrow poisons are cardiac glycosides, which can be found in digitalis, but most of these arrow poisons are derived from plants in the Apocynaceae family; this family includes the more potent Calotropis procera. The latex of these plants has been used in Africa as an arrow poison. Apocynaceae species contain a mixture of cardiac glycosides, including calactin, uscharin and calotropin; these poisons work by inhibiting the sodium-potassium pump, this effect is potent in the cardiac tissues. The cardiac effects can be applied for heart medication, digitalis has been used as such. However, excessive doses can cause arrhythmia. Given the potent bioactivity of calotropin, calotropis gigantea has been used as a folk medicine in India for many years, has been reported to have a variety of uses.
In Ayurveda, Indian practitioners have used the root and leaf of C. procera in asthma and shortness of breath and the bark in liver and spleen diseases. The plant is reported as effective in treating skin, respiratory and neurological disorders and was used to treat fevers, nausea and diarrhea; the milky juice of Calotropis procera was used against arthritis, as an antidote for snake bite. However, these reports are of folk uses and more research is needed to confirm the clinical usefulness of the leaves and bark. Recent studies have displayed use of calotropin as a contraceptive and as a promising cancer medication. In one study of the cancer-fighting properties of Calotropis gigantea, DCM extracts were demonstrated to be cytotoxic against non-small cell lung carcinoma, colon carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma; these extracts warrant further clinical research. Calotropis is a poisonous plant; the active principles are uscharin, calotoxin and calotropin. The leaves and stem when incised yield
Erythrina variegata is a species of Erythrina native to the tropical and subtropical regions of eastern Africa, the Indian Subcontinent, northern Australia, the islands of the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific Ocean east to Fiji. E. variegata is a thorny deciduous tree growing to 27 m tall. The leaves are pinnate with a 20 cm petiole and three leaflets, each leaflet up to 20 cm long and broad, it has dense clusters of black seeds. Erythrina variegata is valued as an ornamental tree. Several cultivars have been selected, including'Alba' with white flowers. In Vietnam, the leaves are used to wrap fermented meat. E. variegata is known as dapdap in the Philippines where its bark and leaves are used in alternative medicine. In Siddha medicine, it is used for menstrual disorders and fissures at penis tip. E. Variegata is used in agroforestry systems, it can be used for fodder. E. variegata was designated the official flower of Okinawa Prefecture in 1967. The deigo flower features in the popular song "Shima Uta" by The Boom, one of the most well-known songs associated with Okinawa.
In addition, the use of the wood of the deigo tree is one of the unique characteristics of Ryukyuan lacquerware. In Sri Lanka, the blossoming flowers of the tree are associated with the advent of the Sri Lankan New Year; the plant is known as Erabadu in Sinhalese. Media related to Erythrina variegata at Wikimedia Commons Elevitch, Craig R.. "Erythrina variegata". The Traditional Tree Initiative. Flowers of India - Indian Coral Tree
A legume is a plant in the family Fabaceae, or the fruit or seed of such a plant. Legumes are grown agriculturally for human consumption, for livestock forage and silage, as soil-enhancing green manure. Well-known legumes include alfalfa, peas, lentils, lupin bean, carob, soybeans and tamarind. Legumes produce a botanically unique type of fruit – a simple dry fruit that develops from a simple carpel and dehisces on two sides. A common name for this type of fruit is a pod, although the term "pod" is applied to a number of other fruit types, such as that of vanilla and of the radish. Legumes are notable in that most of them have symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in structures called root nodules. For that reason, they play a key role in crop rotation; the term pulse, as used by the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization, is reserved for crops harvested for the dry seed. This excludes green peas, which are considered vegetable crops. Excluded are seeds that are grown for oil extraction, seeds which are used for sowing forage.
However, in common usage, these distinctions are not always made, many of the varieties used for dried pulses are used for green vegetables, with their beans in pods while young. Some Fabaceae, such as Scotch broom and other Genisteae, are leguminous but are not called legumes by farmers, who tend to restrict that term to food crops. Farmed legumes can belong to many agricultural classes, including forage, blooms, pharmaceutical/industrial, fallow/green manure, timber species. Most commercially farmed species fill two or more roles depending upon their degree of maturity when harvested. Grain legumes known as pulses, are cultivated for their seeds; the seeds are used for human and animal consumption or for the production of oils for industrial uses. Grain legumes include beans, lupins and peanuts. Legumes are a significant source of protein, dietary fiber and dietary minerals. Like other plant-based foods, pulses contain little fat or sodium. Legumes are an excellent source of resistant starch, broken down by bacteria in the large intestine to produce short-chain fatty acids used by intestinal cells for food energy.
Preliminary studies in humans include the potential for regular consumption of legumes in a plant-based diet to reduce the prevalence or risk of developing metabolic syndrome. There is evidence that a portion of pulses in a diet may help lower blood pressure and reduce LDL cholesterol levels, though there is a concern about the quality of the supporting data. FAO recognizes 11 primary pulses. Dry beans Kidney bean, navy bean, pinto bean, haricot bean Lima bean, butter bean Adzuki bean, azuki bean Mung bean, golden gram, green gram Black gram, urad Scarlet runner bean Ricebean Moth bean Tepary bean Dry broad beans Horse bean Broad bean Field bean Dry peas Garden pea Protein pea Chickpea, Bengal gram Dry cowpea, black-eyed pea, blackeye bean Pigeon pea, Arhar/Toor, cajan pea, Congo bean, gandules Lentil Bambara groundnut, earth pea Vetch, common vetch Lupins Pulses NES, Minor pulses, including: Lablab, hyacinth bean Jack bean, sword bean Winged bean Velvet bean, cowitch Yam bean Forage legumes are of two broad types.
Some, like alfalfa, vetch, stylo, or Arachis, are sown in pasture and grazed by livestock. Other forage legumes such as Leucaena or Albizia are woody shrub or tree species that are either broken down by livestock or cut by humans to provide livestock feed. Legumes base feed fed to animals improves animal performance compared to diets of perennial grass diet. Factors that attribute towards such result: larger consumption, quicker rate of digestion and feed conversion rate efficiency. Legume species grown for their flowers include lupins, which are farmed commercially for their blooms as well as being popular in gardens worldwide. Industrially farmed legumes include Indigofera and Acacia species, which are cultivated for dye and natural gum production, respectively. Fallow/green manure legume species are cultivated to be tilled back into the soil in order to exploit the high levels of captured atmospheric nitrogen found in the roots of most legumes. Numerous legumes farmed for this purpose include Leucaena and Sesbania species.
Various legume species are farmed for timber production worldwide, including numerous Acacia species and Castanospermum australe. Legume trees like the locust trees or the Kentucky coffeetree can be used in permaculture food forests. Other legume tre
Mandara is the name of the mountain that appears in the Samudra manthan episode in the Hindu Puranas, where it was used as a churning rod to churn the ocean of milk. Mahadev's serpent, offered to serve as the rope pulled on one side by a team of asuras, on the other, by a team of devas; the Puranas refer to various sacred places on the hill that are believed to be the abode of god Krishna as Madhusudana or the destroyer of the demon called Madhu, killed by Krishna and covered by the Mount Mandara. Some legends identify a hill in Banka district in Bihar with Mount Mandara. Kalidasa’s Kumarasambhava refers to foot marks of Lord Vishnu on the slopes of Mandara; the hill is replete with relics of bygone ages. Besides inscriptions and statues there are numerous rock cut sculptures depicting various Brahmanical images; the hill is revered by the Jains who believe that their 12th Tirthankara Shri Vasupujya attained nirvana here on the summit of the hill. The depiction of the Churning of the Ocean of Milk became popular in Khmer art because their creation myth involved a naga ancestor.
It is a popular motif in both Thai art. Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend by Anna Dallapiccola
Bali Mandara Toll Road
Bali Mandara Toll Road or Nusa Dua-Ngurah Rai-Benoa Toll Road is a toll road carried by a bridge stretching across the Gulf of Benoa 12.7 km in length. The Rp 2.48 Trillion highway connects the city of Denpasar and South Kuta, Badung Regency, Nusa Dua and Ngurah Rai International Airport. The reason behind construction of Bali Mandara Toll Road was to prevent traffic jams on the Ngurah Rai By Pass Road the only road connecting areas of Bali south of the airport with areas north of the airport; the Ngurah Rai By Pass Road, a land-based route, could not be widened because of the location of the airport runway. The Bali Mandara Toll Road was built over water; this toll road was opened on 23 September 2013 by President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono