Māngere Mountain in Māngere Domain is one of the largest volcanic cones in the Auckland volcanic field, with a peak 106 metres above sea level. It was the site of a major pā and many of the pā's earthworks are still obvious, it has extensive panoramic views of Auckland from its location in the suburb of Māngere. It is known as Te Pane a Mataaho; the volcano features two large craters. It has a wide crater with a lava dome near its centre, a feature shared by no other volcano in Auckland, it last erupted 70,000 years ago. The mountain is one of the best preserved of Auckland's volcanic cones. Many archaeological features remain, including kumara pits, garden terraces, walled garden mounds and stone boundary walls. Near the mountain to the southwest is Māngere Lagoon, filling another volcanic crater. Mangere Mountain Education Centre Historic Mangere Mountain, Department of Conservation Mt Mangere, Geological Society of New Zealand Photographs of Mangere Mountain held in Auckland Libraries' heritage collections
Mafaufau Tavita Lio Mafaufau Sanerivi Talimatasi, known as David Tua, is a Samoan New Zealander former professional boxer who competed from 1992 to 2013. A ranked heavyweight contender for most of his career, Tua was known for his formidable punching power in his left hook. In a 2003 article by The Ring magazine, Tua was ranked 48th on a list of 100 greatest punchers of all time. Nicknamed the "Tuamanator", his fast-paced bob and weave pressure fighting style has drawn comparisons to Mike Tyson. Tua fought many of the best fighters of his era and challenged once for the unified world heavyweight title against Lennox Lewis in 2000. In his five losses, Tua was never subject to a stoppage, possessed one of the most durable chins of his time. Tua said that he lived with four sisters and ten other relatives while growing up. Tua said that his mother worked three jobs, Tua said that his father worked long hours. Tua said that his father forced him to start boxing when he was seven years old, Tua said that he is grateful to his father for introducing him to boxing.
In his early career, Tua trained three days a week at a small gym in Mangere Bridge, under boxing trainer Gerry Preston. Tua became New Zealand national heavyweight champion in 1988 at age 15. At the 1991 World Amateur Boxing Championships, he was knocked out in the first round by three-time Olympic gold medalist Félix Savón. At age 19 he won a Bronze Medal at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, he lost his semi-final to David Izonritei, whom he would defeat as a professional. Tua turned professional the same year. 1992 Summer Olympics Heavyweight 1992 Oceanian Amateur Boxing Championships 1991 World Amateur Boxing Championships 1990 Oceanian Amateur Boxing Championships 1988 New Zealand Amateur Heavyweight champion Tua debuted in December 1992. Of his first 27 fights, 23 were won by knockout. Tua is known for his devastating knockouts. In his 1997 fight with Ike Ibeabuchi, the two fighters combined to set the record for most punches thrown in a heavyweight fight on record. Ibeabuchi won the decision.
Prior to the loss, Tua had devastating KO wins against future titlist John Darroll Wilson. Tua beat David Izon and future champion Oleg Maskaev to set up the fight with Ibeabuchi. After the loss to Ibeabuchi, Tua took on future champ Hasim Rahman and TKO'd Rahman in the 10th round; the victory over Rahman marked. He ballooned up to 253 pounds when he defeated Obed Sullivan in 2000 by KO; that year, he weighed 245 pounds in the loss to Lennox Lewis. Tua was disappointing in the fight, with both fighters avoiding each other and Tua not throwing combinations. Tua lost a clear-cut decision. Tua fought for the WBC, IBF, & IBO heavyweight titles in November 2000 – and went the distance in a 12-round bout – but lost on points by a wide margin to defending champion Lennox Lewis. Following the Lewis loss, Tua regained steam with a KO over Danell Nicholson but lost by a close decision in his next fight to future champion Chris Byrd. In 2002 he beat prospect Fres Oquendo and demolished Michael Moorer in his next fight with a powerful shot 30 seconds into the first round, which put Moorer out cold.
In 2003 he drew in a 12-round rematch with Rahman. Tua was inactive for over two years before he stepped into the ring on 31 March 2005 and bested Talmadge Griffis in a 10-round bout — ending the match and earning a TKO victory with 26 seconds remaining. Tua's next contest in October 2005 ended in a split decision over Cisse Salif with Tua dominating in the late rounds. Tua defeated Edward Gutierrez by knockout in the fourth round of a scheduled 10-rounder on 26 July 2006; the fight was held at the Manhattan Center ballroom in New York City, featured on ESPN2. Tua started scored a knockdown with his famous left hook in the second round, put Gutierrez down for the count in the fourth round with a combination of two left hooks, one to the head and the decisive one to the body. In November 2006 Tua defeated Maurice Wheeler in the seventh round of a scheduled 10-rounder by knockout. Tua ended the bout with a solid left uppercut to the body which sent the howling Wheeler to the canvas. Tua continued his comeback in February 2007 with a unanimous decision over Robert Hawkins in a 10-round bout.
Tua ended the match being the aggressor and hurt Hawkins in both the ninth and tenth rounds with body punches, but was unable to end the match with a knockout. Tua, looking in good shape and weighing in at 237½ lbs, was featured as the main event of a Pay Per View show on 18 August 2007 in Sandy and ended the bout with a first-round knockout of Mexican champion Saul Montana. Tua threw two powerful left hooks to the head that sent Montana sprawling to the canvas giving Tua his sixth win in a row. Tua, again looking in good shape and weighing in at 234 lbs, fought the unheralded Cerrone Fox at the Soaring Eagle Casino, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan on 7 September 2007. Tua made short work of his over matched opponent ending the bout at 1:41 of the second round. While Tua's promoter, Cedric Kushner, stated Tua was scheduled to fight an opponent on 18 October 2007, the fight never materialized. Tua fought fellow New Zealander Shane Cameron at Mystery Creek, Hamilton on 3 October 2009 with Tua knocking Cameron out seven seconds into the second
Wiri is a industrial-commercial focused suburb in Auckland, New Zealand. It was part of Manukau City until the merger of all of Auckland's councils into the'super city' in 2010; as of 2009, Ports of Auckland is building an inland port / rail siding in Wiri, to connect road freight to the port facilities on the Waitematā Harbour further north. The new facility will allow Ports of Auckland to reduce the number of trucks that have to travel through the Auckland Central area by up to 100,000 trips per year. Auckland Region Women's Corrections Facility is located in Wiri. ARWCF is the first purpose-built women’s prison in New Zealand to accommodate a growing number of female prisoners and services in the upper North Island; the facility employs 167 staff. The adjacent Auckland South Corrections Facility is a high security men’s prison which opened in 2015, it is operated by Serco New Zealand under a Public Private Partnership with the Department of Corrections. At 20 Hautu Drive, Wiri; as part of the Auckland railway electrification project, the $100 million EMU maintenance and stabling depot was built on 4.4 hectares of the old Winstone Quarry in Wiri, located next to the South-Western Motorway and bordered by Roscommon and Wiri Station Roads.
It was opened by the Mayor of Auckland on 5 July 2013. The Matukutūruru and Matukutūreia volcanoes are in Wiri. Photographs of Wiri held in Auckland Libraries' heritage collections
An isthmus is a narrow piece of land connecting two larger areas across an expanse of water by which they are otherwise separated. A tombolo is an isthmus that consists of a spit or bar, a strait is the sea counterpart of an isthmus. Canals are built across isthmuses, where they may be a advantageous shortcut for marine transport. For example, the Panama Canal crosses the Isthmus of Panama, connecting the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Another example is the Welland Canal in the Niagara Peninsula, it connects Lake Ontario to Lake Erie. The city of Auckland in the North Island of New Zealand is situated on an isthmus. Isthmus and land bridge are related terms with isthmus having a broader meaning. A land bridge is an isthmus connecting the Earth's major landmasses; the term land bridge is used in biogeology to describe land connections that used to exist between continents at various times and were important for migration of people, various species of animals and plants, e.g. Bering Land Bridge.
An isthmus is a land connection between two bigger landmasses, while a peninsula is rather a land protrusion, connected to a bigger landmass on one side only and surrounded by water on all other sides. Technically, an isthmus can have canals running from coast to coast, thus resemble two peninsulas. Major isthmuses include the Isthmus of Panama and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in the Americas, the Isthmus of Kra in South-East Asia, the Isthmus of Suez between Africa and Asia, the Karelian Isthmus in Europe. Of historic importance was the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece. Land bridge List of isthmuses List of straits
Auckland City is the part of Auckland urban area covering the isthmus and most of the islands of the Hauraki Gulf. The core of Auckland City is the Auckland CBD, a major financial and commercial centre, surrounded by many suburbs, it was the name of a local authority district, governed by Auckland City Council. Auckland City was disestablished as a local government district on 1 November 2010, when Auckland City Council was amalgamated with other councils of the Auckland Region into the new Auckland Council. Auckland City was the most populous district in the country, with a population of 450,000 at 30 June 2010. In 2009, Auckland was rated the fourth-best place to live in the world, in human resources consultancy Mercer's annual survey; the mainland part of Auckland City occupied the Auckland isthmus known as the Tāmaki isthmus. The Waitematā Harbour, which opens to the Hauraki Gulf, separated North Shore City from the isthmus; the Manukau Harbour, which opens to the Tasman Sea, separated Manukau City from the isthmus.
The distance between the two harbours is narrow at each end of the isthmus. At the western end, the Whau River, an estuarial arm of the Waitematā Harbour, comes within two kilometres of the waters of the Manukau Harbour on the west coast and marks the beginning of the Northland Peninsula. A few kilometres to the southeast at Otahuhu, the Tamaki River, an arm of the Hauraki Gulf on the east coast, comes just 1200 metres from the Manukau's waters. Being part of the Auckland volcanic field, much of the isthmus is mantled with volcanic rocks and soils, several prominent scoria cones dot the isthmus. Many Hauraki Gulf islands were part of Auckland City; such islands of the inner gulf included Rangitoto, Browns Island, Rakino and Waiheke, while the outer gulf islands included Little Barrier Island, Great Barrier and the Mokohinau Islands. In November 1989, central government restructured local authorities throughout New Zealand. After substantial protests and legal challenges, Auckland City was merged with eight smaller local authorities to form a new Auckland City Council.
The new Auckland City had double the population of the old. However, forced onto local authorities against their will, was criticised to have led to less democracy and higher rates for the same services. A further restructuring and amalgamation brought all seven councils in the area and the Auckland Regional Council into one "SuperCity", starting 1 November 2010. Auckland City was the most populous city of New Zealand. In 2010 it was made up of 188 ethnic groups, making it New Zealand's most diverse city, more diverse than in 2007, when 185 ethnic groups had been counted. In 2010, the life expectancy was 83 years for women, 79.6 years for men, while the average age of the population was 33.4 years, with 35.9 years for the whole country. In the year to March 2009, Auckland City had 353,000 jobs, of which 26.3% was held by property and business services, as well as 65,655 businesses, making up 13.1% of New Zealand's businesses and 16.2% of New Zealand's jobs. Over 2009 to the month of March, Auckland City's unemployment rate increased to 5.6%, compared to the overall New Zealand unemployment rate of 4.5%.
In addition the city's economic output declined by 2.4%. Gareth Stiven, the economic manager of Auckland City, stated that this was because the city's economy was involved with service industries, such as banking and insurance, which were affected by financial crises. However, over the last five years of its existence, Auckland's economic growth averaged 1.4% each year, higher than the average of the region and the nation. In 2003 three of the ten largest companies in New Zealand were headquartered in Auckland City. Many large corporations were housed within the central part of Auckland City. Air New Zealand has its worldwide headquarters, called "The Hub", off Beaumont and Fanshawe Streets in the Western Reclamation. In September 2003 Air New Zealand was the only one of the largest corporations in New Zealand to have its headquarters within the Auckland CBD; these lists of suburbs are arranged electorally, starting from the west. Note: CBD - central business district For the suburbs of the other cities within the Auckland urban area, see North Shore, Manukau and Papakura.
Dominion Road – an arterial road running north–south across most of the central isthmus Great North Road – begins as a continuation of Karangahape Road and runs south-westward before crossing into what was Waitakere City Great South Road – runs south from Epsom and crosses from Otahuhu into what was Manukau City Karangahape Road – a commercial street running west–east and intersecting Queen Street at the southern edge of the CBD Portage Road – in Otahuhu, the southernmost suburb, following the path of a former Maori canoe portage between the Tamaki River and the Manukau Harbour, intersecting Great South Road Queen Street – the main commercial street, running south, uphill from Queens Wharf through the CBD Tamaki Drive – a coastal road running eastward from the eastern edge of the CBD to Saint Heliers Auckland City had six sister cities and two friendship city relationships. All of these cities except Hamburg are located around the Pacific Rim. Auckland waterfront A Complete Guide To Heraldry by A.
C. Fox-Davies 1909. Auckland City Council website, the local authority for Auckland History of Auckland City by Graham Bush Heart of the City website by the Auckland CBD business' association Heritage Walks: The Engineering Heritage of Auckland, historic text, 360° panoramas
Jonah Tali Lomu was a New Zealand rugby union player. He became the youngest All Black when he played his first international in 1994 at the age of 19 years and 45 days. Playing on the wing Lomu finished his international career with 37 tries, he is regarded as the first true global superstar of rugby and had a huge impact on the game. Lomu was inducted into the International Rugby Hall of Fame on 9 October 2007, the IRB Hall of Fame on 24 October 2011. Lomu burst onto the international rugby scene during the 1994 Hong Kong Sevens tournament, the same year he made his fifteen-a-side debut, he was acknowledged as the top player at the 1995 World Cup in South Africa though New Zealand lost the final to the host South Africa. His performance at the Rugby World Cup established him as "rugby union's biggest drawcard", with him swelling attendances at any match where he appeared, he shares the Rugby World Cup all-time try scoring record of 15 tries, which he accumulated in only two tournaments. He played for several domestic New Zealand provincial or Super Rugby sides, late in his career played club rugby in both Wales and France.
These included the Auckland Blues and Hurricanes, Counties Manukau and North Harbour and the Cardiff Blues. Lomu was diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome, a serious kidney disorder in 1995, the disease had a significant impact on his playing career and wider life. By 2003 he in 2004 underwent a kidney transplant, he attempted a comeback but did not play international rugby again, retired from professional rugby in 2007. He died unexpectedly on 18 November 2015 after suffering a heart attack associated with his kidney condition. New Zealand sevens star Eric Rush played a touch game with Lomu when he was 14 years old and was so impressed he invited him to a sevens tournament in Singapore the next day; as a youngster however, Lomu first played rugby league. His introduction to rugby union came through a tournament in Te Kuiti where he stayed with Glyn Meads, son of famous All Black Colin Meads. Lomu started his rugby union career in the forwards as an openside flanker, sometimes to the blindside, before switching to the left wing in what he described as the "best move he could have made".
He represented New Zealand in the national under-19 side in 1993, as well as the under-21 side the following year. He first came to international attention at the 1994 Hong Kong Sevens tournament as part of a team including Rush. At the age of 19 years and 45 days, Lomu became the youngest All Black test player as he debuted on the wing against France in 1994, breaking a record, held by Edgar Wrigley since 1905; the match was played at Lancaster Park in Christchurch, the All Blacks lost 22–8. The second match was played at Eden Park in Auckland with France winning again, 23–20. Lomu marked Emile N'tamack and admits that his inexperience led to him being exposed by the French team. Despite having just two All Black caps, Lomu was included in the squad for the 1995 World Cup in South Africa. Lomu scored seven tries in five matches, two in the first match against Ireland in Johannesburg, a try in the quarter final against Scotland at Loftus Versfeld, four tries in the semi-final against England at Newlands.
The first try in the English match occurred after Lomu received a pass behind him, beat two defenders and after a stumble, ran straight over the top of Mike Catt. This reduced Keith Quinn, to gasps. After the game, England captain Will Carling said: "He is a freak and the sooner he goes away the better". In 2002 the UK public voted Lomu's performance no. 19 in the list of the 100 Greatest Sporting Moments and has been voted the try of the tournament. New Zealand played the World Cup final at Ellis Park against South Africa. Neither side scored a try, with South Africa coming out on top 15–12 after kicking a drop-goal in extra time. Following the World Cup New Zealand played Australia home and away for the Bledisloe Cup with Lomu scoring tries in both matches. Lomu's scoring for New Zealand continued that year when he scored two tries in the All Blacks victory over Italy in Bologna. Lomu played in a losing effort against France in Toulouse, where New Zealand failed to score any tries, he scored a try in the second test in Paris.
Lomu played for the All Blacks in matches against the touring Samoa and Scotland teams in June 1996, scoring in one of the Scottish matches. Just before the World Cup final a deal was struck between South Africa, New Zealand and Australia to create the Tri-Nations, an annual round robin competition between the three nations launched with the advent of professionalism in rugby. New Zealand won all their games to become the first Tri-Nations winners. Lomu scored a try in a 43–6 victory over Australia in the inaugural match, described by New Zealand Herald journalist David Leggat as "the perfect wet-weather game". At the end of 1996, he was diagnosed with a rare and serious kidney disorder, which saw him take time off from the sport; as a result, he did not play in the 1997 Tri Nations Series, but he was included in the All Blacks tour of the northern hemisphere at the end of the year. Lomu played in scoring tries against Wales ` A' and Emerging England, he played the first test against England at Old Trafford, as well as the test against Wales at Wembley Stadium, the second match against England—he did not score in any of the three games.
At the 1998 Commonwealth Games in Kuala Lumpur, he won a gold medal representing New Zealand in the Sevens Rugby event. The English rugby team came to New Zealand the following year for a two test series. Lomu played in both of the
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under