Kangerlussuaq Fjord is a long fjord in the Qeqqata municipality in central-western Greenland. The fjord is 190 km long and between 1.5 km and 8 km wide, flowing from the estuary of Qinnguata Kuussua river to the southwest, emptying into the Davis Strait. It is the longest fjord of western Greenland; the head of the fjord is located at 67°00′18″N 50°41′35″W, at the estuary of the Qinnguata Kuussua river flowing from the Russell Glacier of the Greenland ice sheet. The fjord mouth is located at 66°01′40″N 53°32′00″W, south of the Simiutaq Island. Another, smaller waterway connects to the sea to the north of the island. Kangerlussuaq Fjord does not have any tributary fjords, with a uniform coastline. Small hills of the Kangaamiut dike swarm, such as the highlands of Tarajornitsut, dominate the coast of the inner parts of the fjord, transforming into steep mountain ranges towards the mouth. In that it is different from fjords of Norway, or indeed many other fjords in Greenland, the coast of, flanked by progressively smaller mountains.
Alluvial sediments from Qinnguata Kuussua, which carries meltwater from the ice sheet give rise to a distinct emerald coloring of the fjord waters for several kilometers from the fjord head. Silt accumulation at the estuary formed patches of quicksand of variable size up to a kilometer into the fjord; this fjord marks the border between the two geographic regions of Queen Ingrid Land and King Frederick IX Land. The only settlement on the shores of the fjord is Kangerlussuaq, located just north of the river estuary at the head of the fjord. Kangaamiut is located on a small island, on the shores of Davis Strait 26 km south of the fjord mouth; the fjord is navigable in its entire length. Cruise ships, such as Norway's Hurtigruten and supply ships of Royal Greenland navigate the fjord, mooring at the Kangerlussuaq port, west of Kangerlussuaq Airport. Media related to Kangerlussuaq Fjord at Wikimedia Commons
Maniitsoq Sukkertoppen, is a town in Maniitsoq Island, western Greenland located in the Qeqqata municipality. With 2,670 inhabitants as of 2013, it is the sixth-largest town in Greenland. Archaeological finds indicate; the modern town was founded as New or Nye-Sukkertoppen in 1782 by Danish colonists relocating from the original Sukkertoppen, a trading post founded in 1755 at the site of present-day Kangaamiut. In time, the original name was taken up again. In the 19th century, the town served as a major trading post for the Royal Greenland Trading Department's trade in reindeer hides. Maniitsoq Municipality was a former municipality of Greenland, it is now part of Qeqqata Municipality. There have been plans for an Alcoa aluminium smelting plant either at Maniitsoq or Sisimiut for an extended period, at least since 2008, without progressing to construction; the plant would provide employment for 600–700 people, or more than 1 percent of the population of Greenland. As it is a vital decision for the town, wide public consultations were carried out in 2008–2010 by both the town authorities and the Greenland Home Rule Government in order to address potential environmental and social concerns.
Maniitsoq is served by Air Greenland with flights to Nuuk and Sisimiut. Maniitsoq is a port of call for the Arctic Umiaq ferry. With 2,670 inhabitants as of 2013, Maniitsoq has experienced a decline in population over a long period of time; the town has lost 15% of its population relative to 1990 levels, nearly 9% relative to 2000 levels. Migrants from the smaller settlements such as depopulating Kangaamiut choose to migrate to Sisimiut, the capital in Nuuk, sometimes to Denmark, rather than Maniitsoq. Kangerlussuaq and Sisimiut are the only settlement in the Qeqqata municipality exhibiting stable growth patterns over the last two decades. Mimi Karlsen, politician Sofie Petersen, Lutheran Bishop of Greenland Rasmus Lyberth, actor Thue Christiansen, designer of the Greenlandic flag, artist Novel The Prophets of Eternal Fjord by Kim Leine is set in Sukkertoppen. A 100 km wide circular region with unusual geological features is believed to be the results of a massive asteroid or comet impact about three billion years ago.
The region is centered about 55 km south-east of Maniitsoq at coordinates 65°15′N 51°50′W. During the 3 billion years following the impact, the crater has eroded down, the features now exposed were buried 20 to 25 km below the surface at the time the event occurred; this erosion processes is the reason that few remaining craters are visible on Earth. According to a study published in 2012, scientist believe that it is an impact crater created by a single event involving intense crushing and heating, rather than a deformation in the earth's crust formed by the interaction of tectonic plates. According to the study, the inferred scale, strain rates and temperatures necessary to create the Maniitsoq structure rule out a terrestrial origin. More research is needed before the Maniitsoq structure can be confirmed as an impact crater because present diagnostic tools used to identify impacting in the upper crust are inadequate for giant eroded structures. If confirmed as an impact crater, this crater would be older than other old impact craters such as the much smaller 16 km wide, 2.4 billion year old, Suavjärvi crater in Russia and the larger 300 km wide, 2.0 billion year old, Vredefort crater in South Africa.
The 2012 study was published by scientists from the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, along with members from Cardiff University, Lund University in Sweden, the Institute of Planetary Science in Moscow. Maniitsoq is twinned with: Esbjerg, Denmark
Greenland is an autonomous constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe for more than a millennium; the majority of its residents are Inuit, whose ancestors began migrating from the Canadian mainland in the 13th century settling across the island. Greenland is the world's largest island. Three-quarters of Greenland is covered by the only permanent ice sheet outside Antarctica. With a population of about 56,480, it is the least densely populated territory in the world. About a third of the population live in the capital and largest city; the Arctic Umiaq Line ferry acts as a lifeline for western Greenland, connecting the various cities and settlements. Greenland has been inhabited at intervals over at least the last 4,500 years by Arctic peoples whose forebears migrated there from what is now Canada.
Norsemen settled the uninhabited southern part of Greenland beginning in the 10th century, having settled Iceland to escape persecution from the King of Norway and his central government. These Norsemen would set sail from Greenland and Iceland, with Leif Erikson becoming the first known European to reach North America nearly 500 years before Columbus reached the Caribbean islands. Inuit peoples arrived in the 13th century. Though under continuous influence of Norway and Norwegians, Greenland was not formally under the Norwegian crown until 1262; the Norse colonies disappeared in the late 15th century when Norway was hit by the Black Death and entered a severe decline. Soon after their demise, beginning in 1499, the Portuguese explored and claimed the island, naming it Terra do Lavrador. In the early 18th century, Danish explorers reached Greenland again. To strengthen trading and power, Denmark–Norway affirmed sovereignty over the island; because of Norway's weak status, it lost sovereignty over Greenland in 1814 when the union was dissolved.
Greenland became Danish in 1814, was integrated in the Danish state in 1953 under the Constitution of Denmark. In 1973, Greenland joined the European Economic Community with Denmark. However, in a referendum in 1982, a majority of the population voted for Greenland to withdraw from the EEC, effected in 1985. Greenland contains the world's largest and most northerly national park, Northeast Greenland National Park. Established in 1974, expanded to its present size in 1988, it protects 972,001 square kilometres of the interior and northeastern coast of Greenland and is bigger than all but twenty-nine countries in the world. Greenland is divided into five municipalities – Sermersooq, Qeqertalik and Avannaata. Greenland does not have an independent seat at the United Nations. In 1979, Denmark granted home rule to Greenland, in 2008, Greenlanders voted in favor of the Self-Government Act, which transferred more power from the Danish government to the local Greenlandic government. Under the new structure, in effect since 21 June 2009, Greenland can assume responsibility for policing, judicial system, company law and auditing.
It retains control of monetary policy, providing an initial annual subsidy of DKK 3.4 billion, planned to diminish over time. Greenland expects to grow its economy based on increased income from the extraction of natural resources; the capital, held the 2016 Arctic Winter Games. At 70%, Greenland has one of the highest shares of renewable energy in the world coming from hydropower; the early Norse settlers named the island as Greenland. In the Icelandic sagas, the Norwegian-born Icelander Erik the Red was said to be exiled from Iceland for manslaughter. Along with his extended family and his thralls, he set out in ships to explore an icy land known to lie to the northwest. After finding a habitable area and settling there, he named it Grœnland in the hope that the pleasant name would attract settlers; the Saga of Erik the Red states: "In the summer, Erik left to settle in the country he had found, which he called Greenland, as he said people would be attracted there if it had a favorable name."The name of the country in the indigenous Greenlandic language is Kalaallit Nunaat.
The Kalaallit are the indigenous Greenlandic Inuit people. In prehistoric times, Greenland was home to several successive Paleo-Eskimo cultures known today through archaeological finds; the earliest entry of the Paleo-Eskimo into Greenland is thought to have occurred about 2500 BC. From around 2500 BC to 800 BC, southern and western Greenland were inhabited by the Saqqaq culture. Most finds of Saqqaq-period archaeological remains have been around Disko Bay, including the site of Saqqaq, after which the culture is named. From 2400 BC to 1300 BC, the Independence I culture existed in northern Greenland, it was a part of the Arctic small tool tradition. Towns, including Deltaterrassern
An ice cap is a mass of ice that covers less than 50,000 km2 of land area. Larger ice masses covering more than 50,000 km2 are termed ice sheets. Ice caps are not constrained by topographical features. By contrast, ice masses of similar size that are constrained by topographical features are known as ice fields; the dome of an ice cap is centred on the highest point of a massif. Ice flows away from this high point towards the ice cap's periphery. Ice caps have significant effects on the geomorphology of the area. Plastic moulding and other glacial erosional features become present upon the glacier's retreat. Many lakes, such as the Great Lakes in North America, as well as numerous valleys have been formed by glacial action over hundreds of thousands of years. On Earth, there are about 30 million km3 of total ice mass; the average temperature of an ice mass ranges between −20 °C and −30 °C. The core of an ice cap exhibits a constant temperature that ranges between −15 °C and −20 °C. A high-latitude region covered in ice, though not an ice cap, are called polar ice caps.
Vatnajökull is an example of an ice cap in Iceland
Kalaallit Nunaata Radioa
Kalaallit Nunaata Radioa rendered into English as Greenlandic Broadcasting Corporation, is the national public broadcasting corporation of Greenland, based in the country's capital city, Nuuk. It is an independent state-owned corporation headed by a five-person board, its activities are funded from a mixture of sources direct government funding but on-air advertising. In 2012–13 all elements of KNR Radio and TV relocated to a new building in Nuuk. KNR offers two channels nationwide, KNR1 and KNR2, they are available via digital terrestrial television, digital cable television. Both channels are streamed online via YouTube. KNR1 is the primary channel and the programming is in the Greenlandic language. KNR2 is used only. In 2006, KNR TV installed a complete digital SD-SDI production and editing facility with the infrastructure to provide for the local production of talkshows and remote broadcasts. Prior to January 2013, KNR1 featured programming from Danish television networks DR and TV 2 but when several of DR's channels were made free-to-air in Greenland, KNR decided to focus on original Greenlandic programming.
The KNR radio station operates nationwide. It's available on AM and online. It's in the Greenlandic language but in Danish. In Nuuk KNR directly relays DR P1 as a separate FM channel. Official website Official website
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency is a combat support agency under the United States Department of Defense and a member of the United States Intelligence Community, with the primary mission of collecting and distributing geospatial intelligence in support of national security. NGA was known as the National Imagery and Mapping Agency until 2003. NGA headquarters known as NGA Campus East, is located at Fort Belvoir North Area in Virginia; the agency operates major facilities in the St. Louis, Missouri area, as well as support and liaison offices worldwide; the NGA headquarters, at 2.3 million square feet, is the third-largest government building in the Washington metropolitan area after The Pentagon and the Ronald Reagan Building. In addition to using GEOINT for U. S. military and intelligence efforts, the NGA provides assistance during natural and man-made disasters, security planning for major events such as the Olympic Games. In September 2018, researchers at the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency released a high resolution terrain map of Antarctica, named the "Reference Elevation Model of Antarctica".
U. S. mapping and charting efforts remained unchanged until World War I, when aerial photography became a major contributor to battlefield intelligence. Using stereo viewers, photo-interpreters reviewed thousands of images. Many of these were of the same target at different angles and times, giving rise to what became modern imagery analysis and mapmaking; the Engineer Reproduction Plant was the Army Corps of Engineers's first attempt to centralize mapping production and distribution. It was located on the grounds of the Army War College in Washington, D. C. Topographic mapping had been a function of individual field engineer units using field surveying techniques or copying existing or captured products. In addition, ERP assumed the "supervision and maintenance" of the War Department Map Collection, effective April 1, 1939. With the advent of the Second World War aviation, field surveys began giving way to photogrammetry, photo interpretation, geodesy. During wartime, it became possible to compile maps with minimal field work.
Out of this emerged AMS, which absorbed the existing ERP in May 1942. It was located at the Dalecarlia Site on MacArthur Blvd. just outside Washington, D. C. in Montgomery County and adjacent to the Dalecarlia Reservoir. AMS was designated as an Engineer field activity, effective July 1, 1942, by General Order 22, OCE, June 19, 1942; the Army Map Service combined many of the Army's remaining geographic intelligence organizations and the Engineer Technical Intelligence Division. AMS was redesignated the U. S. Army Topographic Command on September 1, 1968, continued as an independent organization until 1972, when it was merged into the new Defense Mapping Agency and redesignated as the DMA Topographic Center; the agency's credit union, Constellation Federal Credit Union, was chartered during the Army Map Service era, in 1944. It has continued to serve all successive legacy their families. After the war, as airplane capacity and range improved, the need for charts grew; the Army Air Corps established its map unit, renamed ACP in 1943 and was located in St. Louis, Missouri.
ACP was known as the U. S. Air Force Aeronautical Chart and Information Center from 1952 to 1972. A credit union was chartered for the ACP in 1948, called Aero Chart Credit Union, it was renamed Arsenal Credit Union in 1952, a nod to the St. Louis site's Civil War-era use as an arsenal. Shortly before leaving office in January 1961, President Dwight D. Eisenhower authorized the creation of the National Photographic Interpretation Center, a joint project of the CIA and US DoD. NPIC was a component of the CIA's Directorate of Science and Technology and its primary function was imagery analysis. NPIC became part of the National Imagery and Mapping Agency in 1996. NPIC first identified the Soviet Union's basing of missiles in Cuba in 1962. By exploiting images from U-2 overflights and film from canisters ejected by orbiting Corona s, NPIC analysts developed the information necessary to inform U. S. influence operations during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Their analysis garnered worldwide attention when the Kennedy Administration declassified and made public a portion of the images depicting the Soviet missiles on Cuban soil.
The Defense Mapping Agency was created on January 1, 1972, to consolidate all U. S. military mapping activities. DMA's "birth certificate", DoD Directive 5105.40, resulted from a classified Presidential directive, "Organization and Management of the U. S. Foreign Intelligence Community", which directed the consolidation of mapping functions dispersed among the military services. DMA became operational on July 1, 1972, pursuant to General Order 3, DMA. On Oct. 1, 1996, DMA was folded into the National Imagery and Mapping Agency – which became NGA. DMA was first headquartered at the United States Naval Observatory in Washington, D. C at Falls Church, Virginia, its civilian workforce was concentrated at production sites in Bethesda, Northern Virginia, St. Louis, Missouri. DMA was formed from the Mapping and Geodesy Division, Defense Intelligence Agency, from various mapping-related organizations of the military services. DMA Hydrographic Center DMAHC was formed in