A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy, entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, Old Catholic and Independent Catholic churches and in the Assyrian Church of the East, bishops claim apostolic succession, a direct historical lineage dating back to the original Twelve Apostles. Within these churches, bishops are seen as those who possess the full priesthood and can ordain clergy – including another bishop; some Protestant churches including the Lutheran and Methodist churches have bishops serving similar functions as well, though not always understood to be within apostolic succession in the same way. One, ordained deacon and bishop is understood to hold the fullness of the priesthood, given responsibility by Christ to govern and sanctify the Body of Christ, members of the Faithful. Priests and lay ministers cooperate and assist their bishops in shepherding a flock.
The term epískopos, meaning "overseer" in Greek, the early language of the Christian Church, was not from the earliest times distinguished from the term presbýteros, but the term was clearly used in the sense of the order or office of bishop, distinct from that of presbyter in the writings attributed to Ignatius of Antioch.. The earliest organization of the Church in Jerusalem was, according to most scholars, similar to that of Jewish synagogues, but it had a council or college of ordained presbyters. In Acts 11:30 and Acts 15:22, we see a collegiate system of government in Jerusalem chaired by James the Just, according to tradition the first bishop of the city. In Acts 14:23, the Apostle Paul ordains presbyters in churches in Anatolia; the word presbyter was not yet distinguished from overseer, as in Acts 20:17, Titus 1:5–7 and 1 Peter 5:1. The earliest writings of the Apostolic Fathers, the Didache and the First Epistle of Clement, for example, show the church used two terms for local church offices—presbyters and deacon.
In Timothy and Titus in the New Testament a more defined episcopate can be seen. We are told that Paul had left Timothy in Titus in Crete to oversee the local church. Paul commands Titus to exercise general oversight. Early sources are unclear but various groups of Christian communities may have had the bishop surrounded by a group or college functioning as leaders of the local churches; the head or "monarchic" bishop came to rule more and all local churches would follow the example of the other churches and structure themselves after the model of the others with the one bishop in clearer charge, though the role of the body of presbyters remained important. As Christendom grew, bishops no longer directly served individual congregations. Instead, the Metropolitan bishop appointed priests to minister each congregation, acting as the bishop's delegate. Around the end of the 1st century, the church's organization became clearer in historical documents. In the works of the Apostolic Fathers, Ignatius of Antioch in particular, the role of the episkopos, or bishop, became more important or, rather was important and being defined.
While Ignatius of Antioch offers the earliest clear description of monarchial bishops he is an advocate of monepiscopal structure rather than describing an accepted reality. To the bishops and house churches to which he writes, he offers strategies on how to pressure house churches who don't recognize the bishop into compliance. Other contemporary Christian writers do not describe monarchial bishops, either continuing to equate them with the presbyters or speaking of episkopoi in a city. "Blessed be God, who has granted unto you, who are yourselves so excellent, to obtain such an excellent bishop." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 1:1 "and that, being subject to the bishop and the presbytery, ye may in all respects be sanctified." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 2:1 "For your justly renowned presbytery, worthy of God, is fitted as to the bishop as the strings are to the harp." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 4:1 "Do ye, beloved, be careful to be subject to the bishop, the presbyters and the deacons."
— Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 5:1 "Plainly therefore we ought to regard the bishop as the Lord Himself" — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 6:1. "your godly bishop" — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 2:1. "the bishop presiding after the likeness of God and the presbyters after the likeness of the council of the Apostles, with the deacons who are most dear to me, having been entrusted with the diaconate of Jesus Christ" — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 6:1. "Therefore as the Lord did nothing without the Father, either by Himself or by the Apostles, so neither do ye anything without the bishop and the presbyters." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 7:1. "Be obedient to the bishop and to one another, as Jesus Christ was to the Father, as the Apostles were to Christ and to the Father, that there may be union both of flesh and of spirit." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 13:2. "In like manner let all men respe
Tribunal de Contas da União
The Tribunal de Contas da União is the Brazilian federal accountability office. It is an arm of the Legislative Branch of the Brazilian government, to assist Congress in its Constitutional incumbency to exercise external audit over the Executive Branch, its members, called ministers, are appointed by the President of Brazil. The TCU employs a qualified body of civil servants to prevent and sanction corruption and malpractice of public funds, with national jurisdiction; the Tribunal was created in 1891, although its origins are traced back to the Royal Treasury, established in 1808 by King John VI. It is, one of the world's earlier institutions charged with national government accountability. Today, the TCU cooperates with the Comptroller-General of the Union, which centralizes federal executive internal audit; the Tribunal's work is scrutinized by the Public Ministry. In 1959 it hosted III INCOSAI, the third triennial convention of the International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions; the work executed by the TCU in 2011 produced savings of 14 billion reais to the Brazilian taxpayer.
For each real spent by the court to avert corruption and wasteful spending, 10.5 reais were saved. Official website
The civil service is independent of government and is composed of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure survives transitions of political leadership. A civil servant or public servant is a person employed in the public sector on behalf of a government department or agency. A civil servant or public servant's first priority is to represent the interests of citizens; the extent of civil servants of a state as part of the "civil service" varies from country to country. In the United Kingdom, for instance, only Crown employees are referred to as civil servants whereas county or city employees are not. Many consider the study of service to be a part of the field of public administration. Workers in "non-departmental public bodies" may be classed as civil servants for the purpose of statistics and for their terms and conditions. Collectively a state's civil servants form its civil public service. An international civil servant or international staff member is a civilian employee, employed by an intergovernmental organization.
These international civil servants do not reside under any national legislation but are governed by internal staff regulations. All disputes related to international civil service are brought before special tribunals created by these international organizations such as, for instance, the Administrative Tribunal of the ILO. Specific referral can be made to the International Civil Service Commission of the United Nations, an independent expert body established by the United Nations General Assembly, its mandate is to regulate and coordinate the conditions of service of staff in the United Nations common system, while promoting and maintaining high standards in the international civil service. The origin of the modern meritocratic civil service can be traced back to Imperial examination founded in Imperial China; the Imperial exam based on merit was designed to select the best administrative officials for the state's bureaucracy. This system had a huge influence on both society and culture in Imperial China and was directly responsible for the creation of a class of scholar-bureaucrats irrespective of their family pedigree.
Appointments to the bureaucracy were based on the patronage of aristocrats. In the areas of administration the military, appointments were based on merit; this was an early form of the imperial examinations, transitioning from inheritance and patronage to merit, in which local officials would select candidates to take part in an examination of the Confucian classics. After the fall of the Han dynasty, the Chinese bureaucracy regressed into a semi-merit system known as the nine-rank system; this system was reversed during the short-lived Sui dynasty, which initiated a civil service bureaucracy recruited through written examinations and recommendation. The first civil service examination system was established by Emperor Wen of Sui. Emperor Yang of Sui established a new category of recommended candidates for the mandarinate in AD 605; the following Tang dynasty adopted the same measures for drafting officials, decreasingly relied on aristocratic recommendations and more and more on promotion based on the results of written examinations.
The structure of the examination system was extensively expanded during the reign of Wu Zetian The system reached its apogee during the Song dynasty. In theory, the Chinese civil service system provided one of the major outlets for social mobility in Chinese society, although in practice, due to the time-consuming nature of the study, the examination was only taken by sons of the landed gentry; the examination tested the candidate's memorization of the Nine Classics of Confucianism and his ability to compose poetry using fixed and traditional forms and calligraphy. In the late 19th century the system came under increasing internal dissatisfaction, it was criticized as not reflecting the candidate's ability to govern well, for giving precedence to style over content and originality of thought; the system was abolished by the Qing government in 1905 as part of the New Policies reform package. The Chinese system was admired by European commentators from the 16th century onward. In the 18th century, in response to economic changes and the growth of the British Empire, the bureaucracy of institutions such as the Office of Works and the Navy Board expanded.
Each had its own system, but in general, staff were appointed through patronage or outright purchase. By the 19th century, it became clear that these arrangements were falling short. "The origins of the British civil service are better known. During the eighteenth century a number of Englishmen wrote in praise of the Chinese examination system, some of them going so far as to urge the adoption for England of something similar; the first concrete step in this direction was taken by the British East India Company in 1806." In that year, the Honourable East India Company established a college, the East India Company College, near London to train and examine administrators of the Company's territories in India. "The proposal for establishing this college came from members of the East India Company's trading post in Canton, China." Examinations for the Indian "civil service"—a term coined by the Company—were introduced in 1829. British efforts at reform were influenced by the imperial examinations system and meritocratic system of China.
Thomas Taylor Meadows, Britain's consul in Guangzhou, China argued in his Desu
Supreme Court of Florida
The Supreme Court of Florida is the highest court in the U. S. state of Florida. It consists of seven members -- six Justices. Five members are chosen from five districts around the state to foster geographic diversity and two are selected at-large; the Justices are appointed by the Governor to set terms. After appointment, the initial term is three years or less, because the Justices must appear on the ballot in the next general election that occurs more than one year after their appointment. Afterward they serve six-year terms and remain in office if retained in the general election near the end of each term. Citizens vote on. Chief Justices are elected by the members of the Court to two-year terms that end in every even-numbered year. Chief Justices can succeed themselves in office; the Court is the final arbiter of Florida law, its decisions are binding authority for all other Florida state courts and for federal courts when they apply Florida law. In most instances, the only appeal from the Florida Supreme Court is to the U.
S. Supreme Court on questions of federal law. Established upon statehood in 1845, the court is headquartered across Duval Street from the state capitol in Tallahassee. Throughout the court's history it has undergone many reorganizations as Florida's population has grown; the Florida Supreme Court has heard many historic cases, most notably the 2000 presidential election Florida recount case Bush v. Gore. After Florida's entrance into the union in 1845, the ratification of the State's first Constitution, the Supreme Court of the State of Florida was born, it is the successor to the Florida Territorial Court of Appeals and the court system that existed under Spain prior to the acquisition of Florida through the Adams-Onis Treaty. Though the constitution created a Supreme Court, it vested it with little power. Florida Circuit Court judges served in the capacity of Supreme Court Justices until 1851 when an 1848 constitutional amendment took effect granting the state legislature power to choose three justices.
In 1853, another constitutional amendment was adopted that provided for the popular election of Justices to serve six-year terms. Following the Civil War and the adoption of the 1868 Constitution, Justices were appointed by the Governor and confirmed by the State Senate. In 1885, the state returned to elected justices. In 1940, the court's membership was increased to its current size of seven members, a 1926 constitutional amendment provided that the Chief Justice should be elected by the Justices of the Court. A two-year term for the Chief Justice was established by the Rules of Court adopted by the Supreme Court, with each term beginning on July 1 of even-numbered years and ending on June 30 in the next even-numbered year. In the early 1970s, more than half the justices resigned over various corruption probes. In 1975, Florida Supreme Court Justice David L. McCain tampered with a lower court decision on behalf of campaign supporters. Faced with impeachment proceedings, he resigned. In 1976, the state returned to appointed justices when the current merit retention system was put in place.
In 2004, the court had a backlog of 1,544 cases. In 2011, there was a backlog of 881 cases; the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of Florida is laid out in Article V of the Florida Constitution. The Court follows the common law and since its first case, Stewart v. Preston, has published its opinions, first in official law reports called the Florida Reports and more in the Southern Series edited by West Publishing; the Supreme Court of Florida has appellate jurisdiction, discretionary in most cases and mandatory in a few cases. In some matters, the Court has original jurisdiction, meaning that the case can begin and end in the Supreme Court absent a basis for further appeal to the Supreme Court of the United States; the Court has some forms of exclusive jurisdiction, meaning that it is the only court or government body that can decide the issue. The Florida Constitution, Article V, establishes mandatory jurisdiction for the following: Cases in which the death penalty is imposed. In such instances, the Florida Supreme Court directly reviews Florida Circuit Court decisions, skipping the intermediate Florida District Courts of Appeal.
Decisions by the DCAs declaring invalid a state statute or constitutional provision. The Florida Constitution, Article V, permits the Florida Legislature to provide for mandatory jurisdiction in the following two circumstances: For final judgments on proceedings for validation of bonds or certificates of indebtedness. Here again, the Florida Supreme Court directly reviews circuit court decisions. For review of action of statewide agencies relating to rates or service of electric and telephone utilities; the Florida Constitution, Article V, provides discretionary jurisdiction for a much larger set of circumstances, including: DCA decisions expressly declaring a state statute or constitutional provision to be valid DCA decisions that expressly affects a class of constitutional/state officers DCA decisions that expressly and directly conflict with the decision of another DCA or of the Florida Supreme Court DCA decisions that the DCA certifies, or orders or judgments of trial courts certified by a DCA in which
Age of candidacy
Age of candidacy is the minimum age at which a person can qualify to hold certain elected government offices. In many cases, it determines the age at which a person may be eligible to stand for an election or be granted ballot access; the first known example of a law enforcing age of candidacy was the Lex Villia Annalis, a Roman law enacted in 180 BCE which set the minimum ages for senatorial magistrates. Many youth rights groups view current age of candidacy requirements as unjustified age discrimination. People who are younger than the minimum age will run for an office in protest of the requirement or because they don't know that the requirement exists. On rare occasions, young people have been elected to offices they do not qualify for and have been deemed ineligible to assume the office. In 1934, Rush Holt of West Virginia was elected to the Senate of the United States at the age of 29. Since the U. S. Constitution requires senators to be at least 30, Holt was forced to wait until his 30th birthday, six months after the start of the session, before being sworn in.
In 1954, Richard Fulton won election to the Tennessee Senate. Shortly after being sworn in, Fulton was ousted from office; the Tennessee State Constitution required that senators be at least 30. Rather than hold a new election, the previous incumbent, Clifford Allen, was allowed to resume his office for another term. Fulton went on to win the next State Senate election in 1956 and was elected to the US House of Representatives where he served for 10 years. In 1964 Congressman Jed Johnson, Jr. of Oklahoma was elected to the 89th Congress in the 1964 election while still aged 24 years. However, he became eligible for the House after turning 25 on his birthday, December 27, 1964, 7 days before his swearing in, making him the youngest elected and seated member of the United States Congress. In South Carolina, two Senators aged 24 were elected, but were too young according to the State Constitution: Mike Laughlin in 1969 and Bryan Dorn in 1941, they were seated anyway. On several occasions, the Socialist Workers Party has nominated candidates too young to qualify for the offices they were running for.
In 1972, Linda Jenness ran as the SWP presidential candidate. Since the U. S. Constitution requires that the President and Vice President be at least 35 years old, Jenness was not able to receive ballot access in several states in which she otherwise qualified. Despite this handicap, Jenness still received 83,380 votes. In 2004, the SWP nominated Arrin Hawkins as the party's vice-presidential candidate, although she was 28 at the time. Hawkins was unable to receive ballot access in several states due to her age. In the United States, many groups have attempted to lower age of candidacy requirements in various states. In 1994, South Dakota voters rejected a ballot measure that would have lowered the age requirements to serve as a State Senator or State Representative from 30 to 18. In 1998, they approved a similar ballot measure that reduced the age requirements for those offices from 25 to 21. In 2002, Oregon voters rejected a ballot measure that would have reduced the age requirement to serve as a State Representative from 21 to 18.
During the early 2000s, the British Youth Council and other groups campaigned to lower age of candidacy requirements in the United Kingdom. The age of candidacy was reduced from 21 to 18 in England and Scotland on 1 January 2007, when section 17 of the Electoral Administration Act 2006 entered into force. International electoral standards which are defined in the International Public Human Rights Law, allow restricting candidacy on the basis of age; the interpretation of the International Covenant for Civil and Political Rights offered by the United Nations Human Rights Committee in the General Comment 25 states "Any conditions which apply to the exercise of the rights protected by article 25 should be based on objective and reasonable criteria. For example, it may be reasonable to require a higher age for election or appointment to particular offices than for exercising the right to vote, which should be available to every adult citizen." In Australia a person must be aged 18 or over to stand for election to public office at federal, state or local government level.
The youngest member of the House of Representatives was 20-year-old Wyatt Roy elected in the 2010 federal election after the Electoral Act 1918 was amended to reduce the age of candidacy for that office from 21 to 18. In Austria, a person must be 18 years of age or older to stand in elections to the European Parliament or National Council; the Diets of regional Länder are able to set a minimum age lower than 18 for to be in the polls in elections to the Diet itself as well as to municipal councils in the Land. In presidential elections the candidacy age is 35. Any Belgian who has reached the age of 18 years can stand for election for the Chamber of Representatives, can become a member of the Senate, or can be elected in one of the regional parliaments; this is regulated in the Special Law on the Reform of the Institutions. According to the Constitution of Belize, a person must be at least 18 years old to be elected as a member of the House of Representatives and must be at least 30 to be Speaker of the House.
A person must be at least 18 years old to be appointed to the Senate and must be at least 30 to be President or Vice-President of the Senate. As only members of the House of Representatives are eligible to be appointed Prime Minister, the Prime Minister must be at least 18 years old. A person must be at least 18 years old to be elected to a village council; the Brazilian Constitutio
An aircraft pilot or aviator is a person who controls the flight of an aircraft by operating its directional flight controls. Some other aircrew members, such as navigators or flight engineers, are considered aviators, because they are involved in operating the aircraft's navigation and engine systems. Other aircrew members, such as flight attendants and ground crew, are not classified as aviators. In recognition of the pilots' qualifications and responsibilities, most militaries and many airlines worldwide award aviator badges to their pilots; the first recorded use of the term aviator was in 1887, as a variation of "aviation", from the Latin avis, coined in 1863 by G. de la Landelle in Aviation Ou Navigation Aérienne. The term aviatrix, now archaic, was used for a female aviator; these terms were used more in the early days of aviation, when airplanes were rare, connoted bravery and adventure. For example, a 1905 reference work described the Wright brothers' first airplane: "The weight, including the body of the aviator, is a little more than 700 pounds".
To ensure the safety of people in the air and on the ground, early aviation soon required that aircraft be under the operational control of a properly trained, certified pilot at all times, responsible for the safe and legal completion of the flight. The Aéro-Club de France delivered the first certificate to Louis Blériot in 1908—followed by Glenn Curtiss, Léon Delagrange, Robert Esnault-Pelterie; the British Royal Aero Club followed in 1910 and the Aero Club of America in 1911. Civilian pilots fly aircraft of all types for pleasure, charity, or in pursuance of a business, or commercially for non-scheduled and scheduled passenger and cargo air carriers, corporate aviation, forest fire control, law enforcement, etc; when flying for an airline, pilots are referred to as airline pilots, with the pilot in command referred to as the captain. There are 290,000 airline pilots in the world in 2017 and aircraft simulator manufacturer CAE Inc. forecasts a need for 255,000 new ones for a population of 440,000 by 2027, 150,000 for growth and 105,000 to offset retirement and attrition: 90,000 in Asia-Pacific, 85,000 in Americas, 50,000 in Europe and 30,000 in Middle East & Africa.
Boeing expects 790,000 new pilots in 20 years from 2018, 635,000 for commercial aviation, 96,000 for business aviation and 59,000 for helicopters: 33% in Asia Pacific, 26% in North America, 18% in Europe, 8% in the Middle East, 7% in Latin America, 4% in Africa and 3% in Russia/ Central Asia. By November 2017, due a shortage of qualified pilots, some pilots are leaving corporate aviation to return to airlines. In one example a Global 6000 pilot, making $250,000 a year for 10 to 15 flight hours a month, returned to American Airlines with full seniority. A Gulfstream G650 or Global 6000 pilot might earn between $245,000 and $265,000, recruiting one may require up to $300,000. At the other end of the spectrum, constrained by the available pilots, some small carriers hire new pilots who need 300 hours to jump to airlines in a year, they may recruit non-career pilots who have other jobs or airline retirees who want to continue to fly. The number of airline pilots could decrease as automation replaces copilots and pilots as well.
In January 2017 Rhett Ross, CEO of Continental Motors said "my concern is that in the next two decades—if not sooner—automated and autonomous flight will have developed sufficiently to put downward pressure on both wages and the number and kind of flying jobs available. So if a kid asks the question now and he or she is 18, 20 years from now will be 2037 and our would-be careerist will be 38—not mid-career. Who among us thinks aviation and for-hire flying will look like it does now?" Christian Dries, owner of Diamond Aircraft Austria said "Behind the curtain, aircraft manufacturers are working on a single-pilot cockpit where the airplane can be controlled from the ground and only in case of malfunction does the pilot of the plane interfere. The flight will be autonomous and I expect this to happen in the next five to six years for freighters."In August 2017 financial company UBS predicted pilotless airliners are technically feasible and could appear around 2025, offering around $35bn of savings in pilot costs: $26bn for airlines, $3bn for business jets and $2.1bn for civil helicopters.
Regulations have to adapt with air cargo at the forefront, but pilotless flights could be limited by consumer behaviour: 54% of 8,000 people surveyed are defiant while 17% are supportive, with acceptation progressively forecast. AVweb reporter Geoff Rapoport stated, "pilotless aircraft are an appealing prospect for airlines bracing for the need to hire several hundred thousand new pilots in the next decade. Wages and training costs have been rising at regional U. S. airlines over the last several years as the major airlines have hired pilots from the regionals at unprecedented rates to cover increased air travel demand from economic expansion and a wave of retirements". Going to pilotless airliners could be done in one bold step or in gradual improvements like by reducing the cockpit crew for long haul missions or allowing single pilot cargo aircraft; the industry has not decided
Lists of countries and territories
This list is incomplete. You can help by expanding itThis is a list of many lists of countries and territories by various definitions, including FIFA countries and fictional countries. A country or territory in the sense of nation or state. 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