Galinha à africana
African chicken known as galinha à Africana (Portuguese:, is a Macanese chicken dish. African chicken consists of a barbecued chicken coated with spicy piri piri sauce, which sometimes includes Asian ingredients such as coconut milk or peanuts; the dish is sometimes considered to be a renowned Macanese dish, is seen as a variant of piri piri Chicken. There are many theories on where African chicken originated, but all invariably attribute the dish to Macau's Portuguese colonial past. One theory on the dish's origin states the dish is the brainchild of local chef Americo Angelo, who came up with the dish in a hotel kitchen in the 1940s, utilizing spices he obtained from a trip to Portugal's African colonies at the time, while another theory states the recipe has been passed down through Portuguese families in Macau for centuries, yet another theory states the recipe was brought to Macau by retired Portuguese Army officers in the aftermath of the Carnation Revolution, who opened cafés and served foods they came to like during their overseas service.
List of chicken dishes
Malaysia is a country in Southeast Asia. The federal constitutional monarchy consists of 13 states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two sized regions, Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia. Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore and Indonesia. East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia and a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. Kuala Lumpur is the national capital and largest city while Putrajaya is the seat of federal government. With a population of over 30 million, Malaysia is the world's 44th most populous country; the southernmost point of continental Eurasia, Tanjung Piai, is in Malaysia. In the tropics, Malaysia is one of 17 megadiverse countries, with large numbers of endemic species. Malaysia has its origins in the Malay kingdoms which, from the 18th century, became subject to the British Empire, along with the British Straits Settlements protectorate.
Peninsular Malaysia was unified as the Malayan Union in 1946. Malaya was restructured as the Federation of Malaya in 1948, achieved independence on 31 August 1957. Malaya united with North Borneo and Singapore on 16 September 1963 to become Malaysia. In 1965, Singapore was expelled from the federation; the country is multi-cultural, which plays a large role in its politics. About half the population is ethnically Malay, with large minorities of Malaysian Chinese, Malaysian Indians, indigenous peoples. While recognising Islam as the country's established religion, the constitution grants freedom of religion to non-Muslims; the government system is modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and the legal system is based on common law. The head of state is the king, known as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, he is an elected monarch chosen from the hereditary rulers of the nine Malay states every five years. The head of government is the Prime Minister; the country's official language is a standard form of the Malay language.
English remains an active second language. Since independence, Malaysian GDP has grown at an average of 6.5% per annum for 50 years. The economy has traditionally been fuelled by its natural resources, but is expanding in the sectors of science, tourism and medical tourism. Today, Malaysia has a newly industrialised market economy, ranked fourth largest in Southeast Asia and 38th largest in the world, it is a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the East Asia Summit and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, a member of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement. The name "Malaysia" is a combination of the word "Malay" and the Latin-Greek suffix "-sia"/-σία; the word "melayu" in Malay may derive from the Tamil words "malai" and "ur" meaning "mountain" and "city, land", respectively. "Malayadvipa" was the word used by ancient Indian traders. Whether or not it originated from these roots, the word "melayu" or "mlayu" may have been used in early Malay/Javanese to mean to accelerate or run.
This term was applied to describe the strong current of the river Melayu in Sumatra. The name was adopted by the Melayu Kingdom that existed in the seventh century on Sumatra. Before the onset of European colonisation, the Malay Peninsula was known natively as "Tanah Melayu". Under a racial classification created by a German scholar Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, the natives of maritime Southeast Asia were grouped into a single category, the Malay race. Following the expedition of French navigator Jules Dumont d'Urville to Oceania in 1826, he proposed the terms of "Malaysia", "Micronesia" and "Melanesia" to the Société de Géographie in 1831, distinguishing these Pacific cultures and island groups from the existing term "Polynesia". Dumont d'Urville described Malaysia as "an area known as the East Indies". In 1850, the English ethnologist George Samuel Windsor Earl, writing in the Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia, proposed naming the islands of Southeast Asia as "Melayunesia" or "Indunesia", favouring the former.
In modern terminology, "Malay" remains the name of an ethnoreligious group of Austronesian people predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula and portions of the adjacent islands of Southeast Asia, including the east coast of Sumatra, the coast of Borneo, smaller islands that lie between these areas. The state that gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1957 took the name the "Federation of Malaya", chosen in preference to other potential names such as "Langkasuka", after the historic kingdom located at the upper section of the Malay Peninsula in the first millennium CE; the name "Malaysia" was adopted in 1963 when the existing states of the Federation of Malaya, plus Singapore, North Borneo and Sarawak formed a new federation. One theory posits the name was chosen so that "si" represented the inclusion of Singapore, North Borneo, Sarawak to Malaya in 1963. Politicians in the Philippines contemplated renaming their state "Malaysia" before the modern country took the name. Evidence of modern human habitation in Malaysia dates back 40,000 years.
In the Malay Peninsula, the first inhabitants are thought to be Negritos. Traders and settlers from India and China arrived as early as the first century AD, establishing trading ports and coastal towns in the second and third centuries, their presence resulted in strong Indian and Chinese influences on the local cultures, the people of the Malay Peninsula adopted the religions of Hinduism and Buddhism. Sanskrit inscriptions appear as early as the fifth century; the Kingdom of
Dim sum is a style of Chinese cuisine prepared as small bite-sized portions of food served in small steamer baskets or on a small plate. Dim sum dishes are served with tea and together form a full tea brunch. Due to the Cantonese tradition of enjoying tea with this cuisine, yum cha, which means "drink tea" in Cantonese, is synonymous with dim sum. Dim sum traditionally are served as cooked, ready-to-serve dishes. In some Cantonese teahouses, carts with dim sum are served around the restaurant. Dim sum is linked with the older tradition from yum cha for example, people call it is “One cup accompanied by two pieces” in Hong Kong, which has its roots in travelers on the ancient Silk Road needing a place to rest. Thus, teahouses were established along the roadside. An imperial physician in the third century wrote that combining tea with food would lead to excessive weight gain. People discovered that tea can aid in digestion, so teahouse owners began adding various snacks; the unique culinary art dim sum originated with the Cantonese in Guangzhou and after that its transmitted inward to Hong Kong, who over the centuries transformed yum cha from a relaxing respite to a loud and happy dining experience.
In Hong Kong and most cities and towns in Guangdong province many restaurants start serving dim sum as early as five in the morning, each cantonese restaurant will have its own signature dim sum dish. It is a tradition for the elderly to gather to eat dim sum after morning exercises. For many in southern China, yum cha is treated as a weekend family day. More traditional dim sum restaurants serve dim sum until mid-afternoon. However, in modern society, it has become commonplace for restaurants to serve dim sum at dinner time. A traditional dim sum brunch includes various types of steamed buns such as cha siu bao, rice or wheat dumplings and rice noodle rolls, which contain a range of ingredients, including beef, pork and vegetarian options. Many dim sum restaurants offer plates of steamed green vegetables, roasted meats and other soups. Dessert dim sum is available and many places offer the customary egg tart. Dim sum is eaten as breakfast or brunch. Dim sum can be cooked among other methods; the serving sizes are small and served as three or four pieces in one dish.
It is customary to order family style. Because of the small portions, people can try a wide variety of food. Dim sum brunch restaurants have a wide variety of dishes several dozen. Among the standard fare of dim sum are the following: Dumpling Shrimp dumpling: Steamed dumpling with shrimp filling. Teochew dumpling: Steamed dumpling with peanuts, chives, dried shrimp, Chinese mushrooms. Xiao long bao: Dumplings are filled with meat or seafood with a rich broth inside. Guotie: Pan-fried dumpling with meat and cabbage filling. Shaomai: Steamed dumplings with pork and prawns. Topped off with crab roe and mushroom. Taro dumpling: Deep fried dumpling made with mashed taro, stuffed with diced mushrooms and pork. Haam Seui Gok: Deep fried dumpling with pork and chopped vegetables; the wrapping is sweet and sticky, while the filling is salty and savoury. Dumpling soup: Soup with one or two big dumplings. Rolls Spring roll: A deep fried roll consisting of various sliced vegetables and sometimes meat. Tofu skin roll: A roll made of tofu skin filled with various meat and sliced vegetables.
Rice noodle roll: Steamed rice noodles and filled with meats or vegetables inside but can be served plain. Popular fillings include beef, dough fritter and barbecued pork. Served with a sweetened soy sauce. Bun Barbecued pork bun: Bun with barbecued pork filling, they can either be steamed to be baked to golden. The baked variant are called. Sweet cream buns: Steamed buns with milk custard filling. Pineapple bun: a bread roll with a topping textured like pineapple skin sweet. Does not contain pineapple. Cake Turnip cake: puddings made from shredded white radish, mixed with bits of dried shrimp, Chinese sausage and mushroom, they are steamed cut into slices and pan-fried. Taro cake: puddings made of taro. Water chestnut cake: puddings made of crispy water chestnut; some restaurants serve a variation made with bamboo juice. Steamed meatball: Steamed meatballs served on top of a thin bean-curd skin. Phoenix claws: Deep fried and steamed chicken feet with douchi. A
The garden strawberry is a grown hybrid species of the genus Fragaria, collectively known as the strawberries. It is cultivated worldwide for its fruit; the fruit is appreciated for its characteristic aroma, bright red color, juicy texture, sweetness. It is consumed in large quantities, either fresh or in such prepared foods as preserves, pies, ice creams and chocolates. Artificial strawberry flavorings and aromas are widely used in many products like lip gloss, hand sanitizers and many others; the garden strawberry was first bred in Brittany, France, in the 1750s via a cross of Fragaria virginiana from eastern North America and Fragaria chiloensis, brought from Chile by Amédée-François Frézier in 1714. Cultivars of Fragaria × ananassa have replaced, in commercial production, the woodland strawberry, the first strawberry species cultivated in the early 17th century; the strawberry is not, from a botanical point of view, a berry. Technically, it is an aggregate accessory fruit, meaning that the fleshy part is derived not from the plant's ovaries but from the receptacle that holds the ovaries.
Each apparent "seed" on the outside of the fruit is one of the ovaries of the flower, with a seed inside it. In 2016, world production of strawberries was 9.2 million tonnes, led by China with 41% of the total. The first garden strawberry was grown in Brittany, during the late 18th century. Prior to this, wild strawberries and cultivated selections from wild strawberry species were the common source of the fruit; the strawberry fruit was mentioned in ancient Roman literature in reference to its medicinal use. The French began taking the strawberry from the forest to their gardens for harvest in the 14th century. Charles V, France's king from 1364 to 1380, had 1,200 strawberry plants in his royal garden. In the early 15th century western European monks were using the wild strawberry in their illuminated manuscripts; the strawberry is found in Italian and German art, in English miniatures. The entire strawberry plant was used to treat depressive illnesses. By the 16th century, references of cultivation of the strawberry became more common.
People began using it for its supposed medicinal properties and botanists began naming the different species. In England the demand for regular strawberry farming had increased by the mid-16th century; the combination of strawberries and cream was created by Thomas Wolsey in the court of King Henry VIII. Instructions for growing and harvesting strawberries showed up in writing in 1578. By the end of the 16th century three European species had been cited: F. vesca, F. moschata, F. viridis. The garden strawberry was transplanted from the forests and the plants would be propagated asexually by cutting off the runners. Two subspecies of F. vesca were identified: F. sylvestris alba and F. sylvestris semperflorens. The introduction of F. virginiana from Eastern North America to Europe in the 17th century is an important part of history because this species gave rise to the modern strawberry. The new species spread through the continent and did not become appreciated until the end of the 18th century.
When a French excursion journeyed to Chile in 1712, it introduced the North American strawberry plant with female flowers that resulted in the common strawberry that we have today. The Mapuche and Huilliche Indians of Chile cultivated the female strawberry species until 1551, when the Spanish came to conquer the land. In 1765, a European explorer recorded the cultivation of the Chilean strawberry. At first introduction to Europe, the plants produced no fruit, it was discovered in 1766 that the female plants could only be pollinated by plants that produced large fruit: F. moschata, F. virginiana, F. ananassa. This is when the Europeans became aware that plants had the ability to produce male-only or female-only flowers; as more large-fruit producing plants were cultivated the Chilean strawberry decreased in population in Europe, except for around Brest where the Chilean strawberry thrived. The decline of the Chilean strawberry was caused by F. ananassa. Strawberry cultivars vary in size, flavor, degree of fertility, season of ripening, liability to disease and constitution of plant.
On average, a strawberry has about 200 seeds on its external membrane. Some vary in foliage, some vary materially in the relative development of their sexual organs. In most cases, the flowers appear hermaphroditic in structure, but function as either male or female. For purposes of commercial production, plants are propagated from runners and, in general, distributed as either bare root plants or plugs. Cultivation follows one of two general models—annual plasticulture, or a perennial system of matted rows or mounds. Greenhouses produce a small amount of strawberries during the off season; the bulk of modern commercial production uses the plasticulture system. In this method, raised beds are formed each year and covered with plastic to prevent weed growth and erosion. Plants obtained from northern nurseries, are planted through holes punched in this covering, irrigation tubing is run underneath. Runners are removed from the plants as they appear, in order to encourage the plants to put most of their energy into fruit development.
At the end of the harvest season, the plastic is removed and the plants are plowed into the ground. Because strawberry plants more than a year or two old begin to decline in productivity and fruit quality, this system of replacing the plants each year allows for improved yields and denser plantings. However, because it requires a longer growing season to allow for estab
Evaporated milk, known in some countries as "unsweetened condensed milk", is a shelf-stable canned milk product with about 60% of the water removed from fresh milk. It differs from sweetened condensed milk. Sweetened condensed milk requires less processing; the product takes up half the space of its nutritional equivalent in fresh milk. When the liquid product is mixed with a proportionate amount of water, evaporated milk becomes the rough equivalent of fresh milk; this makes evaporated milk attractive for some purposes as it can have a shelf life of months or years, depending upon the fat and sugar content. This made evaporated milk popular before refrigeration as a safe and reliable substitute for perishable fresh milk, as evaporated milk could be shipped to locations lacking the means of safe milk production or storage; the process involves the evaporation of 60% of the water from the milk, followed by homogenization and heat-sterilization. In the 1920s and 1930s, evaporated milk began to be commercially available at low prices.
The Christian Diehl Brewery, for instance, entered the business in 1922, producing Jerzee brand evaporated milk as a response to the Volstead Act. Several clinical studies from that time period suggested that babies fed evaporated milk formula thrived as well as breastfed babies. Modern guidelines from the World Health Organization consider breastfeeding, in most cases, to be healthier for the infant because of the colostrum in early milk production, as well as the specific nutritional content of human breast milk. Evaporated milk is homogenized milk from which 60 percent of the water has been removed. After the water has been removed, the product is chilled, stabilized and sterilized, it is commercially sterilized at 240-245 °F for 15 minutes. A caramelized flavor results from the high heat process, it is darker in color than fresh milk; the evaporation process concentrates the food energy. Evaporated milk is sometimes used in its reduced form, in tea or coffee, or as a topping for desserts. Reconstituted evaporated milk, equivalent to normal milk, is mixed 1 part by volume of evaporated milk with 1 1/4 parts of water.
Where evaporated milk is required but not available, it can be replaced by simmering 2 1/4 parts of fresh milk down to 1 part. According to the United States Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Chapter 1, Part 131, Sub part B, Section 130 "Evaporated milk", Description. Evaporated milk is the liquid food obtained by partial removal of water only from milk, it contains not less than 6.5 percent by weight of milk fat, not less than 16.5 percent by weight of milk solids not fat, not less than 23 percent by weight of total milk solids. Evaporated milk contains added vitamin D, it is homogenized. It is sealed in a container and so processed by heat, either before or after sealing, as to prevent spoilage.... Sections - of the above code regulate vitamin addition, optional ingredients, methods of analysis and label declaration, it is added in brewed coffee to make Teh C and Kopi C respectively. The C used in these names was due to a common association to the brand Carnation Evaporated Milk, it is used as a whitener or creamer for coffee.
It is used for desserts, added to coffee, tea to create a rich leche con café or te con leche, made with half water, half evaporated milk and either coffee or tea and sugar. It is the staple milk product used in teas, pap and cold chocolate and consumed as a drink on its own; the shelf life of canned evaporated milk varies according to both its added content and its proportion of fat. For the regular unsweetened product a life of fifteen months can be expected before any noticeable destabilization occurs. Evaporated milk is sold by several manufacturers: Carnation Evaporated Milk PET Evaporated Milk Magnolia evaporated milk - Viking Melk - invented by Olav Johan Sopp in 1891, a Nestlé brand since 1897 F&N Evaporated Milk Rainbow Milk, a brand of Royal Friesland Foods Nordmilch AG - Germany Jerzee Evaporated Milk O-At-Ka Evaporated Milk Ferdi Evaporated Milk Vitalait Evaporated Milk Luna Evaporated Milk Gloria Evaporated Milk Baked milk Filled milk John Augustus Just List of dried foods Powdered milk Scalded milk Cooking with Canned Milk, including recipes and tips PET History - history of evaporated milk and the PET company.
Today in Science History - John B. Meyenberg's patent describing his evaporation process of preserving milk
Macanese cuisine is unique to Macau, consists of a blend of southern Chinese and Portuguese cuisines, with significant influences from Southeast Asia and the Lusophone world. Many unique dishes resulted from the spice blends that the wives of Portuguese sailors used in an attempt to replicate European dishes. Besides local Chinese ingredients, its ingredients and seasonings include those from Europe, Latin America, Africa and Southeast Asia. Common cooking techniques include baking and roasting; the former seen in other styles of Chinese cooking, speaks to the eclectic nature of Macanese cooking. Macau is renowned for its flavour-blending culture, modern Macanese cuisine may be considered a type of fusion cuisine. Macanese food is seasoned with various spices including turmeric, coconut milk, cinnamon, dried cod, giving special aromas and tastes. Famous dishes include galinha à Portuguesa, galinha à Africana, pato de cabidela, Macanese chili shrimps and stir-fried curry crab. Other dishes include pig's ear and papaya salad, rabbit stewed in wine and star anise.
Tapas are an integral part of Macanese cuisine. The most popular snack is the pork chop bun; the most popular desserts are ginger milk, pastéis de nata, almond cake. Famous restaurants of Macau include the Restaurante Porto Interior, Restaurante Litoral, Restaurante Espao and Restaurante O Santos. Cantonese cuisine Hong Kong cuisine List of Chinese dishes A Guide to Macanese Food: What happens when China and Las Vegas come together
Mangoes are juicy stone fruit from numerous species of tropical trees belonging to the flowering plant genus Mangifera, cultivated for their edible fruit. The majority of these species are found in nature as wild mangoes; the genus belongs to the cashew family Anacardiaceae. Mangoes are native to South Asia, from where the "common mango" or "Indian mango", Mangifera indica, has been distributed worldwide to become one of the most cultivated fruits in the tropics. Other Mangifera species are grown on a more localized basis, it is the national fruit of India and Pakistan, the national tree of Bangladesh. It is the unofficial national fruit of the Philippines; the English word "mango" originated from the Malayalam word māṅṅa via Dravidian mankay and Portuguese manga during the spice trade period with South India in the 15th and 16th centuries. Mango is mentioned by Hendrik van Rheede, the Dutch commander of the Malabar region in his 1678 book, Hortus Malabaricus, about plants having economic value.
When mangoes were first imported to the American colonies in the 17th century, they had to be pickled because of lack of refrigeration. Other fruits were pickled and came to be called "mangoes" bell peppers, in the 18th century, the word "mango" became a verb meaning "to pickle". Mango trees grow to 35–40 m tall, with a crown radius of 10 m; the trees are long-lived. In deep soil, the taproot descends to a depth of 6 m, with profuse, wide-spreading feeder roots and anchor roots penetrating into the soil; the leaves are evergreen, simple, 15–35 cm long, 6–16 cm broad. The flowers are produced in terminal panicles 10–40 cm long. Over 500 varieties of mangoes are known, many of which ripen in summer, while some give a double crop; the fruit takes four to five months from flowering to ripen. The ripe fruit varies in size, color and eating quality. Cultivars are variously yellow, red, or green, carry a single flat, oblong pit that can be fibrous or hairy on the surface, which does not separate from the pulp.
The fruits may be somewhat round, oval, or kidney-shaped, ranging from 5–25 centimetres in length and from 140 grams to 2 kilograms in weight per individual fruit. The skin is leather-like, waxy and fragrant, with color ranging from green to yellow, yellow-orange, yellow-red, or blushed with various shades of red, pink or yellow when ripe. Ripe intact mangoes give off a distinctive resinous, sweet smell. Inside the pit 1–2 mm thick is a thin lining covering a single seed, 4–7 cm long. Mangoes have recalcitrant seeds which do not survive drying. Mango trees grow from seeds, with germination success highest when seeds are obtained from mature fruits. Mangoes have been cultivated in South Asia for thousands of years and reached Southeast Asia between the fifth and fourth centuries BCE. By the 10th century CE, cultivation had begun in East Africa; the 14th-century Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta reported it at Mogadishu. Cultivation came to Brazil, the West Indies, Mexico, where an appropriate climate allows its growth.
The mango is now cultivated in warmer subtropical climates. Mangoes are grown in Andalusia, Spain, as its coastal subtropical climate is one of the few places in mainland Europe that permits the growth of tropical plants and fruit trees; the Canary Islands are another notable Spanish producer of the fruit. Other cultivators include North America and Central America, the Caribbean, Hawai'i, south and central Africa, China, South Korea, Pakistan and Southeast Asia. Though India is the largest producer of mangoes, it accounts for less than 1% of the international mango trade. Many commercial cultivars are grafted on to the cold-hardy rootstock of Gomera-1 mango cultivar from Cuba, its root system is well adapted to a coastal Mediterranean climate. Many of the 1,000+ mango cultivars are cultivated using grafted saplings, ranging from the "turpentine mango" to the Bullock's Heart. Dwarf or semidwarf varieties can be grown in containers. A wide variety of diseases can afflict mangoes. There are many hundreds of named mango cultivars.
In mango orchards, several cultivars are grown in order to improve pollination. Many desired cultivars are monoembryonic and must be propagated by grafting or they do not breed true. A common monoembryonic cultivar is'Alphonso', an important export product, considered as "the king of mangoes". Cultivars that excel in one climate may fail elsewhere. For example, Indian cultivars such as'Julie', a prolific cultivar in Jamaica, require annual fungicide treatments to escape the lethal fungal disease anthracnose in Florida. Asian mangoes are resistant to anthracnose; the current world market is dominated by the cultivar'Tommy Atkins', a seedling of'Haden' that first fruited in 1940 in southern Florida and was rejected commercially by Florida researchers. Growers and importers worldwide have embraced the cultivar for its exc