Manitoba Highway 1
Provincial Trunk Highway 1 is Manitoba's section of the Trans-Canada Highway. It is a used, 4-lane divided highway, with the exception of a short 18 km section in the southeastern corner of the province, it is the main link between southern Manitoba's largest cities, serves as the province's main transportation link to the neighbouring provinces of Saskatchewan and Ontario. The highway is the only major east-west divided highway in Manitoba, carries a large majority of east-west traffic within and through the province, it has full freeway status sections at Winnipeg. The total distance of the Trans-Canada Highway in Manitoba is 490 km. PTH 1 is a important part of the national highway system, it is the only road that links the province of Manitoba with the province of Ontario, making it a major section of Canada's primary commercial and leisure route for all traffic travelling between Canada's largest cities, from Toronto and Montreal in the east to Calgary and Vancouver in the west. The highway is routed from west to east across the province of Manitoba.
It begins at the western provincial boundary with Saskatchewan, connecting with Saskatchewan's Highway 1 to become Manitoba Trans-Canada 1. The highway is designated as T-C 1 throughout Manitoba until it reaches the eastern provincial boundary with Ontario, where it continues as the main route to Kenora and the rest of Eastern Canada as Highway 17; the entire length of the Trans-Canada Highway in the province of Manitoba is a 4-lane divided highway, with the exception of the Winnipeg city route and an 18 kilometre section in eastern Manitoba between the town of Falcon Lake and the Manitoba-Ontario provincial boundary, a two-lane highway. PTH 1 has full expressway status on the routes around Winnipeg on the Perimeter Highway, around Portage la Prairie. Plans do exist to bring the entire length of PTH 1 to full expressway status in the future. Exit numbers only exist at three interchanges, only small sections of PTH 1 and the Perimeter Highway have freeway status. In the Winnipeg metro area, the Trans-Canada Highway has two official routes.
The main route passes directly through the city of Winnipeg on city streets, entering the city from the west and continuing along Portage Avenue, Main Street, Queen Elizabeth Way, St. Mary's Road, St. Anne's Road, Fermor Avenue where it re-joins the Perimeter Highway and continues east on TC 1. An alternate routing exits the main T-C 1 route on the western edge of Winnipeg onto the Perimeter Highway, which by-passes the city completely; the Perimeter Highway is a ring road which encircles Winnipeg and is used by commuters and through traffic on the Trans Canada Highway wishing to avoid congested city streets. The first Provincial Trunk Highways in Manitoba were numbered in 1926; the original Highway 1 was one of nine highways fanning out from Winnipeg, but was different in that it fanned out from the west and the east. Highway 1 was routed via provincial secondary roads; these are: Highway 1A into and out of Brandon Provincial Road 351 into and out of Carberry Highway 1A through Portage la Prairie Highway 26 from Portage la Prairie to Headingley Highway 9 from downtown Winnipeg to Lockport Highway 44 from Lockport to Whiteshell Provincial ParkIn 1949, Highway 1 had been rerouted on new construction northeast of Griswold, with the part of old route from Highway 21 to Highway 28 becoming part of Highway 21, the section from Highway 21 eastward being removed from the system, but becoming PR 455.
By the early 1950s, Highway 1 had become an important east-west route in all of the western provinces. Most of the provincial highways that Highway 1 traversed on were re-numbered and designated as Highway 4 between 1958 and 1968, the #1 was relocated to its present route. In 1962, the Trans-Canada Highway in Manitoba was completed, Highway 1 across all of the western provinces was incorporated as part of the Trans-Canada Highway. In 1955, most intra-city traffic in the Winnipeg area was diverted onto the newly built Perimeter Highway; that year, the Perimeter Highway's southern section was merged with the Trans-Canada Highway system, due to the amount of traffic using it to bypass the city. That section of the highway was used, still is today. On October 6, 2006 the Trans-Canada Highway Portage la Prairie by-pass was closed due to a structural defect found in the bridge over the CN Rail Line. On October 31, 2007, a $19 million project to rebuild the bridge was completed, the by-pass was re-opened to traffic.
On October 25, 2007, a major federal/provincial construction project twinning the highway in western Manitoba between the Saskatchewan-Manitoba provincial boundary and the town of Hargrave was completed, with 34 kilometres of newly divided highway lanes opened to traffic. On April 9, 2008, the Government of Manitoba announced that construction of a new interchange would begin in the summer of 2008 at the intersection of Highway 16 and the Trans Canada Highway mainline route, located a short distance west of Portage la Prairie; this project has been delayed and its current status is unknown. On February 27, 2008 the Manitoba Highway Traffic Board approved a request by the Government of Manitoba to raise the speed limit on the Trans Canada Highway in Manitoba to 110 km/h along the section between the Saskatchewan-Manitoba provincial boundary and Winnipeg; the speed limit was raised on July 1, 2009, though it was only raised on one po
Canada–United States border
The Canada–United States border known as the International Boundary, is the longest international border in the world between two countries. It is shared between Canada and the United States, the second- and fourth/third largest countries by area, respectively; the terrestrial boundary is 8,891 kilometres long, of which 2,475 kilometres is Canada's border with Alaska. Eight Canadian provinces and territories, thirteen U. S. states are located along the border. The Treaty of Paris of 1783 ended the American Revolutionary War between Great Britain and the United States. In the second article of the Treaty the parties agreed on all of the boundaries of the United States, including but not limited to the boundary with British North America to the north; the agreed boundary included the line from the northwest angle of Nova Scotia to the northwesternmost head of Connecticut River, proceeded down along the middle of the river to the 45th parallel of north latitude. That parallel had been established in the 1760s as the boundary between the provinces of Quebec and New York.
It was surveyed and marked by John Collins and Thomas Valentine from 1771 to 1773. The Saint Lawrence River and the Great Lakes became the boundary further west. Northwest of Lake Superior, the boundary followed rivers to the Lake of the Woods. From the Lake of the Woods, the boundary was agreed to go straight west until it met the Mississippi River. In fact that line never meets the river; the Jay Treaty of 1794 created the International Boundary Commission, charged with surveying and mapping the boundary. It provided for removal of British military and administration from Detroit and other frontier outposts on the U. S. side. It was superseded by the Treaty of Ghent concluding the War of 1812, which included pre-war boundaries; the Rush–Bagot Treaty of 1817 provided a plan for demilitarizing the two combatant sides in the War of 1812 and laid out preliminary principles for drawing a border between British North America and the United States. Westward expansion of both British North America and the United States saw the boundary extended west along the 49th parallel from the Northwest Angle at Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains under the Treaty of 1818.
That treaty extinguished British claims south of that latitude to the Red River Valley, part of Rupert's Land. The treaty extinguished U. S. claims to land north of that line in the watershed of the Missouri River, part of the Louisiana Purchase. Along the 49th parallel, the border vista is theoretically straight but in practice follows the 19th-century surveyed border markers and varies by several hundred feet in spots. Disputes over the interpretation of the border treaties and mistakes in surveying required additional negotiations resulting in the Webster–Ashburton Treaty of 1842; the treaty resolved the dispute known as the Aroostook War over the boundary between Maine on the one hand, New Brunswick and the Province of Canada on the other. The treaty redefined the border between New Hampshire and New York on the one hand, the Province of Canada on the other, resolving the Indian Stream dispute and the Fort Blunder dilemma at the outlet to Lake Champlain; the part of the 45th parallel that separates Quebec from the U.
S. states of Vermont and New York had first been surveyed from 1771 to 1773 after it had been declared the boundary between New York and Quebec, it was surveyed again after the War of 1812. The U. S. federal government began to construct fortifications just south of the border at Rouses Point, New York, on Lake Champlain. After a significant portion of the construction was completed, measurements revealed that at that point, the actual 45th parallel was three-quarters of a mile south of the surveyed line; this created a dilemma for the United States, not resolved until a provision of the treaty left the border on the meandering line as surveyed. The border along the Boundary Waters in present-day Ontario and Minnesota between Lake Superior and the Northwest Angle was redefined. An 1844 boundary dispute during U. S. President James K. Polk's administration led to a call for the northern boundary of the U. S. west of the Rockies to be latitude 54° 40' north, but the United Kingdom wanted a border that followed the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean.
The dispute was resolved in the Oregon Treaty of 1846, which established the 49th parallel as the boundary through the Rockies. The Northwest Boundary Survey laid out the land boundary, but the water boundary was not settled for some time. After the Pig War in 1859, arbitration in 1872 established the border between the Gulf Islands and the San Juan Islands; the International Boundary Survey, called the Northern Boundary Survey in the United States, began in 1872. Its mandate was to estab
Interstate 29 is an Interstate Highway in the Midwestern United States. I-29 runs from Kansas City, Missouri, at a junction with Interstate 35 and Interstate 70, to the Canada–US border near Pembina, North Dakota, where it connects with Manitoba Highway 75; the road follows the course of three major rivers, all of which form the borders of U. S. states. The southern portion of I-29 parallels the Missouri River from Kansas City northward to Sioux City, where it crosses and parallels the Big Sioux River. For the northern third of the highway, it follows the Red River of the North; the major cities that I-29 connects to includes Iowa. Near its southern terminus, I-29 is concurrent with I-35 and U. S. Route 71; the interstate diverts from U. S. 71 just north of St. Joseph and follows a sparsely populated corridor along the Missouri River to Council Bluffs. During the design phase there was an alternative sending the route further along U. S. 71 through the bigger towns of Maryville and Clarinda, Iowa.
During the Great Flood of 1993 the Missouri River flooded this section and traffic was rerouted to U. S. 71 through Maryville and Clarinda. I-29 was closed again for about two months during the 2011 Missouri River Flood. All of I-29 in Missouri is in an area called the Platte Purchase, not part of Missouri when it entered the Union. Interstate 29 begins in Iowa near Hamburg, it goes northwest to an interchange with Iowa Highway 2 goes north until Council Bluffs. It runs concurrent with Interstate 80 until separating from I-80 less than a mile east of Omaha, Nebraska to follow the Missouri River north, winding its way along the western and northern edges of Council Bluffs. North of Council Bluffs, I-29 runs concurrent with Interstate 680 between Exits 61 and 71. After Interstate 680 separates, I-29 continues on a northwesterly path toward Sioux City. At Sioux City, Interstate 129 spurs off of I-29 to go west toward Nebraska. After continuing toward downtown Sioux City on a northerly route, I-29 turns west and enters South Dakota.
Interstate 29 enters South Dakota at North Sioux City by crossing over the Big Sioux River. It runs northwest until its interchange with South Dakota Highway 50 near Vermillion, where it turns north; the highway alignment is due north until just before Sioux Falls. In the Sioux Falls area, I-29 serves the western part of Sioux Falls while I-229 spurs off and serves eastern Sioux Falls. In northwestern Sioux Falls, I-29 meets Interstate 90. After that, it continues north past Brookings and an intersection with US 14. At the intersection with South Dakota Highway 28, I-29 turns northwest toward Watertown. After Watertown, the highway continues north and passes an intersection with US 12 before continuing into North Dakota. Interstate 29 enters North Dakota from the south, near Hankinson. At Fargo, it continues north along the Red River toward Grand Forks. At its northern terminus, I-29 enters Canada and becomes Manitoba Provincial Trunk Highway 75, which leads to Winnipeg; the portion from Fargo, North Dakota, to the Canada–US border was considered for designation as Interstate 31 in 1957 for present-day I-29.
No freeway was planned south of Fargo. However, it was subsequently decided in 1958 to connect I-31 between Sioux Falls and Fargo; the entire freeway was built and numbered as I-29. Residents of Missouri and Louisiana began campaigning in 1965 via, the "US 71 - I-29 Association," to extend Interstate 29 all the way to New Orleans, Louisiana following the US 71 corridor; the campaign would create a limited access highway from New Orleans on to Winnipeg. That extension came to be called Interstate 49, not part of the 1957 master plan, it was named I-49 instead of I-29 because the interstate naming rules mandate that north-south roads are odd numbered and named in increasing order from west to east. North of their concurrence, I-29 is west of I-35, but south of Kansas City Interstate 35 and Interstate 45 are to the west of the proposed route, Interstate 55 is to the east. Interstate 49 was the number chosen; when Interstate 49 is complete, the goal of the Association will have been accomplished, with only a brief gap and name change in Kansas City.
Missouri I‑35 / I‑70 / US 24 / US 40 / US 71 in Kansas City. I-29/I-35 travels concurrently through Kansas City. I-29/US 71 travels concurrently to east of Amazonia. US 69 on the Gladstone–Kansas City city line US 169 on the Gladstone–Kansas City city line I‑635 in Kansas City I‑435 in Kansas City; the highways travel concurrently to Platte City. I‑229 south-southeast of St. Joseph US 169 in St. Joseph US 36 in St. Joseph US 169 in St. Joseph US 59 north-northeast of St. Joseph; the highways travel concurrently to east of Amazonia. I‑229 / US 59 / US 71 North of St. Joseph US 59 northwest of Amazonia; the highways travel concurrently for 1.8 miles. US 59 north of Oregon US 159 south-southeast of Mound City US 59 east of Craig US 136 in Rock Port Iowa US 34 / US 275 west of Glenwood. I-29/US 275 travels concurrently to Council Bluffs. I‑80 in Council Bluffs; the highways travel concurrently through Council Bluffs. I‑480 / US 6 in Council Bluffs I‑680 west-southwest of Crescent; the highways travel concurrently to west-southwest of Loveland.
US 30 in Missouri Valley I‑129 / US 20 / US 75 in Sioux City US 77 in Sioux City South Dakota US 18 south-southwest of Worthing. The highways travel concurrently for 3.02 miles. I‑229 in Sioux Falls I‑90 in Sioux Falls US 14 in Brookings US 212 in Watertown US 81 n
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Manitoba Highway 12
Provincial Trunk Highway 12 is a provincial primary highway located in the Canadian province of Manitoba. It runs from the U. S. border to a dead end in Grand Beach. PTH 12 forms the Manitoba section of a route from Thunder Bay to Winnipeg. Except for a 22 kilometre stretch of four lanes between Steinbach and PTH 1, PTH 12 is a two-lane highway. PTH 12 was designated in 1928 from Winnipeg to Ste. Anne. In 1950, it extended south to Sarto. In 1951, it extended southeast to Zhoda. In 1953, it extended southeast to a road intersection north of Sundown. In 1954, it extended southeast to Piney. In 1955, it extended southeast to South Junction. In 1958, it was proposed to extend southeast to near Sprague; the extension opened in 1959. In 1959, it extended north and east to Pine Falls, replacing PTH 22 north of Anola. A spur, Manitoba Highway 12V, was created from PTH 12 to Victoria Beach from the part of PTH 22, not replaced by PTH 12. Another spur, Manitoba Highway 12G, was created from PTH 12 to Grand Beach as a renumbering of PTH 22A.
In 1960, PTH 12 extended southeast to the Minnesota border. In 1966, the section of PTH 12 from PTH 12V to Pine Falls became part of PTH 11, the section of PTH 12 from PTH 12G to PTH 12V, along with PTH 12V itself, became part of PTH 59. PTH 12 was instead rerouted over PTH 12G. List of Manitoba Expressways Official Name and Location - Declaration of Provincial Trunk Highways Regulation - The Highways and Transportation Act - Provincial Government of Manitoba Official Highway Map - Published and maintained by the Department of Infrastructure - Provincial Government of Manitoba Google Maps Search - Provincial Trunk Highway 12
Pembina–Emerson Border Crossing
The Pembina–Emerson Border Crossing connects the city of Pembina, North Dakota and community of Emerson, Manitoba. It is connected by Interstate 29 and U. S. Route 81 on the American side, by Manitoba Highway 75 on the Canadian side. Over one million travelers are processed at this border crossing each year, making it the second busiest along the Canada–United States border west of the Great Lakes, behind only the Pacific Highway Border Crossing, its location along an international trade corridor makes this an important commercial port. Cross-border trade is valued at CA$20 billion each year. In 1871, Emerson was established as the first land border Customs station in Canada, it was created to protect and collect duty for trade with the Hudson's Bay Company trading post, attacked in a Fenian Raid, subsequently liberated by the U. S. Cavalry earlier that year; the original customs building in Emerson still stands today. For many years, there were two roads entering Canada at Emerson; the popular Jefferson Highway entered at Noyes and the Meridian Highway entered from Pembina, North Dakota.
All Canada-bound traffic was directed to the brick Customs building in downtown Emerson, which has since been converted into the Emerson Health Centre. In the mid-1950s, Canada built separate inspection stations at the border on both roads; the crossing across from Pembina was called "West Lynne" and the larger crossing across from Noyes was known as "Emerson East". The modern Pembina-West Lynne border crossing opened in 1957 with the completion of I-29; the facilities on the former U. S. Route 81. Following the reconfiguration of PTH 75 and PTH 29, most U. S.-bound traffic was diverted to the Pembina crossing. The Canadian and American governments closed the Emerson East and Noyes border stations in 2003 and 2006 and merged rail inspection operations with the ports at West Lynne and Pembina; the West Lynne border station was renamed Emerson following the closure of Emerson East in 2003. Both countries are in the process of extensively upgrading their facilities and road infrastructure at the Pembina-Emerson Crossing, a project that started in 2017 and will take several years to complete.
The U. S. border station was upgraded in 1996. Located near this crossing is Fort Dufferin, a former Canadian police post, immigration station, base of the North American Boundary Commission, which surveyed and marked the international border as defined in the Treaty of 1818; the number of persons crossing the border illegally into Canada in the Emerson-Pembina area spiked following U. S. President Donald Trump's Protecting the Nation from Foreign Terrorist Entry into the United States executive order in January 2017; the majority of recent border jumpers are immigrants from African nations seeking asylum in Canada to avoid potential deportation from the U. S. Although persons claiming refugee status are not permitted to migrate to Canada from the U. S. under the two countries' Safe Third Country Agreement, asylum seekers who have crossed the border illegally in some cases have been allowed to stay in Canada while their application is processed. This practice of cross the border illegally is not without danger during the cold prairie winter.
On December 24, 2016, two Ghanaian men made it across the border by walking several miles along the Red River in sub-zero temperatures. In May 2017, a 57-year old Ghanaian asylum seeker died of hypothermia while attempting to cross into Canada at Noyes, Minnesota; the increased levels of asylum seekers trying to enter Canada at the Pembina-Emerson and other regions along the international border have garnered international media attention and resulted in the Canadian government renegotiating the Safe Country Agreement with the American government. List of Canada–United States border crossings Emerson, Manitoba
A highway is any public or private road or other public way on land. It is used for major roads, but includes other public roads and public tracks: It is not an equivalent term to controlled-access highway, or a translation for autobahn, etc. According to Merriam Webster, the use of the term predates 12th century. According to Etymonline, "high" is in the sense of "main". In North American and Australian English, major roads such as controlled-access highways or arterial roads are state highways. Other roads may be designated "county highways" in the Ontario; these classifications refer to the level of government. In British English, "highway" is a legal term. Everyday use implies roads, while the legal use covers any route or path with a public right of access, including footpaths etc; the term has led to several related derived terms, including highway system, highway code, highway patrol and highwayman. The term highway exists in distinction to "waterway". Major highways are named and numbered by the governments that develop and maintain them.
Australia's Highway 1 is the longest national highway in the world at over 14,500 km or 9,000 mi and runs the entire way around the continent. China has the world's largest network of highways followed by the United States of America; some highways, like the European routes, span multiple countries. Some major highway routes include ferry services, such as U. S. Route 10. Traditionally highways were used on horses, they accommodated carriages and motor cars, facilitated by advancements in road construction. In the 1920s and 1930s, many nations began investing in progressively more modern highway systems to spur commerce and bolster national defense. Major modern highways that connect cities in populous developed and developing countries incorporate features intended to enhance the road's capacity and safety to various degrees; such features include a reduction in the number of locations for user access, the use of dual carriageways with two or more lanes on each carriageway, grade-separated junctions with other roads and modes of transport.
These features are present on highways built as motorways. The general legal definition deals with right of use not the form of construction. A highway is defined in English common law by a number of similarly-worded definitions such as "a way over which all members of the public have the right to pass and repass without hindrance" accompanied by "at all times". A highway might be open to all forms of lawful land traffic or limited to specific types of traffic or combinations of types of traffic. A highway can share ground with a private right of way for which full use is not available to the general public as will be the case with farm roads which the owner may use for any purpose but for which the general public only has a right of use on foot or horseback; the status of highway on most older roads has been gained by established public use while newer roads are dedicated as highways from the time they are adopted. In England and Wales, a public highway is known as "The Queen's Highway"; the core definition of a highway is modified in various legislation for a number of purposes but only for the specific matters dealt with in each such piece of legislation.
This is in the case of bridges and other structures whose ownership, mode of use or availability would otherwise exclude them from the general definition of a highway, examples in recent years are toll bridges and tunnels which have the definition of highway imposed upon them to allow application of most traffic laws to those using them but without causing all of the general obligations or rights of use otherwise applicable to a highway. Scots law is similar to English law with regard to highways but with differing terminology and legislation. What is defined in England as a highway will in Scotland be what is defined by s.151 Roads Act 1984 as a road, that is:- "any way over which there is a public right of passage and includes the road’s verge, any bridge over which, or tunnel through which, the road passes. In American law, the word "highway" is sometimes used to denote any public way used for travel, whether a "road and parkway". Highways have a route number designated by t