A manifesto is a published declaration of the intentions, motives, or views of the issuer, be it an individual, political party or government. A manifesto accepts a published opinion or public consensus or promotes a new idea with prescriptive notions for carrying out changes the author believes should be made, it is political or artistic in nature, but may present an individual's life stance. Manifestos relating to religious belief are referred to as creeds, it is derived from the Italian word manifesto, itself derived from the Latin manifestum, meaning clear or conspicuous. Its first recorded use in English is from 1620, in Nathaniel Brent's translation of Paolo Sarpi's History of the Council of Trent: "To this citation he made answer by a Manifesto". "They were so farre surprised with his Manifesto, that they would never suffer it to be published". Examples of notable manifestos: The Baghdad Manifesto The Act of Abjuration The United States Declaration of Independence The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen during the French Revolution The Haitian Declaration of Independence after the Haitian Revolution The Cartagena Manifesto, by Simón Bolívar The Tamworth Manifesto issued in 1834 by Sir Robert Peel The Declaration of Sentiments The Communist Manifesto, by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels The Anarchist Manifesto, by Anselme Bellegarrigue The 1890 Manifesto dealing with plural marriage, issued by Wilford Woodruff as president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints The Second Manifesto dealing with plural marriage, issued by Joseph F. Smith as president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints The October Manifesto issued by Nicholas II, in an effort to cease the 1905 Russian Revolution The Manifesto of the Sixteen The Urmia Manifesto of the United Free Assyria, by Dr. Freydun Atturaya The Liminar Manifesto in the Argentine University Revolution The Amasya Circular The Fascist Manifesto, by Fasci di Combattimento The Manifesto of the Anti-Fascist Intellectuals, by Benedetto Croce Mein Kampf, by Adolf Hitler The Cannibal Manifesto, by Oswald de Andrade The Regina Manifesto, by the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation The Humanist Manifesto I, II and III The Ventotene Manifesto, by Altiero Spinelli and Ernesto Rossi encouraged a federation of European states, meant to keep the countries of Europe close, thus preventing war, it is seen as the birth of European federalism.
The PKWN manifesto, by Polish Committee of National Liberation The Oxford Manifesto describing the basic principles of Liberal International The Objectives Resolution of Pakistan, by Liaquat Ali Khan "The Christian Manifesto", condemning Protestant missions in China and pledging allegiance to the People's Republic The Russell-Einstein Manifesto, against nuclear weapons and war The Southern Manifesto, opposing the Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education Report on the Construction of Situations, by Guy Debord The Manifesto of the 121 against the Algerian War The Sharon Statement, by M. Stanton Evans et al; the Port Huron Statement, by Tom Hayden et al. The SCUM Manifesto, by Valerie Solanas The Black Manifesto, by the Black Economic Development Council, including James Forman The Manifesto of the 343, by Simone de Beauvoir in which 343 French women admitted to having a abortion For a New Liberty: The Libertarian Manifesto, by Murray Rothbard The Green Book, by Muammar Gaddafi New Libertarian Manifesto, by Samuel Edward Konkin III Guy Verhofstadt's Burgermanifests: I.
The Dunedin North by-election of 1922 was a by-election held during the 20th New Zealand Parliament in the Dunedin electorate of Dunedin North. This election for the New Zealand Labour Party was significant as, excluding in 1925, Jim Munro would retain the seat until his death in 1945; the by-election was caused by the death of Edward Kellett, the previous Member of Parliament for Dunedin North. Kellett had held Dunedin North since the General election, of 1919; the by-election was won by Labour's Jim Munro. The following table gives the election results: List of New Zealand by-elections 1945 Dunedin North by-election 1953 North Dunedin by-election Wilson, James Oakley. New Zealand parliamentary record, 1840–1984. Wellington: V. R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103
The Canada lunar sample displays are two commemorative plaques consisting of small fragments of Moon specimen brought back with the Apollo 11 and Apollo 17 lunar missions and given in the 1970s to the people of Canada by United States President Richard Nixon as goodwill gifts. The Apollo 11 Canadian moon rocks commemorative podium plaque display consists of four "Moon rock" rice-size particle specimens that were collected by Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin in 1969 and a small Canadian flag that went to the Moon and back; the four Moon rocks weigh about 0.05 grams total and are enveloped in a clear plastic button the size of a coin, mounted to a wooden board a foot square on a small podium pedestal display. The small podium plaque display has mounted on it a small Canadian flag, taken to the moon and back on Apollo 11, which lies directly below the Moon rocks; the small podium plaque display was given to the people of Canada as a gift by President Richard Nixon. Similar lunar sample displays were distributed to all the states of the United States and all the countries of the world.
The Canada Apollo 17 lunar sample display commemorative wooden plaque consists of one Moon rock particle specimen, cut from lunar basalt 70017 and a Canadian flag. The basalt 70017 was collected by Apollo 17 astronaut Harrison Schmitt on the Moon in 1972. Once lunar basalt 70017 was brought back to Earth from the Moon, the basalt Moon rock was cut up into small fragments of 1 gram; the specimen was enveloped in a plastic ball and mounted on the wooden plaque along with the Canadian flag, taken to the Moon and back by the crew of Apollo 17. The wooden plaque display was distributed in 1973 by President Richard Nixon to the country of Canada as he did that year to all the countries of the world and all the states of the United States; this was done as a goodwill gesture to promote harmony. In 1972 a 10-day international "Youth Science Tour" took place in the United States with 80 "youth ambassadors" ages 17 to 21 from all the countries of the United Nations participating. Jaymie Matthews, age 13 at the time, of Chatham, was the Canadian "youth ambassador" representative whose reward for winning an essay contest on "The Importance of Space Flight to Mankind" was to go to the United States national capital.
There Matthews met vice-president Spiro Agnew. From Washington, D. C. the "youth ambassadors" were flown to Orlando and put up in a luxury hotel. They watched the launch of Apollo 17 in Florida from NASA's Mission Control Center. Matthews not only saw the launch but the landing of Apollo 17 on the Moon, memorialised by astronauts Eugene A. Cernan and Harrison H. Schmitt when they talked directly to the "youth ambassadors" from the surface of the Moon. Matthews was able to see astronaut Neil Armstrong at the luxury hotel in Orlando, Florida, he got quite acquainted with Armstrong's daughter and became lifetime pen pals with her. The program directors promised each "youth ambassador" a lunar sample from the Apollo 17 mission. In 1973 Matthews was sent the Canadian "goodwill Moon rock" encased in a clear Lucite ball about the size of a billiard ball and mounted to a 10-inch by 14-inch wooden board. In the center of the plaque was a small Canadian flag that had flown on the Apollo 17 mission to the Moon and back.
On the bottom was a label inscribed: Presented to the people of CANADA/ From the people of the United States of America/ RICHARD NIXON/ 1973. Matthews kept the commemorative Canadian "goodwill Moon rock" display in his bedroom; the Apollo 17 display was out in plain view for months in his bedroom. He showed it off to his space geeks. On September 21, 1973, during a ceremony at Rideau Hall, Matthews turned over possession of the lunar sample display to the National Museum of Natural Sciences in Ottawa, where it was exhibited for several years. In 1978 the museum lost the lunar sample wooden plaque display during a national tour, they told Matthews it was stolen during the tour in Edmonton, Canada. As the years went on. Matthews became a professor at the University of British Columbia. One day, as he was teaching a class, he googled for the commemorative Canadian "goodwill Moon rock" display, he came upon a picture taken of it in 2000. Doing more googling, he discovered it was in a museum warehouse in Quebec.
Matthews compares it to a huge warehouse scene in Raiders of the Lost Ark where millions of pieces are stored. It was lost in the multitude of items stored and only through the accidental chance of Matthews finding a picture of it did its continued existence come to light; the National Museum of Natural Sciences in Ottawa told Matthews back in 1978 that it was stolen, since at that time they themselves had lost it and needed a story to cover that. There was not a 1978 national tour, it was all a cover-up story for Matthews. The Apollo 17 "goodwill Moon rock" display was put back on display at the Canada Science and Technology Museum in Ottawa. Kloc, Joe; the Case of the Missing Moon Rocks. The Atavist/Amazon Digital Services, Inc. p. 47. ASIN B007BGZNZ8. Partial list of Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17 sample locations, NASA Johnson Space Center