In inorganic nomenclature, a manganate is any negatively charged molecular entity with manganese as the central atom. However, the name is used to refer to the tetraoxidomanganate anion, MnO2−4 known as manganate because it contains manganese in the +6 oxidation state. Manganates are the only known manganese compounds. Other manganates include hypomanganate or manganate, MnO3−4, permanganate or manganate, MnO−4, the dimanganite or dimanganate Mn2O6−6. A manganate anion MnO4−4 has been prepared by radiolysis of dilute solutions of permanganate, it is mononuclear in dilute solution, shows a strong absorption in the ultraviolet and a weaker absorption at 650 nm. The manganate ion is tetrahedral, similar to sulfate or chromate: indeed, manganates are isostructural with sulfates and chromates, a fact first noted by Mitscherlich in 1831; the manganese–oxygen distance is 165.9 pm, about 3 pm longer than in permanganate. As a d1 ion, it is paramagnetic, but any Jahn–Teller distortion is too small to be detected by X-ray crystallography.
Manganates are dark green in colour. The Raman spectrum has been reported. Sodium and potassium manganates are prepared in the laboratory by stirring the equivalent permanganate in a concentrated solution of the hydroxide for 24 hours or with heating. 4 MnO−4 + 4 OH− → 4 MnO2−4 + 2 H2O + O2Potassium manganate is prepared industrially, as an intermediate to potassium permanganate, by dissolving manganese dioxide in molten potassium hydroxide with potassium nitrate or air as the oxidizing agent. 2 MnO2 + 4 OH− + O2 → 2 MnO2−4 + 2 H2O Manganates the insoluble barium manganate, BaMnO4, have been used as oxidizing agents in organic synthesis: they will oxidize primary alcohols to aldehydes and to carboxylic acids, secondary alcohols to ketones. Barium manganate has been used to oxidize hydrazones to diazo compounds. Manganates are unstable towards disproportionation in all but the most alkaline of aqueous solutions; the ultimate products are permanganate and manganese dioxide, but the kinetics are complex and the mechanism may involve protonated and/or manganese species.
Manganate is formally the conjugate base of hypothetical manganic acid H2MnO4, which cannot be formed because of its rapid disproportionation. However, its second acid dissociation constant has been estimated by pulse radiolysis techniques: HMnO−4 ⇌ MnO2−4 + H+ pKa = 7.4 ± 0.1 The name "manganite" is used for compounds believed to contain the anion MnO3−3, with manganese in the +3 oxidation state. However, most of these "manganites" do not contain discrete oxoanions, but are mixed oxides with perovskite, spinel or sodium chloride structures. One exception is potassium dimanganate, K6Mn2O6, which contains discrete Mn2O6−6 anions
Royal Society of Chemistry
The Royal Society of Chemistry is a learned society in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences". It was formed in 1980 from the amalgamation of the Chemical Society, the Royal Institute of Chemistry, the Faraday Society, the Society for Analytical Chemistry with a new Royal Charter and the dual role of learned society and professional body. At its inception, the Society had a combined membership of 34,000 in the UK and a further 8,000 abroad; the headquarters of the Society are at Burlington House, London. It has offices in Thomas Graham House in Cambridge where RSC Publishing is based; the Society has offices in the United States at the University City Science Center, Philadelphia, in both Beijing and Shanghai and Bangalore, India. The organisation carries out research, publishes journals and databases, as well as hosting conferences and workshops, it is the professional body for chemistry in the UK, with the ability to award the status of Chartered Chemist and, through the Science Council the awards of Chartered Scientist, Registered Scientist and Registered Science Technician to suitably qualified candidates.
The designation FRSC is given to a group of elected Fellows of the society who have made major contributions to chemistry and other interface disciplines such as biological chemistry. The names of Fellows are published each year in The Times. Honorary Fellowship of the Society is awarded for distinguished service in the field of chemistry; the president is elected biennially and wears a badge in the form of a spoked wheel, with the standing figure of Joseph Priestley depicted in enamel in red and blue, on a hexagonal medallion in the centre. The rim of the wheel is gold, the twelve spokes are of non-tarnishable metals; the current president is Dame Carol V. Robinson. Past presidents of the society have been: The following are membership grades with post-nominals: Affiliate: The grade for students and those involved in chemistry who do not meet the requirements for the following grades. AMRSC: Associate Member, Royal Society of Chemistry The entry level for RSC membership, AMRSC is awarded to graduates in the chemical sciences.
MRSC: Member, Royal Society of Chemistry Awarded to graduates with at least 3 years' experience, who have acquired key skills through professional activity FRSC: Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry Fellowship may be awarded to nominees who have made an outstanding contribution to chemistry. HonFRSC: Honorary Fellow of the Society Honorary Fellowship is awarded for distinguished service in the field of chemistry. CChem: Chartered Chemist The award of CChem is considered separately from admission to a category of RSC membership. Candidates need to be MRSC or FRSC and demonstrate development of specific professional attributes and be in a job which requires their chemical knowledge and skills. CSci: Chartered Scientist The RSC is a licensed by the Science Council for the registration of Chartered Scientists. EurChem: European Chemist The RSC is a member of the European Communities Chemistry Council, can award this designation to Chartered Chemists. MChemA: Mastership in Chemical Analysis The RSC awards this postgraduate qualification, the UK statutory qualification for practice as a Public Analyst.
It requires candidates to submit a portfolio of suitable experience and to take theory papers and a one-day laboratory practical examination. The qualification GRSC was awarded from 1981 to 1995 for completion of college courses equivalent to an honours chemistry degree and overseen by the RSC, it replaced the GRIC offered by the Royal Institute of Chemistry. The society is organised around 9 divisions, based on subject areas, local sections, both in the United Kingdom and overseas. Divisions cover broad areas of chemistry but contain many special interest groups for more specific areas. Analytical Division for analytical chemistry and promoting the original aims of the Society for Analytical Chemistry. 12 Subject Groups. Dalton Division, named after John Dalton, for inorganic chemistry. 6 Subject Groups. Education Division for chemical education. 4 Subject Groups. Faraday Division, named after Michael Faraday, for physical chemistry and promoting the original aims of the Faraday Society. 14 Subject Groups.
Organic Division for organic chemistry. 6 Subject Groups. Chemical Biology Interface Division. 2 Subject Groups. Environment and Energy Division. 3 Subject Groups. Materials Chemistry Division. 4 Subject Groups. Industry and Technology Division. 13 Subject Groups. There are 12 subjects groups not attached to a division. There are 35 local sections covering the United Ireland. In countries of the Commonwealth of Nations and many other countries there are Local Representatives of the society and some activities; the society is a not-for-profit publisher: surplus made by its publishing business is invested to support its aim of advancing the chemical sciences. In addition to scientific journals, including its flagship journals Chemical Communications, Chemical Science and Chemical Society Reviews, the society publishes: Education in Chemistry for teachers. A free online journal for chemistry educators, Chemistry Education Research and Practice. A general chemistry magazine Chemistry World, sent monthly to all members of the Society throughout the world.
The editorial board consists of 10 industrial chemists. It was first published in January 2004, it replaced C
Eilhard Mitscherlich was a German chemist, best remembered today for his discovery of the phenomenon of isomorphism in 1819. Mitscherlich was born at Neuende in the Lordship of Jever, his uncle, Christoph Wilhelm Mitscherlich, professor at the University of Göttingen, was in his day a celebrated scholar. Eilhard Mitscherlich was educated at Jever by the historian Friedrich Christoph Schlosser, in 1811 went to the University of Heidelberg devoting himself to philology, with an emphasis on the Persian language. In 1813 he went to Paris to seek permission to join the embassy which Napoleon I of France was establishing in Persia; the abdication of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1814 put an end to this, Mitscherlich resolved to study medicine in order that he might enjoy that freedom of travel allowed in the East to physicians. He began at Göttingen with the study of chemistry, this so arrested his attention that he gave up his idea to travel to Persia. From his days in Göttingen dates the treatise on certain parts of Eurasian history, compiled from manuscripts found in the university library and published in Persian and Latin in 1814, under the title Mirchondi historia Thaheridarum historicis nostris hucusque incognitorum Persiae principum.
In 1818 Mitscherlich worked in the laboratory of Heinrich Friedrich Link. There he studied phosphates, phosphites and arsenites, was able to confirm the conclusions of Jöns Jakob Berzelius as to their composition, his observation that corresponding phosphates and arsenates crystallize in the same form was the germ from which grew his theory of isomorphism, which theory was published in the proceedings of the Berlin Academy of Sciences in December 1819. In that same year Berzelius suggested Mitscherlich to the Prussian education minister Karl vom Stein zum Altenstein as successor to Martin Heinrich Klaproth at the University of Berlin. Altenstein did not carry out this suggestion, but he obtained for Mitscherlich a government grant to enable him to continue his studies in Berzelius' laboratory at the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm. Mitscherlich returned to Berlin in 1821, in the summer of 1822 he delivered his first lecture as extraordinary professor of chemistry at the university. In 1823 Mitscherlich was elected as foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
In the course of investigating the slight differences discovered by William Hyde Wollaston in the angles of the rhombohedra of the carbonates isomorphous with calcite, Mitscherlich observed that this angle in the case of calcite varied with the temperature. On extending this inquiry to other allotropic crystals, he observed a similar variation, was thus led, in 1825, to the discovery that allotropic crystals, when heated, expand unequally in the direction of dissimilar axes. In the following year he discovered the change, produced by change of temperature, in the direction of the optic axes of selenite, his investigation in 1826, of the two crystalline modifications of sulfur threw much light on the fact that the two minerals calcite and aragonite have the same composition but different crystalline forms, a property which Mitscherlich called polymorphism. In 1833 Mitscherlich made a series of careful determinations of the vapor densities of a large number of volatile substances, confirming the law of Gay-Lussac.
In 1833-34, Mitscherlich investigated the synthesis of diethyl ether from sulfuric acid. Through his careful studies, he realized that the acid was not being consumed during the production of the ether, although the reaction would not proceed unless the acid was present. After reviewing Mitscherlich's findings, Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius was led to coin the term "catalysis" for the acceleration or enablement of a chemical reaction by a substance that itself was not consumed in the reaction, he obtained selenic acid in 1827 and showed that its salts are isomorphous with the sulphates, while a few years he proved that the same thing is true of the manganates and the sulfates, of the permanganates and the perchlorates. He investigated the relation of benzene to other derivatives; as related by Gustav Rose Mitscherlich turned away from inorganic chemistry and devoted his attention to organic chemistry, starting out with an investigation of fuel and oil. Mitscherlich kept working on problems of organic chemistry until 1845.
His interest in mineralogy led him to study the geology of volcanic regions, he made frequent visits to the Eifel in an attempt to develop a theory on the cause of volcanism. He did not, publish any papers on the subject, though after his death his notes were arranged and published by J. L. A. Roth in the Memoirs of the Berlin Academy. Mitscherlich was an honorary member of all the great scientific societies, received the gold medal from the Royal Society of London for his discovery of the law of isomorphism, he was one of the few foreign associates of the French Institute. In 1855, Mitscherlichwas elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. In December 1861, symptoms of heart disease made their appearance, but Mitscherlich was able to carry on his academic work until December 1862, he died at Schöneberg near Berlin in 1863 and was buried in the St Matthäus Kirchhof Cemetery in Schöneberg close to the gravesites of Gustav Kirchhoff and Leopold Kronecker. Mitscherlich pu
Hydrazones are a class of organic compounds with the structure R1R2C=NNH2. They are related to ketones and aldehydes by the replacement of the oxygen with the NNH2 functional group, they are formed by the action of hydrazine on ketones or aldehydes. The formation of aromatic hydrazone derivatives is used to measure the concentration of low molecular weight aldehydes and ketones, e.g. in gas streams. For example, dinitrophenylhydrazine coated onto a silica sorbent is the basis of an adsorption cartridge; the hydrazones are eluted and analyzed by HPLC using a UV detector. The compound carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone is used to uncouple ATP synthesis and reduction of oxygen in oxidative phosphorylation in molecular biology. Phenylhydrazine reacts with glucose to form an osazone. Hydrazone-based coupling methods are used in medical biotechnology to couple drugs to targeted antibodies, e.g. antibodies against a certain type of cancer cell. The hydrazone-based bond is stable at neutral pH, but is destroyed in the acidic environment of lysosomes of the cell.
The drug is thereby released in the cell. In aqueous solution, aliphatic hydrazones are 102- to 103-fold more sensitive to hydrolysis than analogous oximes. Hydrazones are reactants in hydrazone iodination, the Shapiro reaction and the Bamford-Stevens reaction to vinyl compounds. A hydrazone is an intermediate in the Wolff–Kishner reduction. Hydrazones can be synthesized by the Japp–Klingemann reaction via β-keto-acids or β-keto-esters and aryl diazonium salts; the mechanochemical process was used as a green one to synthesize pharmaceutically attractive phenol hydrazones. Hydrazones are converted to azines when used in the preparation of 3,5-disubstituted 1H-pyrazoles, a reaction well known using hydrazine hydrate. In N,N′-dialkylhydrazones the C=N bond can be hydrolysed and reduced, the N-N bond can be reduced to the free amine; the carbon atom of the C=N bond can react with organometallic nucleophiles. The alpha-hydrogen atom is more acidic by 10 orders of magnitude compared to the ketone and therefore more nucleophilic.
Deprotonation with for instance LDA gives an azaenolate which can be alkylated by alkyl halides, a reaction pioneered by Elias James Corey and Dieter Enders in 1978. In asymmetric synthesis SAMP and RAMP are two chiral hydrazines that act as chiral auxiliary with a chiral hydrazone intermediate. Hydrazones Azo compound Imine Nitrosamine Hydrogenation of carbon–nitrogen double bonds
Potassium permanganate is an inorganic chemical compound and medication. As a medication it is used for cleaning dermatitis, it is a salt consisting of K + and MnO − 4 ions. It is a strong oxidizing agent, it dissolves in water to give intensely pink or purple solutions, the evaporation of which leaves prismatic purplish-black glistening crystals. In 2000, worldwide production was estimated at 30,000 tonnes. In this compound, manganese is in the +7 oxidation state; the wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$0.01 per gram of powder. In the United Kingdom a 400 milligram tablet costs the NHS £0.51. All applications of potassium permanganate exploit its oxidizing properties; as a strong oxidant that does not generate toxic byproducts, KMnO4 has many niche uses. Potassium permanganate is used for a number of skin conditions; this includes fungal infections of the foot, pemphigus, superficial wounds and tropical ulcers. It is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.
Potassium permanganate is used extensively in the water treatment industry. It is used as a regeneration chemical to remove iron and hydrogen sulfide from well water via a "Manganese Greensand" Filter. "Pot-Perm" is obtainable at pool supply stores and is used additionally to treat waste water. It was used to disinfect drinking water and can turn the water pink, it finds application in the control of nuisance organisms such as zebra mussels in fresh water collection and treatment systems. Aside from its use in water treatment, the other major application of KMnO4 is as a reagent for the synthesis of organic compounds. Significant amounts are required for the synthesis of ascorbic acid, saccharin, isonicotinic acid, pyrazinoic acid. Called Baeyer's reagent after the German organic chemist Adolf von Baeyer, KMnO4 is used in Qualitative organic analysis to test for the presence of unsaturation; the reagent is an alkaline solution of potassium permanganate. Reaction with double or triple bonds causes the color to fade from purplish-pink to brown.
Aldehydes and formic acid give a positive test. The test is antiquated. Potassium permanganate can be used to quantitatively determine the total oxidizable organic material in an aqueous sample; the value determined is known as the permanganate value. In analytical chemistry, a standardized aqueous solution of KMnO4 is sometimes used as an oxidizing titrant for redox titrations. In a related way, it is used as a reagent to determine the Kappa number of wood pulp. For the standardization of KMnO4 solutions, reduction by oxalic acid is used. Aqueous, acidic solutions of KMnO4 are used to collect gaseous mercury in flue gas during stationary source emissions testing. In histology, potassium permanganate was used as a bleaching agent. Ethylene absorbents extend storage time of bananas at high temperatures; this effect can be exploited by packing bananas in polyethylene together with potassium permanganate. By removing ethylene by oxidation, the permanganate delays the ripening, increasing the fruit's shelf life up to 4 weeks without the need for refrigeration.
Potassium permanganate is included in survival kits: as a fire starter, water sterilizer, for creating distress signals on snow. Potassium permanganate is added to "plastic sphere dispensers" to create backfires and controlled burns. Polymer spheres resembling ping-pong balls containing small amounts of permanganate are injected with ethylene glycol and projected towards the area where ignition is desired, where they spontaneously ignite seconds later. Both handheld and helicopter- or boat-mounted plastic sphere dispensers are used. Potassium permanganate is one of the principal chemicals used in the film and television industries to "age" props and set dressings, its ready conversion to brown MnO2 creates "hundred-year-old" or "ancient" looks on Hessian cloth, ropes and glass. In 1659, Johann Rudolf Glauber fused a mixture of the mineral pyrolusite and potassium carbonate to obtain a material that, when dissolved in water, gave a green solution which shifted to violet and finally red; this report represents the first description of the production of potassium permanganate.
Just under 200 years London chemist Henry Bollmann Condy had an interest in disinfectants. He patented this solution, marketed it as'Condy's Fluid'. Although effective, the solution was not stable; this was overcome by using potassium hydroxide rather than NaOH. This was more stable, had the advantage of easy conversion to the effective potassium permanganate crystals; this crystalline material was known as'Condy's crystals' or'Condy's powder'. Potassium permanganate was comparatively easy to manufacture, so Condy was subsequently forced to spend considerable time in litigation to stop competitors from marketing similar products. Early photographers used it as a component of flash powder, it is now replaced with other oxidizers, due to the instability of permanganate mixtures. Potassium permanganate is produced industrially from manganese dioxide, which occurs as the mineral pyrolusite; the MnO2 is fused with potassium hydroxide and heated in air or with another source of oxygen, like potassium nitrate or potassium chlorate.
This process gives potassium manganate: 2 MnO2 + 4 KOH + O2 → 2 K2MnO4 + 2 H2O(With sodium hydroxide, the end produ
Acid dissociation constant
An acid dissociation constant, Ka, is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution. It is the equilibrium constant for a chemical reaction known as dissociation in the context of acid–base reactions. K a =; the chemical species HA, A−, H+ are said to be in equilibrium when their concentrations do not change with the passing of time, because both forward and backward reactions are occurring at the same fast rate. The chemical equation for acid dissociation can be written symbolically as: HA ↽ − − ⇀ A − + H + where HA is a generic acid that dissociates into A−, the conjugate base of the acid and a hydrogen ion, H+, it is implicit in this definition that the quotient of activity coefficients, Γ, Γ = γ A − γ H + γ A H is a constant that can be ignored in a given set of experimental conditions. For many practical purposes it is more convenient to discuss the logarithmic constant, pKa p K a = − log 10 The more positive the value of pKa, the smaller the extent of dissociation at any given pH —that is, the weaker the acid.
A weak acid has a pKa value in the approximate range −2 to 12 in water. For a buffer solution consisting of a weak acid and its conjugate base, pKa can be expressed as: p K a = pH − log 10 The pKa for a weak monoprotic acid is conveniently determined by potentiometric titration with a strong base to the equivalence point and taking the pH value measured at one-half this volume as being equal to pKa; that is because at this half equivalence point, the number of moles of strong base added is one-half the number of moles of weak acid present, while the concentrations of the conjugate base and the remaining weak acid are the same. Acids with a pKa value of less than about −2 are said to be strong acids. In water, the dissociation of a strong acid in dilute solutions is complete such that the final concentration of the undissociated acid final is low. Consider a strong monoprotic acid, such as HCl; because of their 1:1 ratio, the final concentration of the conjugate base, final, is taken to be equal to the concentration of the hydronium ion, which can be directly measured by a pH meter.
For strong monoprotic acids like HCl, final and are both nearly equal to the initial concentration of initial placed into solution. With conventional acid-base titration methods it is difficult to measure the pH of a strong acid solution and, hence, to determine the or final, with a sufficient number of significant figures to and compute the low values encountered for final, which can be as low as 10-9 mol per liter for some strong acids. Furthermore, if 100% dissociation is assumed, final is zero and the fraction within parenthesis in the equation above becomes undefined; because the second expression on the right-hand side of the above equation is therefore indeterminable by conventional titration methods, the entire equation is not as useful a means of experimentally measuring pKa for strong acids as it is for weak acids. However, pKa and/or Ka values for strong acids can be estimated by theoretical means, such as computing gas phase dissociation constants and using Gibbs free energies of solvation for the molecular anions.
It is possible to use spectroscopy in some cases to determine the ratio of the concentrations of the conjugate base produced and the undissociated acid. For example, the Raman spectra of dilute nitric acid solutions contain signals of the nitrate ion and as the solutions become more concentrated signals of undissociated nitric acid molecules emerge; the acid dissociation constant for an acid is a direct consequence of the underlying thermodynamics of the dissociation reaction. The value of the pKa changes with temperature and can be understood qualitatively based on Le Châtelier's principle: when the reaction is endothermic, Ka increases and pKa decreases with
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group is bound to a carbon. The term alcohol referred to the primary alcohol ethanol, used as a drug and is the main alcohol present in alcoholic beverages. An important class of alcohols, of which methanol and ethanol are the simplest members, includes all compounds for which the general formula is CnH2n+1OH, it is these simple monoalcohols. The suffix -ol appears in the IUPAC chemical name of all substances where the hydroxyl group is the functional group with the highest priority; when a higher priority group is present in the compound, the prefix hydroxy- is used in its IUPAC name. The suffix -ol in non-IUPAC names typically indicates that the substance is an alcohol. However, many substances that contain hydroxyl functional groups have names which include neither the suffix -ol, nor the prefix hydroxy-. Alcohol distillation originated in India. During 2000 BCE, people of India used. Alcohol distillation was known to Islamic chemists as early as the eighth century.
The Arab chemist, al-Kindi, unambiguously described the distillation of wine in a treatise titled as "The Book of the chemistry of Perfume and Distillations". The Persian physician, alchemist and philosopher Rhazes is credited with the discovery of ethanol; the word "alcohol" is from a powder used as an eyeliner. Al- is the Arabic definite article, equivalent to the in English. Alcohol was used for the fine powder produced by the sublimation of the natural mineral stibnite to form antimony trisulfide Sb2S3, it was considered to be the essence or "spirit" of this mineral. It was used as an antiseptic and cosmetic; the meaning of alcohol was extended to distilled substances in general, narrowed to ethanol, when "spirits" was a synonym for hard liquor. Bartholomew Traheron, in his 1543 translation of John of Vigo, introduces the word as a term used by "barbarous" authors for "fine powder." Vigo wrote: "the barbarous auctours use alcohol, or alcofoll, for moost fine poudre."The 1657 Lexicon Chymicum, by William Johnson glosses the word as "antimonium sive stibium."
By extension, the word came to refer to any fluid obtained by distillation, including "alcohol of wine," the distilled essence of wine. Libavius in Alchymia refers to "vini alcohol vel vinum alcalisatum". Johnson glosses alcohol vini as "quando omnis superfluitas vini a vino separatur, ita ut accensum ardeat donec totum consumatur, nihilque fæcum aut phlegmatis in fundo remaneat." The word's meaning became restricted to "spirit of wine" in the 18th century and was extended to the class of substances so-called as "alcohols" in modern chemistry after 1850. The term ethanol was invented 1892, combining the word ethane with the "-ol" ending of "alcohol". IUPAC nomenclature is used in scientific publications and where precise identification of the substance is important in cases where the relative complexity of the molecule does not make such a systematic name unwieldy. In naming simple alcohols, the name of the alkane chain loses the terminal e and adds the suffix -ol, e.g. as in "ethanol" from the alkane chain name "ethane".
When necessary, the position of the hydroxyl group is indicated by a number between the alkane name and the -ol: propan-1-ol for CH3CH2CH2OH, propan-2-ol for CH3CHCH3. If a higher priority group is present the prefix hydroxy-is used, e.g. as in 1-hydroxy-2-propanone. In cases where the OH functional group is bonded to an sp2 carbon on an aromatic ring the molecule is known as a phenol, is named using the IUPAC rules for naming phenols. In other less formal contexts, an alcohol is called with the name of the corresponding alkyl group followed by the word "alcohol", e.g. methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol. Propyl alcohol may be n-propyl alcohol or isopropyl alcohol, depending on whether the hydroxyl group is bonded to the end or middle carbon on the straight propane chain; as described under systematic naming, if another group on the molecule takes priority, the alcohol moiety is indicated using the "hydroxy-" prefix. Alcohols are classified into primary and tertiary, based upon the number of carbon atoms connected to the carbon atom that bears the hydroxyl functional group.
The primary alcohols have general formulas RCH2OH. The simplest primary alcohol is methanol, for which R=H, the next is ethanol, for which R=CH3, the methyl group. Secondary alcohols are those of the form RR'CHOH, the simplest of, 2-propanol. For the tertiary alcohols the general form is RR'R"COH; the simplest example is tert-butanol, for which each of R, R', R" is CH3. In these shorthands, R, R', R" represent substituents, alkyl or other attached organic groups. In archaic nomenclature, alcohols can be named as derivatives of methanol using "-carbinol" as the ending. For instance, 3COH can be named trimethylcarbinol. Alcohols have a long history of myriad uses. For simple mono-alcohols, the focus on this article, the following are most important industrial alcohols: methanol for the production of formaldehyde and as a fuel additive ethanol for alcoholic beverages, fuel additive, solvent 1-propanol, 1-butanol, isobutyl alcohol for use as a solvent a