A marae, malaʻe, meʻae, malae is a communal or sacred place that serves religious and social purposes in Polynesian societies. In all these languages, the term means "cleared, free of weeds, etc". Marae consist of an area of cleared land rectangular, bordered with stones or wooden posts with paepae which were traditionally used for ceremonial purposes. In the Rapa Nui culture of Easter Island, the term ahu has become a synonym for the whole marae complex. In some modern Polynesian societies, notably that of the Māori of Aotearoa New Zealand, the marae is still a vital part of everyday life. In tropical Polynesia, most marae were destroyed or abandoned with the arrival of Christianity in the 19th century, some have become an attraction for tourists or archaeologists; the place where these marae were built are still considered tapu in most of these cultures. The word has been reconstructed by linguists to Eastern Oceanic *malaqe with the meaning "open, cleared space used as meeting-place or ceremonial place".
In Māori society, the marae is a place where the culture can be celebrated, where the Māori language can be spoken, where intertribal obligations can be met, where customs can be explored and debated, where family occasions such as birthdays can be held, where important ceremonies, such as welcoming visitors or farewelling the dead, can be performed. Like the related institutions of old Polynesia, the marae is a wāhi tapu, a'sacred place' which carries great cultural meaning. In Māori usage, the marae ātea is the open space in front of the wharenui; the term marae is used to refer to the whole complex, including the buildings and the ātea. This area is used for pōwhiri featuring oratory; some iwi and hapū do not allow women to perform oratory on their marae. The wharenui is the locale for important meetings and craft and other cultural activities; the wharekai is used for communal meals, but other activities may be carried out there. Many of the words associated with marae in tropical Polynesia are retained in the Māori context.
For example, the word paepae refers to the bench. Marae vary in size, with some wharenui being a bit bigger than a double garage, some being larger than a typical town hall. A marae is a meeting place registered as a reserve under the Te Ture Whenua Māori Act 1993; each marae has a group of trustees. The Act governs the regulation of marae as reservations and sets out the responsibilities of the trustees in relation to the beneficiaries; each marae has a charter which the trustees have negotiated with the beneficiaries of the marae. The charter details matters such as: the name of the marae, a description of it; the methods used to select trustees. The New Zealand Māori Arts and Crafts Institute Act 1963 was passed and the institute built to maintain the tradition of whakairo; the Institute is responsible for the restoration of over 40 marae around the country. Most iwi, hapū, many small settlements have their own marae. An example of such a small settlement with its own marae is at Hongoeka Bay, the home of renowned writer Patricia Grace.
Since the second half of the 20th century, Māori in urban areas have been establishing intertribal marae such as Maraeroa in eastern Porirua. For many Māori, the marae is just as important to them as their own homes; some New Zealand churches operate marae of their own, in which all of the functions of a traditional marae are carried out. Churches operating marae include the Anglican and Catholic churches. In recent years, it has become common for educational institutions, including primary and secondary schools, technical colleges, universities, to build marae for the use of the students and for the teaching of Māori culture; these marae may serve as a venue for the performance of official ceremonies relating to the school. The marae of the University of Auckland, for instance, is used for graduation ceremonies of the Māori Department, as well as welcoming ceremonies for new staff of the university as a whole, its primary function is to serve as a venue for the teaching of whaikōrero, Māori language and culture, important ceremonies for distinguished guests of the university.
Two spectacular secondary-school marae are located in the Waikato at Te Awamutu College and Fairfield College. The latter was designed by a Māori architect with a detailed knowledge of weaving. In addition to school activities it is used for weddings; as in pre-European times, marae continue to be the location of many ceremonial events, including birthdays and anniversaries. The most important event located at marae is the tangih
New Zealand Media and Entertainment
New Zealand Media and Entertainment is a New Zealand newspaper, outdoor advertising and digital media business. It was launched in 2014 as the formal merger of the New Zealand division of APN News & Media and The Radio Network, part of the Australian Radio Network, it operates 32 newspapers, 8 radio networks and several websites in twenty-five markets across the country, reaches over 3 million people. NZME brands include flagship national newspaper The New Zealand Herald, regional newspapers Bay of Plenty Times, Rotorua Daily Post and Northern Advocate, deals website GrabOne, video on-demand service WatchMe, its radio division operates radio networks Newstalk ZB, The Hits, ZM, Radio Sport, Radio Hauraki, Flava and Mix on radio frequencies around the country and through the iHeartRadio digital listening website and mobile app. The launch of the business fueled speculation APN News and Media could be planning to separate its New Zealand operations, or issue an initial public offering for up to 60 percent of its New Zealand assets on the NZX.
Fairfax Media declined to confirm speculation in the Australian Financial Review that it could buy some or all of those assets. The publishing division of NZME reaches an estimated 2.1 million people each week by print, desktop computer and mobile. It includes national New Zealand Herald titles, six other daily newspapers, 23 non-daily newspapers and over 20 websites, mobile sites and apps; the New Zealand Herald is the daily newspaper of Auckland. It has the largest circulation of any newspaper in New Zealand, peaking at over 200,000 copies in 2006, with numbers down to 162,181 by December 2012. Auckland is its main delivery area, but it is delivered to much of the north of the North Island including Northland and King Country; the Herald's publications include New Zealand Herald, Weekend Herald, Herald on Sunday and nzherald.co.nz. Its supplements include Bite on Monday, Travel on Tuesday, Viva and Herald Homes on Wednesday, TimeOut on Thursday, The Business on a Friday and Canvas on Saturday, Spy on Sunday.
The launch of NZME has not affected home delivery of the paper. NZME publishes The Northland Age in Northland, it is the dominant print media outlet in the Bay of Plenty, where it publishes Bay of Plenty Times, Bay News, Katikati Advertiser, Te Puke Times, Coastal News and Waihi Leader. In Rotorua and Waikato it publishes Rotorua Daily Post, Hamilton News, Country News, Taupo Weekender and Turangi Chronicle. In Hawke's Bay it publishes CHB Mail and Dannevirke Evening News, it owns and operates Wanganui Chronicle in Wanganui. NZME Radio began as The Radio Network in 1996 when the commercial radio activities of Radio New Zealand were divested by the fourth National government as part of the Ruthanasia free market economic policies of that government. Radio New Zealand Commercial, which included talk networks Newstalk ZB and Radio Sport and music networks Classic Hits and ZM, became owned and was renamed The Radio Network. In 2014, it was rebranded again as NZME Radio; the majority of the programming on stations is networked from the main studios on Graham Street in Auckland Central.
However, Newstalk ZB run local programmes in Wellington and Christchurch, The Hits runs local breakfast, morning or afternoon programmes. Auckland station Mix 98.2 was relaunched in 2014, based on stations known as Radio i, Easy Listening i, Viva and Easy Mix. Owned Gore station Hokonui Gold is operated by NZME under a long-term lease contract. Publicly owned Radio New Zealand Commercial became owned The Radio Network in 1996, that year it purchased Prospect Media Limited and its eleven Auckland and Hamilton stations; the brands of Auckland's Radio Hauraki and Easy Listening i were retained and launched as nationwide networks, while Hamilton's Easy Listening i, Auckland's The Breeze on 91, Hamilton's The Breeze on 89.8 and the other stations were converted to the former Radio New Zealand brands. The company was bought out by a syndicate that included United States radio company Clear Channel Communications and publisher Wilson & Horton. Wilson & Horton was purchased by Ireland-based media conglomerate Independent News & Media, on-sold to Independent's Australian subsidiary APN.
The Radio Network became an APN and Clear Channel networked commercial radio joint venture, like the Australian Radio Network was, as a result The Radio Network became part of the Australian Radio Network. Radio Network House in Christchurch was damaged in the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake beyond repair; the building became infamous for being the first New Zealand demolition by implosion in August 2012. The implosion was conducted by US specialists and went without problems, providing reassurance for contractors planning to carry out similar operations; the Radio Network ran a group of provincial radio stations known as the Community Radio Network. Established in June 1998, the network retained the local names and live breakfast shows of each station but began broadcasting a network feed from Taupo for other times of the day; the line-up included Mark Bramley, Aaron Gillions, Scott Armstrong and Brian Gentill, Peter Gosney, Corey K and Duncan Allen. Other voices heard on the network included Geoff Bargas, Rebecca Ali, Nadine Christiansen, Sarah McMullan, Chris Auer, Marke Dickson and Paul Frost.
On 1 December 2000 CRN stations joined the Classic Hits programme fed from Cook Street Auckland operated by TRN. Where the station had both an FM and AM frequency the FM frequency was used to broadcast a localised version of Classic Hits while the AM fre
Māngere Mountain in Māngere Domain is one of the largest volcanic cones in the Auckland volcanic field, with a peak 106 metres above sea level. It was the site of a major pā and many of the pā's earthworks are still obvious, it has extensive panoramic views of Auckland from its location in the suburb of Māngere. It is known as Te Pane a Mataaho; the volcano features two large craters. It has a wide crater with a lava dome near its centre, a feature shared by no other volcano in Auckland, it last erupted 70,000 years ago. The mountain is one of the best preserved of Auckland's volcanic cones. Many archaeological features remain, including kumara pits, garden terraces, walled garden mounds and stone boundary walls. Near the mountain to the southwest is Māngere Lagoon, filling another volcanic crater. Mangere Mountain Education Centre Historic Mangere Mountain, Department of Conservation Mt Mangere, Geological Society of New Zealand Photographs of Mangere Mountain held in Auckland Libraries' heritage collections
The Auckland Council is the local government council for the Auckland Region in New Zealand. The governing body consists of 20 councillors, elected from 13 wards. There are 149 members of 21 local boards who make decisions on matters local to their communities, it is the largest council in Oceania, with a $3 billion annual budget, $29 billion of ratepayer equity, 9,870 full-time staff as of 30 June 2016. The council began operating on 1 November 2010, combining the functions of the previous regional council and the region's seven city and district councils into one "super council" or "super city"; the Council was established by a number of Acts of Parliament, an Auckland Transition Agency created by the central government. Both the means by which the Council was established and its structure came under repeated criticism from a broad spectrum during the establishment period; the initial Council elections in October 2010 returned a centre-left council with Len Brown as mayor. Brown was re-elected in October 2013, again with a supportive council.
The 2016 mayoral election was won by Labour MP Phil Goff, who had a landslide victory with his nearest rivals, Victoria Crone in second place, followed by Chlöe Swarbrick. The Auckland Council took over the functions of the Auckland Regional Council and the region's seven city and district councils: Auckland City Council, Manukau City Council, Waitakere City Council, North Shore City Council, Papakura District Council, Rodney District Council and most of Franklin District Council; the Auckland Regional Council was formed in 1989. One of the mainstays of its work was expanding the parks network, it brought into the Auckland Council 26 regional parks with more than 40,000 hectares, including many restored natural habitats and sanctuaries developed in co-operation with the Department of Conservation and volunteers. A variety of public transport-focused projects like the Northern Busway as well as significant rail and public transport investments were realised through the Auckland Regional Transport Authority, much of it supported by retaining Ports of Auckland in public hands to fund the improvements with the dividends.
Until 2010, the Auckland Region had seven "City/District" authorities, plus one "Regional" authority. In the late 2000s, New Zealand's central government and parts of Auckland's society felt that this large number of Councils, the lack of strong regional government were hindering Auckland's progress, that a form of stronger regional government, or an amalgamation under one local council, would be beneficial. Others pointed to the fact that a previous integration of the many much smaller Borough Councils did not bring the promised advantages either, reduced local participation in politics, with editorialists pointing out that the proponents of the'super city' have not made any promises of savings in light of past rises in rates and utilities bills. In 2007, the government set up a Royal Commission on Auckland Governance to report on what restructuring should be done; the report was released on 27 March 2009 and the government subsequently announced that a "super city" would be set up to include the full metropolitan area under an Auckland Council with a single mayor and 20–30 local boards, by the time of the local body elections in 2010, though it changed some key recommendations of the Royal Commission.
Some recommendations of the Royal Commission which have not been adopted or implemented: 6A The Auckland Council should include a vision for the region in its spatial plan. 6B The Mayor of Auckland's annual "State of the Region" address should describe progress towards the attainment of the vision. 19C: "Leadership support and development programmes for elected councillors should be strengthened." 21D: Auckland Council CCOs and their statements of intent should be subject to performance review by the proposed Auckland Services Performance Auditor. 21A 22A Two Māori members should be elected to the Auckland Council by voters who are on the parliamentary Māori Electoral Roll. 22B There should be a Mana Whenua Forum, the members of which will be appointed by mana whenua from the district of the Auckland Council. 22D The Auckland Council should ensure that each local council has adequate structures in place to enable proper engagement with Māori and consideration of their views in the local councils’ decision-making processes.
Where appropriate, current structures and/or memoranda of understanding should be transferred to local councils. 24F Auckland Council should consider creating an Urban Development Agency, to operate at the direction of the Auckland Council, with compulsory acquisition powers. The Auckland Council should determine the extent to which responsibilities for the delivery of stormwater services are shared between local councils and Watercare Services Limited. 26I Watercare Services Limited should be required by legislation to promote demand management. 26M Watercare Services Limited should be required to prepare a stormwater action plan. 27D The Auckland Council should prepare an e-government strategy as an intrinsic part of its proposed unified service delivery and information systems plan. 28A The Auckland Council should work with consumers, the industry, central government agencies to develop a climate change and energy strategy for the region, including monitoring and reviewing electricity security of supply performance, industry planning and regulation impacting the Auckland region.
30A The Auckland Council should develop a Regional Waste Management Strategy, including strategies for management of organic waste and integration o
Willie Jackson (politician)
William Wakatere Jackson is a New Zealand politician and former top Maori broadcaster and Urban Maori chief executive. He was an Alliance MP from 1999 to 2002, in 2017 was elected as a Labour MP. Jackson was born in 1961, grew up in Porirua and Mangere. In his teenage years Jackson attended Mangere College, he has worked in a number of jobs, including trade union organiser, record company executive, talkback radio host and urban Māori advocate. He was the manager for the ground-breaking band'Moana and the Moahunters' throughout the 1980s and'90s. In 1995, Jackson joined a Māori party which formed part of the Alliance. In the 1996 election, he stood unsuccessfully for Parliament. In the 1999 election, however, he was elected as an Alliance list MP. In 2001, Jackson challenged Mana Motuhake leader Sandra Lee for the leadership of the party. Jackson served as the leader of the Mana Motuhake party from 2001 to 2004 when most of the party's membership became part of the Māori party and Mana Motuhake disestablished.
When the Alliance began to collapse in 2002, Jackson sided with the faction led by Laila Harré and Matt McCarten, remained with the party when Jim Anderton established his breakaway group. In the 2002 election, Jackson became Deputy Leader of the Alliance under Harré's leadership, but the Alliance failed to win any seats. Shortly after the 2002 election, Mana Motuhake left the Alliance and Jackson worked on setting up a new pan-tribal independent Māori party, he supported Tariana Turia when she quit the Labour Party and founded the new Māori Party where Jackson and McCarten played supporting roles. He works as a community Chief Executive with the Manukau Urban Māori Authority, he is a broadcaster and a political commentator. Since 2003, Jackson has run a nationwide Māori current affairs show'Paakiwaha' on Radio Waatea. Between 2004 and 2009 he was the host of the award winning Eye to Eye, a weekly Television New Zealand political debate series with emphasis on political issues facing Māori. In 2007 Jackson and former Labour MP John Tamihere fronted a Television New Zealand show pertaining to wider New Zealand views on Māori issues called'The World according to Willie and JT'.
Between 2009 and 2011, he was the host of a Māori current affairs show on Māori Television called'Willie Jackson's News Bites'. He has been a political commentator on TVNZ's Good Morning and late night shows, has been the political commentator for TVNZ's Marae show since 2012, he has commentated TVNZ's election coverage in 2005, 2008, 2011 and 2014. Jackson co-hosted with Tamihere a national, award-winning talkback show, Willie & JT, on Radio Live each weekday afternoon between 2006 and 2013; this show was controversially stopped in November 2013 over the Roast Busters scandal. In February 2014, Jackson started a new daily national talkback show on Radio Live with former TVNZ personality, Alison Mau. Jackson is the chairman for the National Urban Māori Authority. Despite the controversy that arose out of the Roast Busters scandal and Tamihere won the prestigious North Island Whānau Ora contract in 2014 with their National Urban Māori Authority, it is the biggest independent contract, allocated to Māori.
Their work in the communities of South Auckland and West Auckland with Māori was seen as the primary reason for them winning the contract according to Whānau Ora Minister, Tariana Turia. Politically, Jackson is seen as someone who supports and advises Māori candidates right across the political spectrum, he has been a vocal supporter of Tariana Turia, Pita Sharples, Rangi McLean, Claudette Hauiti, Winston Peters, is viewed as one of Hone Harawira's closest supporters. In 2017, Jackson returned to politics, he stood down from his high profile talkback show on Radio Live where he had been host for 10 years and stood down from his political commentary role on TVNZ's Marae television series. The-then Opposition leader Andrew Little convinced Jackson to stand for the New Zealand Labour Party during the 2017 election. Jackson was ranked 21 on Labour's party list and served as the party's Māori Campaign Director. During the 2017 election, Jackson was elected as a Labour Party list candidate. Following the election, Jackson resigned from his position as chief executive of the Manukau Urban Maori Authority, chairman of Te Whakaruruhau o Nga Reo Irirangi Māori, the Māori radio network and chairman of the National Urban Maori Authority.
Following post-election negotiations between Labour, New Zealand First and the Greens which led to the formation of a coalition government, Jackson was appointed by Prime Minister-elect Jacinda Ardern as the Minister of Employment and Associate Minister for Māori Development following Labour's formation of a government with New Zealand First and the Greens. Willie Jackson is the son of Bob Jackson and Dame June Jackson, one of New Zealand's longest serving parole board members, his uncles are lawyer Moana Jackson. His grandfather is All Black Everard Jackson. Jackson's ex-wife is singer Moana Maniapoto
Auckland is a city in the North Island of New Zealand. Auckland is the largest urban area in the country, with an urban population of around 1,628,900, it is located in the Auckland Region—the area governed by Auckland Council—which includes outlying rural areas and the islands of the Hauraki Gulf, resulting in a total population of 1,695,900. A diverse and multicultural city, Auckland is home to the largest Polynesian population in the world; the Māori-language name for Auckland is Tāmaki or Tāmaki-makau-rau, meaning "Tāmaki with a hundred lovers", in reference to the desirability of its fertile land at the hub of waterways in all directions. The Auckland urban area ranges to Waiwera in the north, Kumeu in the north-west, Runciman in the south. Auckland lies between the Hauraki Gulf of the Pacific Ocean to the east, the low Hunua Ranges to the south-east, the Manukau Harbour to the south-west, the Waitakere Ranges and smaller ranges to the west and north-west; the surrounding hills are covered in rainforest and the landscape is dotted with dozens of dormant volcanic cones.
The central part of the urban area occupies a narrow isthmus between the Manukau Harbour on the Tasman Sea and the Waitematā Harbour on the Pacific Ocean. Auckland is one of the few cities in the world to have a harbour on each of two separate major bodies of water; the isthmus on which Auckland resides was first settled around 1350 and was valued for its rich and fertile land. The Māori population in the area is estimated to have peaked at 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. After a British colony was established in 1840, William Hobson Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand, chose the area as his new capital, he named the area for Earl of Auckland, British First Lord of the Admiralty. It was replaced as the capital in 1865 by Wellington, but immigration to Auckland stayed strong, it has remained the country's most populous city. Today, Auckland's central business district is the major financial centre of New Zealand. Auckland is classified as a Beta + World City because of its importance in commerce, the arts, education.
The University of Auckland, established in 1883, is the largest university in New Zealand. Landmarks such as the Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki, the Harbour Bridge, the Sky Tower, many museums, parks and theatres are among the city's significant tourist attractions. Auckland Airport handles around one million international passengers a month. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, Auckland is ranked third on the 2016 Mercer Quality of Living Survey, making it one of the most liveable cities; the isthmus was settled by Māori circa 1350, was valued for its rich and fertile land. Many pā were created on the volcanic peaks; the Māori population in the area is estimated to have been about 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. The introduction of firearms at the end of the eighteenth century, which began in Northland, upset the balance of power and led to devastating intertribal warfare beginning in 1807, causing iwi who lacked the new weapons to seek refuge in areas less exposed to coastal raids.
As a result, the region had low numbers of Māori when European settlement of New Zealand began. On 27 January 1832, Joseph Brooks Weller, eldest of the Weller brothers of Otago and Sydney, bought land including the site of the modern city of Auckland, the North Shore, part of Rodney District for "one large cask of powder" from "Cohi Rangatira". After the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in February 1840, the new Governor of New Zealand, William Hobson, chose the area as his new capital and named it for George Eden, Earl of Auckland Viceroy of India; the land that Auckland was established on was given to the Governor by a local iwi, Ngāti Whātua, as a sign of goodwill and in the hope that the building of a city would attract commercial and political opportunities for iwi. Auckland was declared New Zealand's capital in 1841, the transfer of the administration from Russell in the Bay of Islands was completed in 1842; however in 1840 Port Nicholson was seen as a better choice for an administrative capital because of its proximity to the South Island, Wellington became the capital in 1865.
After losing its status as capital, Auckland remained the principal city of the Auckland Province until the provincial system was abolished in 1876. In response to the ongoing rebellion by Hone Heke in the mid-1840s, the government encouraged retired but fit British soldiers and their families to migrate to Auckland to form a defence line around the port settlement as garrison soldiers. By the time the first Fencibles arrived in 1848, the rebels in the north had been defeated. Outlying defensive towns were constructed to the south, stretching in a line from the port village of Onehunga in the west to Howick in the east; each of the four settlements had about 800 settlers. In the early 1860s, Auckland became a base against the Māori King Movement, the 12,000 Imperial soldiers stationed there led to a strong boost to local commerce. This, continued road building towards the south into the Waikato, enabled Pākehā influence to spread from Auckland; the city's population grew rapidly, from 1,500 in 1841 to 3,635 in 1845 to 12,423 by 1864.
The growth occurred to other mercantile-dominated cities around the port and with problems of overcrowding and pollution. Auckland's population of ex-soldiers was far greater than that of other settlements: about 50 percent of the popula
Mangere Inlet is an arm of the Manukau Harbour, the southwestern of the two harbours of Auckland, New Zealand and itself an arm of the Tasman Sea. The inlet lies between the two cities of Auckland City and Manukau City and has a size of 6.6 km2 and a catchment of 34.5 km2, being considered to extend to just west of Onehunga. It is an environment modified by land reclamation and human uses, with the northern shoreline affected. However, the inlet acts as a natural sedimentation sink, thus being at risk of contamination, it is surrounded by the suburbs of Te Papapa, Westfield, Mangere East and Mangere Bridge. The narrowest point on the Auckland isthmus is at Otahuhu, where the coast of the Mangere Inlet is a mere 1200 m from the Otahuhu Creek, which feeds into the Hauraki Gulf; the Mangere Bridge crosses the western end of the inlet where it joins the main body of the Manukau Harbour. At this point the inlet is about 750 m wide; the Waikaraka Cycleway travels along the northern shoreline of the inlet.
Ngarango Otainui Island is situated in the inlet at the eastern end near Otahuhu. Portage Road is the location of one of the overland routes between the two harbours, where the Maori would beach their waka and drag them overland to the other coast, thus avoiding having to paddle around Cape Reinga; this made the area of immense strategic importance in both pre-European times and during the early years of European occupation. In the 1850s, after settlement by Europeans, the areas around the inlet had become the agricultural centre of Auckland. Industrial expansion westwards from the new railway line at Westfield led to increasing discharges of contaminants into the inlet; the inlet is man-modified, with three embayments at the inlets of historic streams having been lost along the northern shore, to a significant degree for use as landfills, a loss of tidal inundation to the Hopua volcanic crater forming the Onehunga Basin further west. Ann’s Creek in the north-east still has a short section of open stream remaining in the north-east.
Land reclamation in the 1960s for the Westfield Rail Yards reduced the inlet in the east, while the southern shore is less modified. The area is known for muddy, sedimented waters, which seem to predate human occupation of the area. Mangrove swamp fringes are present around most of the shoreline, becoming less common west of Mangere Bridge. For many years the many industries, from meatworks and abattoirs, to phosphate fertiliser works and other factories located here were discharging large amounts of untreated waste into the Manukau Harbour; this had a detrimential effect on the ecology of the harbour which at the turn of the 20th century had been a popular and attractive place to swim, sail and gather shellfish. During the 1950s, the decomposition of organic wastes (including from residential areas and facilities like Middlemore Hospital into the mud flats led to sulphate reduction under anaerobic conditions - leading to complaints about hydrogen sulphide smells, blackening of lead paint in the areas around the inlet.
From 1962, the Mangere sewage works removed many of the household and industrial wastes that were discharged and led to significant improvements. As of 2008, a number of coastal protection zones had been established around the shores of the inlet. However, industrial sewage mixed with stormwater overflows, other contamination still leads to above-average traces of toxins like pesticides, insecticides, PCBs and copper in the mussels and oysters sampled by testing. In the discussions around Stadium New Zealand, constructing the new venue over the eastern shoreline of the inlet was mooted by several architects as a potential alternative to the Auckland CBD location, they considered that the site would be far enough away from residential areas to suit the need for a large and busy multi-use stadium, but would be able to be accessed by public transport and cars, more so than the CBD location. However, the idea failed to get public traction