Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street
Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street is a 1979 musical thriller with music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and book by Hugh Wheeler. The musical is based on the 1973 play Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street by Christopher Bond. Sweeney Todd opened on Broadway in 1979 and in the West End in 1980, it won the Tony Award for Best Olivier Award for Best New Musical. It has since had numerous revivals as well as a film adaptation; the character of Sweeney Todd had its origins in serialized Victorian popular fiction, known as "penny dreadfuls". A story called The String of Pearls was published in a weekly magazine during the winter of 1846-47. Set in 1785, the story featured as its principal villain a certain Sweeney Todd and included all the plot elements that were used by Sondheim and others since; the murderous barber’s story proved popular – it was turned into a play before the ending had been revealed in print. An expanded edition appeared in 1850, an American version in 1852, a new play in 1865.
By the 1870s, Sweeney Todd was a familiar character to most Victorians. Sondheim’s musical was, in fact, based on Christopher Bond’s 1973 spooky melodrama, which introduced a psychological background to Todd’s crimes. In Bond's reincarnation of the character, Todd was the victim of a ruthless judge who raped his young wife and exiled him to Australia. Sondheim first conceived of a musical version of the story in 1973, after he went to see Bond's ghoulish take on the story at Theatre Royal Stratford East. Bond's sophisticated plot and language elevated the lurid nature of the tale. Sondheim once noted, "It had a weight to it.... He infused into it plot elements from Jacobean tragedy and The Count of Monte Cristo, he was able to take all these disparate elements, in existence rather dully for a hundred and some-odd years and make them into a first-rate play.”Sondheim felt that the addition of music would increase the size of the drama, transforming it into a different theatrical experience, saying later: “What I did to Chris' play is more than enhance it.
I had a feeling. The effect it had at Stratford East in London and the effect it had at the Uris Theater in New York are two different effects though it's the same play, it was charming over there because they don't take Sweeney Todd seriously. Our production was larger in scope. Hal Prince gave it an epic sense, a sense that this was a man of some size instead of just a nut case; the music helps to give it that dimension.”Music proved to be a key element behind the impact of Sweeney Todd on audiences. Over eighty percent of the production is set to music, either sung or orchestrated underneath dialogue; the score is one vast structure, each individual part meshing with others for the good of the entire musical machine. Never before or since in his work has Sondheim utilized music in such an exhaustive capacity to further the purposes of the drama. Sondheim decided to pair one of the most nightmarish songs with the comic-relief of "A Little Priest"; this pair of songs at the end of Act I was the most significant musical addition which Sondheim made to Bond’s version of the story.
In the play, Sweeney Todd’s mental collapse and the subsequent plan for Lovett's meat pies take place in less than half a page of dialogue, much too to convey the full psychological impact, in the view of scholar Larry A. Brown. Sondheim's version more reveals the developing ideas in Sweeney Todd and Mrs. Lovett's demented minds. Sondheim has said that his Sweeney Todd was about obsession – and close friends seemed to instinctually agree; when Sondheim first played songs from an early version of the show for Judy Prince, she told him: "Oh God – I didn't know this was what was about. It's nothing to do with Grand Guignol. It's the story of your life."What Sondheim thought of as "a small horror piece" became a colossal portrait of the Industrial Revolution in the hands of director Hal Prince. At first, Prince was not interested in directing the show, he discovered a metaphor which expanded the story into an essay on the human condition. On the stage of the Uris Theater in New York, this tale of horrors was transformed into a mountain of steel in motion.
Prince's scenic metaphor for Sweeney Todd was a 19th-century iron foundry moved from Rhode Island and reassembled on the stage, which critic Jack Kroll aptly described as "part cathedral, part factory, part prison, that dwarfed and degraded the swarming denizens of the lower orders."The massive scope of Prince's setting went beyond Sondheim's intentions. Sondheim admits that his conception of the show differed from that of Prince: "Hal's metaphor is that the factory turns out Sweeney Todds, it turns out soulless, hopeless people. That's. I think. Sweeney Todd is a man bent on personal revenge, the way we all are in one way or another, it has nothing whatsoever to do with the time he lived in, as far as I'm concerned.”When it came to casting, Sondheim thought stage veteran Angela Lansbury would add some needed comedy to the grim tale as the lunatic Cockney shopkeeper, but Lansbury needed to be convinced. She was a star by the late 1970s, and, as she pointed out to Sondheim, "Your show is not called'Nellie Lovett', it's called'Sweeney Todd'.
And I'm the second banana." To convince her, Sondheim "auditioned," writing a couple of songs for her, including the macabre patter song, "A Little Priest." And he gave her the key to the character, saying "I w
Anyone Can Whistle
Anyone Can Whistle is a musical with a book by Arthur Laurents and music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim. The story concerns a corrupt mayoress, an idealistic nurse, a man who may be a doctor, various officials and townspeople, all fighting to save a bankrupt town; this musical was Angela Lansbury's first stage musical role. The show was first announced in The New York Times on October 5, 1961: "For the winter of 1962, is nurturing another musical project, The Natives Are Restless; the narrative and staging will be Mr. Laurent's handiwork. A meager description was furnished by Mr. Laurents. Although the title might indicate otherwise, it is contemporary in scope. No producer yet." No news of the show appeared until July 14, 1963, in an article in The New York Times about Kermit Bloomgarden, where it discussed the four shows he was producing for the coming season. One of the latter was a Sondheim-Laurents musical. In a letter to Bloomgarden, Laurents wrote, "I beg you not to mention the money problems or any difficulties to Steve anymore.
It depresses him and makes it difficult for him to work... It is damn hard to concentrate... when all the atmosphere is filled with gloom and forebodings about will the show get the money to go on?... Spare him the gory details." This behavior is considered unusual for Laurents. Sondheim discovered that Laurents hated doing backers' auditions and he took over that responsibility and singing more than 30, they found 115 investors to back the $350,000 production, including Richard Rodgers and Sondheim's father. Eager to work with both Laurents and Sondheim, Angela Lansbury accepted the lead role as Mayoress Cora Hoover Hooper, despite her strong misgivings about the script and her ability to handle the score. Signed were Lee Remick as Nurse Fay Apple and Harry Guardino as Hapgood. Laurents had wanted Barbra Streisand for the role of Fay, but she turned it down to star in Funny Girl. Following rehearsals in New York City, the company started pre-Broadway tryouts in Philadelphia from March 2 to 21, 1964.
Laurents, ignoring criticism about the show's message being trite and its absurdist style difficult to comprehend, poured his energies into restaging rather than dealing with the crux of the problem. The show suffered further setbacks when supporting actor Henry Lascoe, who played Comptroller Schubb, suffered a heart attack during the show's out-of-town tryout, was replaced by Gabriel Dell. According to Sondheim, "Lansbury was so insecure onstage, unhappy with her performance, that we considered replacing her, it soon became apparent that it had been Lascoe, an old pro...who had made her feel like an amateur. The minute his much less confident understudy took over, she felt free to blossom, which she spectacularly did." Sondheim called the reviews "humiliating" and the audiences "hostile." After multiple revisions, the show opened on Broadway on April 4, 1964, at the Majestic Theatre, where it closed after 9 performances and 12 previews, unable to overcome the negative reviews it had received.
Scenic design was by William and Jean Eckart, costume design by Theoni V. Aldredge, lighting design by Jules Fisher. Choreographer Herbert Ross received the show's sole Tony Award nomination; the show became a cult favorite, a truncated original cast recording released by Columbia Records sold well among Sondheim fans and musical theatre buffs. "There Won't Be Trumpets," a song cut during previews, has become a favorite of cabaret performers. On April 8, 1995, a staged concert was held at Carnegie Hall in New York City as a benefit for the Gay Men's Health Crisis; the concert was recorded by Columbia Records, preserving for the first time musical passages and numbers not included on the original Broadway cast recording. For example, the cut song "There's Always A Woman" was included at this concert. Lansbury served as narrator, with Madeline Kahn as Cora, Bernadette Peters as Fay, Scott Bakula as Hapgood. Additional cast included Chip Zien, Ken Page, Harvey Evans, the only original cast member to reprise his role.
In 2003, Sony reissued the original Broadway cast recording on compact disc. Two revivals were staged that year, one in London, at the Bridewell Theatre, one in Los Angeles, at the Matrix Theatre; the Ravinia Festival, Highland Park, presented a staged concert on August 26 and 27, 2005, with Audra McDonald, Michael Cerveris and Patti LuPone. On January 11, 2008, Talk Is Free Theatre presented the Canadian professional premiere at the Gryphon Theatre in Barrie, with a fundraiser performance on January 13 at the Diesel Playhouse in Toronto, Ontario, it starred Adam Brazier as Hapgood, Kate Hennig as Cora, Blythe Wilson as Fay, Richard Ouzounian as Narrator, who served as director. Choreography was by Sam Strasfeld. Additional cast included Juan Chioran as Comptroller Shub, Jonathan Monro as Treasurer Cooley, Mark Harapiak as Chief Magruder. Musical direction was provided by Wayne Gwillim. New York City Center Encores! Presented a staged concert from April 8 through April 11, 2010, with Sutton Foster as Nurse Fay Apple, Donna Murphy as Mayoress Cora Hoover Hooper, Raul Esparza as Hapgood, with direction and choreography by Casey Nicholaw.
The production was the second most attended in Encores! history, Stephen Sondheim was present at the post-matinee talkback on April 10. A London production of Anyone can Whistle opened at the Jermyn Street Studio Theatre, London, in association with Primavera Productions, running from March 10, 2010, to April 17, 2010; the director is Tom Littler
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Stephen Joshua Sondheim is an American composer and lyricist known for more than a half-century of contributions to musical theatre. Sondheim has received an Academy Award, eight Tony Awards, eight Grammy Awards, a Pulitzer Prize, a Laurence Olivier Award, a 2015 Presidential Medal of Freedom, he has been described by Frank Rich of The New York Times as "now the greatest and best-known artist in the American musical theater". His best-known works as composer and lyricist include A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum, Follies, A Little Night Music, Pacific Overtures, Sweeney Todd, Merrily We Roll Along, Sunday in the Park with George, Into the Woods and Passion, he wrote the lyrics for West Side Story and Gypsy. Sondheim has written film music, he wrote five songs for 1990's Dick Tracy, including "Sooner or Later," sung in the film by Madonna, which won the Academy Award for Best Original Song. Sondheim was president of the Dramatists Guild from 1973 to 1981. To celebrate his 80th birthday, the former Henry Miller's Theatre was renamed the Stephen Sondheim Theatre on September 15, 2010, the BBC Proms held a concert in his honor.
Cameron Mackintosh has called Sondheim "possibly the greatest lyricist ever". Sondheim was born into a Jewish family in the son of Etta Janet and Herbert Sondheim, his father manufactured dresses designed by his mother. The composer grew up on the Upper West Side of Manhattan and, after his parents divorced, on a farm near Doylestown, Pennsylvania; as the only child of well-to-do parents living in the San Remo on Central Park West, he was described in Meryle Secrest's biography as an isolated neglected child. When he lived in New York, Sondheim attended ECFS, the Ethical Culture Fieldston School known as "Fieldston", he attended the New York Military Academy and George School, a private Quaker preparatory school in Bucks County, Pennsylvania where he wrote his first musical, By George, from which he graduated in 1946. Sondheim spent several summers at Camp Androscoggin, he matriculated to Williams College and graduated in 1950. He traces his interest in theatre to Very Warm for May, a Broadway musical.
"The curtain went up and revealed a piano," Sondheim recalled. "A butler brushed it up, tinkling the keys. I thought, thrilling."When Sondheim was ten years old, his father had left his mother for another woman. Herbert was unsuccessful. Sondheim explained to biographer Secrest that he was "what they call an institutionalized child, meaning one who has no contact with any kind of family. You're in, though it's luxurious, you're in an environment that supplies you with everything but human contact. No brothers and sisters, no parents, yet plenty to eat, friends to play with and a warm bed, you know?" Sondheim detested his mother, said to be psychologically abusive and projected her anger from her failed marriage on her son: "When my father left her, she substituted me for him. And she used me the way she used him, to come on to and to berate, beat up on, you see. What she did for five years was treat me like dirt, but come on to me at the same time." She once wrote him a letter saying that the "only regret had was giving him birth".
When his mother died in the spring of 1992, Sondheim did not attend her funeral. He had been estranged from her for nearly 20 years; when Sondheim was about ten years old, he became friends with James Hammerstein, son of lyricist and playwright Oscar Hammerstein II. The elder Hammerstein became Sondheim's surrogate father, influencing him profoundly and developing his love of musical theatre. Sondheim met Hal Prince, who would direct many of his shows, at the opening of South Pacific, Hammerstein's musical with Richard Rodgers; the comic musical he wrote at George School, By George, was a success among his peers and buoyed the young songwriter's self-esteem. When Sondheim asked Hammerstein to evaluate it as though he had no knowledge of its author, he said it was the worst thing he had seen: "But if you want to know why it's terrible, I'll tell you." They spent the rest of the day going over the musical, Sondheim said, "In that afternoon I learned more about songwriting and the musical theater than most people learn in a lifetime."Hammerstein designed a course of sorts for Sondheim on constructing a musical.
He had the young composer write four musicals, each with one of the following conditions: Based on a play he admired Based on a play he liked but thought flawed. High Tor and Mary Poppins have never been produced: The rights holder for the original High Tor refused permission, Mary Poppins was unfinished. Sondheim began attending Williams College, a liberal arts college in Williamstown, Massachusetts whose theatre program attracted him, his first teacher there was Robert Barrow:... everybody hated him because he was dry, I thought he was
Into the Woods
Into the Woods is a musical with music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and book by James Lapine. The musical intertwines the plots of several Brothers Grimm and Charles Perrault fairy tales, exploring the consequences of the characters' wishes and quests; the main characters are taken from "Little Red Riding Hood", "Jack and the Beanstalk", "Rapunzel", "Cinderella", as well as several others. The musical is tied together by a story involving a childless baker and his wife and their quest to begin a family, their interaction with a witch who has placed a curse on them, their interaction with other storybook characters during their journey; the musical debuted in San Diego at the Old Globe Theatre in 1986 and premiered on Broadway on November 5, 1987, where it won several Tony Awards, including Best Score, Best Book, Best Actress in a Musical, in a year dominated by The Phantom of the Opera. The musical has since been produced many times, with a 1988 US national tour, a 1990 West End production, a 1997 tenth anniversary concert, a 2002 Broadway revival, a 2010 London revival, in 2012 as part of New York City's outdoor Shakespeare in the Park series.
A Disney film adaptation directed by Rob Marshall and starring Meryl Streep, Emily Blunt, James Corden, Anna Kendrick, Chris Pine, Tracey Ullman, Christine Baranski and Johnny Depp was released in 2014. The film grossed over $213 million worldwide, received three Academy Award nominations and three Golden Globe Award nominations; the Narrator introduces four characters: Cinderella. The Witch took the Baker's father's child Rapunzel, she explains the curse will be lifted if she is brought four ingredients – "the cow as white as milk, the cape as red as blood, the hair as yellow as corn, the slipper as pure as gold – in three days' time. All begin the journey into the woods: Jack to sell his beloved cow. Cinderella receives golden slippers from her mother's spirit. A Mysterious Man mocks Jack for valuing his cow more than a "sack of beans". Little Red meets a hungry Wolf; the Baker, followed by his Wife, meets Jack. They convince Jack that the beans found in the Baker's father's jacket are magic and trade them for the cow.
The Baker has qualms about their deceit. The Witch has raised Rapunzel in a tall tower accessible only by climbing Rapunzel's long, golden hair; the Baker, in pursuit of the red cape, rescues Little Red and her grandmother. Little Red rewards him with her cape, reflects on her experiences. Jack's Mother tosses his beans aside. Cinderella flees the Festival, pursued by another Prince, the Baker's Wife hides her. Spotting Cinderella's gold slippers, the Baker's Wife loses Milky White; the characters recite morals. Jack describes his adventure climbing the beanstalk, he gives the Baker gold stolen from the giants to buy back his cow, returns up the beanstalk to find more. Cinderella's Prince and Rapunzel's Prince, who are brothers, compare their unobtainable amours; the Baker's Wife overhears their talk of a girl with golden hair. She takes a piece of her hair; the Mysterious Man returns Milky White to the Baker. The Baker's Wife again fails to seize Cinderella's slippers; the Baker admits. Jack arrives with a hen that lays golden eggs.
The Witch discovers the Prince's demands Rapunzel stay sheltered from the world. She refuses, the Witch cuts off Rapunzel's hair and banishes her; the Mysterious Man gives the Baker money for another cow. Jack meets Little Red, now sporting knife, she goads him into returning to the Giant's home. Cinderella, torn between staying with her Prince or escaping, leaves him a slipper as a clue, trades shoes with the Baker's Wife; the Baker arrives with another cow. A great crash is heard, Jack's mother reports a dead Giant in her backyard. Jack returns with a magic harp; the Witch discovers the new cow is useless, resurrects Milky White, fed the ingredients but fails to give milk. The Witch explains Rapunzel's hair will not work, the Mysterious Man offers corn silk instead; the Witch reveals the Mysterious Man is the Baker's father, she drinks – he falls dead, the curse is broken, the Witch regains her youth and beauty. Cinderella's Prince seeks the girl. Cinderella becomes his bride. Rapunzel is found by her Prince.
The Witch finds. At Cinderella's wedding, her stepsisters are blinded by birds, the Baker's Wife pregnant, thanks Cinderella for her help
A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum
A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum is a musical with music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and book by Burt Shevelove and Larry Gelbart. Inspired by the farces of the ancient Roman playwright Plautus Pseudolus, Miles Gloriosus, Mostellaria, the musical tells the bawdy story of a slave named Pseudolus and his attempts to win his freedom by helping his young master woo the girl next door; the plot displays many classic elements of farce, including puns, the slamming of doors, cases of mistaken identity, satirical comments on social class. The title derives from a line used by vaudeville comedians to begin a story: "A funny thing happened on the way to the theater"; the musical's original 1962 Broadway run won several Tony Awards, including Best Musical and Best Author. A Funny Thing has enjoyed several Broadway and West End revivals and was made into a successful film starring the original lead of the stage musical, Zero Mostel. A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum opened on Broadway on May 8, 1962, at the Alvin Theatre, transferred to the Mark Hellinger Theatre and the Majestic Theatre, where the show closed on August 29, 1964, after 964 performances and 8 previews.
The show's creators wanted Phil Silvers in the lead role of Pseudolus, but he turned them down because he would have to perform onstage without his glasses, his vision was so poor that he feared tripping into the orchestra pit. He is quoted as turning down the role for being "Sgt. Bilko in a toga". Milton Berle passed on the role. Zero Mostel was cast. During the out of town pre-Broadway tryouts the show was attracting little business and not playing well. Jerome Robbins was called in to make changes; the biggest change Robbins made was a new opening number to replace "Love Is in the Air" and introduce the show as a bawdy, wild comedy. Stephen Sondheim wrote the song "Comedy Tonight" for this new opening. From that point on, the show was a success, it was directed by George Abbott and produced by Hal Prince, with choreography by Jack Cole and uncredited staging and choreography by Robbins. The scenic and costume design was by Tony Walton; this wardrobe is on display at the Costume World Broadway Collection in Florida.
The lighting design was by Jean Rosenthal. Along with Mostel, the musical featured a cast of seasoned performers, including Jack Gilford, David Burns, John Carradine, Ruth Kobart, Raymond Walburn; the young lovers were played by Preshy Marker. Karen Black cast as the ingenue, was replaced out of town; the show won several Tony Awards: Best Musical, Best Actor, Best Supporting Actor, Best Book, Best Director. The score, was coolly received; the show was presented twice in London's West End. The 1963 production and its 1986 revival were staged at the Strand Theatre and the Piccadilly Theatre and starred Frankie Howerd as Pseudolus and Leon Greene as Miles Gloriosus in both. In the 1963 production, Kenneth Connor appeared as Hysterium,'Monsewer' Eddie Gray as Senex, Jon Pertwee as Marcus Lycus, Leon Greene as Miles Gloriosus. In the 1986 revival, Patrick Cargill was Senex with Ronnie Stevens as Hysterium and Derek Royle as Erronius. In 2004 there was a limited-run revival at the Royal National Theatre, starring Desmond Barrit as Pseudolus, Philip Quast as Miles Gloriosus, Hamish McColl as Hysterium and Isla Blair as Domina.
This production was nominated for Outstanding Musical Production. A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum was made into a musical film in 1966, directed by Richard Lester, with Mostel and Gilford re-creating their Broadway stage roles, Leon Greene reprising his West End stage role, Phil Silvers in an expanded role as "Marcus Lycus". David Burns did not return for the film role of Senex, played in the film by Michael Hordern. Buster Keaton made his final film appearance in the role of Erronius. A revival opened on Broadway at the Lunt-Fontanne Theatre on April 4, 1972 and closed on August 12, 1972 after 156 performances. Directed by co-author Burt Shevelove the cast starred Phil Silvers as Pseudolus, Lew Parker as Senex, Carl Ballantine as Lycus and Reginald Owen as Erronius. Larry Blyden, who played Hysterium, the role created by Jack Gilford co-produced. "Pretty Little Picture" and "That'll Show Him" were dropped from the show, were replaced with "Echo Song", "Farewell". "Echo Song" and "Farewell" had been added to a production staged in Los Angeles the previous year and were composed by Sondheim.
They had to close soon. The show won two Tony Awards, Best Leading Actor in a Musical for Silvers, Best Featured Actor in a Musical for Blyden; the musical was revived again with great success in 1996, opening at the St. James Theatre on April 18, 1996 and closing on January 4, 1998 after 715 performances; the cast starred Nathan Lane as Pseudolus, Mark Linn-Baker as Hysterium, Ernie Sabella as Lycus, Jim Stanek as Hero, Lewis J. Stadlen as Senex, Cris Groenendaal as Miles Gloriosus; the production was directed by Jerry Zaks, with choreography by Rob Marsha
An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i