Provinces and territories of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Province of Canada —were united to form a federated colony, becoming a sovereign nation in the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories. Together, the provinces and territories make up the world's second-largest country by area. Several of the provinces were former British colonies, Quebec was a French colony, while others were added as Canada grew; the three territories govern the rest of the area of the former British North America. The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces receive their power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867, whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada.
The powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the Government of Canada and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. A change to the division of powers between the federal government and the provinces requires a constitutional amendment, whereas a similar change affecting the territories can be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada or government. In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be sovereign within certain areas based on the divisions of responsibility between the provincial and federal government within the Constitution Act 1867, each province thus has its own representative of the Canadian "Crown", the lieutenant governor; the territories are not sovereign, but instead their authorities and responsibilities come directly from the federal level, as a result, have a commissioner instead of a lieutenant governor. Notes: There are three territories in Canada. Unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent sovereignty and have only those powers delegated to them by the federal government.
They include all of mainland Canada north of latitude 60° north and west of Hudson Bay, as well as most islands north of the Canadian mainland. The following table lists the territories in order of precedence. Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia were the original provinces, formed when several British North American colonies federated on July 1, 1867, into the Dominion of Canada and by stages began accruing the indicia of sovereignty from the United Kingdom. Prior to this and Quebec were united as the Province of Canada. Over the following years, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island were added as provinces; the British Crown had claimed two large areas north-west of the Canadian colony, known as Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory and assigned them to the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1870, the company relinquished its claims for £300,000, assigning the vast territory to the Government of Canada. Subsequently, the area was re-organized into the province of the Northwest Territories; the Northwest Territories were vast at first, encompassing all of current northern and western Canada, except for the British holdings in the Arctic islands and the Colony of British Columbia.
The British claims to the Arctic islands were transferred to Canada in 1880, adding to the size of the Northwest Territories. The year of 1898 saw the Yukon Territory renamed as Yukon, carved from the parts of the Northwest Territories surrounding the Klondike gold fields. On September 1, 1905, a portion of the Northwest Territories south of the 60th parallel north became the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1912, the boundaries of Quebec and Manitoba were expanded northward: Manitoba's to the 60° parallel, Ontario's to Hudson Bay and Quebec's to encompass the District of Ungava. In 1869, the people of Newfoundland voted to remain a British colony over fears that taxes would increase with Confederation, that the economic policy of the Canadian government would favour mainland industries. In 1907, Newfoundland acquired dominion status. In the middle of the Great Depression in Canada with Newfoundland facing a prolonged period of economic crisis, the legislature turned over political control to the Newfoundland Commission of Government in 1933.
Following Canada's participation in World War II, in a 1948 referendum, a narrow majority of Newfoundland citizens voted to join the Confederation, on March 31, 1949, Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province. In 2001, it was renamed Newfoundland and Labrador. In 1903, the Alaska Panhandle Dispute fixed British Columbia's northwestern boundary; this was one of only two provinces in Canadian history to have its size reduced. The second reduction, in 1927, occurred when a boundary dispute between Canada and the Dominion of Newfoundland saw Labrador increased at Quebec's expense – this land returned to Canada, as part of the province of Newfoundland, in 1949. In 1999, Nunavut was created from the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories. Yukon lies in the western portion of Northern Canada. All t
Rural Municipality of Rockwood
Rockwood is a rural municipality lying north of Winnipeg, Canada. It is part of the Winnipeg Capital Region and had a 2011 census population of 7,964; the independently governed towns of Teulon are both enclaved within Rockwood. Argyle Balmoral Grosse Isle Gunton Komarno Stony Mountain Map of Rockwood R. M. at Statcan
Rural Municipality of Rosser
Rosser, Manitoba is a rural municipality lying adjacent to the northwest side of Winnipeg. It is part of the Winnipeg Capital Region, its population as of the 2001 census was 1,412. Near Rosser there is the Dorsey Converter Station and the large static inverter plant for the Nelson River Bipole HVDC power transmission scheme. CentrePort Canada will lie within Rosser. Gazetteer of Canada - Manitoba, 4th Edition, Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa 1994 ISBN 0-660-58994-X Community Profile: Rosser Rural Municipality, Manitoba. M. at Statcan
Rural Municipality of Armstrong
Armstrong is a rural municipality in the province of Manitoba in Western Canada. It lies in the southern area of the Interlake and was named after James William Armstrong, a Manitoba politician; the surrounding area was settled by immigrants from western Ukraine at the start of the 20th century. Amongst the original settlers were Michael Pomaransky and Stefan Humeny who settled section 14-19-2E ten miles west of the community of Gimli. A sizeable community developed as these settlers were joined in the year 1900 by other individuals from the village of Kopychentsi, Ukraine; the hamlet of Kreuzberg received its first post office in 1910. The area was incorporated as three distinct rural municipalities, Armstrong and Chatfield, in 1913. Incorporating much of the marginal farmland on the western edge of the Rural Municipality of Gimli, this area saw a number of schools built along the railway line, constructed three years earlier; these were located in the hamlets of Malonton, Meleb and Kreuzberg.
The hamlet of Kreuzburg was renamed Fraserwood during World War I, due to anti-German sentiments. Its name is derived from the surname of the postmaster at the time and his wife's maiden name Fraser; the hamlet of Narcisse was named after Narcisse Leven the president of the Jewish Colonization Association, by the residents of Bender Hamlet, a Jewish farm colony located 2 km east of Narcisse. During the Great Depression, the rural municipalities of Armstrong and Chatfield were dissolved, were administered as the Local Government District of Armstrong; the region was affected by failure of the wheat crop in this era, resulting in one of the most serious poverty crises in all of Manitoba. On September 21, 1936 Lord Tweedsmuir, the Governor General of Canada, paid a visit to the region; when the school term opened, teacher Olga Uhryniuk received an official notice from the government that the Governor General was making a Canada-wide tour and that he planned to meet with the citizens of the hamlet of Fraserwood.
Tweedsmuir made an address to the students and numerous community members. The local government district of Armstrong was subsequently reconstituted as a rural municipality in 1997; the area is home to the Narcisse Snake Dens, a provincial wildlife management area, the world's largest known winter den for garter snakes. The rural municipality encompasses and governs the hamlets of Chatfield, Inwood, Malonton, Narcisse, Rembrandt and Silver. Official website Manitoba Historical Society - Rural Municipality of Armstrong Interlake Tourism - Rural Municipality of Armstrong Map of Armstrong R. M. at Statcan
For the rural municipality near Brandon, Manitoba. Argyle is a small hamlet located in the Canadian province of Manitoba. Argyle is in Manitoba's Interlake Region, it is part of the Rural Municipality of Rockwood. It is 30 km from Manitoba's capital, Winnipeg. Nearby are the towns of Stonewall, Teulon, Grosse Isle, Rosser, Stony Mountain and Selkirk; the major industry is agriculture. Many residents work in Winnipeg or surrounding towns; the Principal Meridian of Canada, dividing Eastern and Western Canada marked the division between the Argyle and Brant Districts, as well as the mark between neighboring Rockwood and Woodlands Municipalities. As the local residents were living on either side of the Prime Meridian, several institutions derive their name by combining the words: Brant-Argyle; the Prime Meridian was the starting point during the early 1870s for crews surveying Western Canada. The Section, Township & Range system of addressing properties across the prairies begins on this line, dividing east from west.
Just North of the town, is the ancient Lake Agassiz beach ridge. About 10,000 years ago, this huge inland lake, the remnants of glaciers, began to drain in present-day Manitoba. Left behind were the sand deposits that were once the beaches of the former lake; these ridges mark the northern edge of the Red River Valley, offer a different geological atmosphere. Many local gravel pits are found in this region; the Town is located 30 min north of Winnipeg off of highway 67 from Stonewall. Many farms and gravel companies thrive around this area. There is abundant wildlife everywhere. Settled by European pioneers during the late 1870s, the newcomers were those granted 160 acres of free land from the Canadian Government; this land grant was to encourage European farmers to fill up the vast prairies and secure the region between Ontario and the Pacific Ocean for Canada. The first settlers came from Argyllshire and named the district as Argyle in honor of their former home; the adjacent district was soon called Brant.
This name was given by recent settlers from Ontario, honouring their former regions that were named after the famous mohawk leader who assisted the British during the American war of Independence. In 1878 the residents gathered in the Guthrie home to attend Presbyterian church services. In 1881 they built a small church on the East side of the Prime Meridian, called Brant-Argyle Presbyterian Church; the surrounding land was made into a cemetery. The earliest settlers buried their dead here; the Brant-Argyle Cemetery is the final resting place of the local dead as well as a World War One/World War Two memorial called the Brant-Argyle Cenotaph. A small model of the church and a historic cairn are in place at the cemetery. Note:The church has since been converted into a home, with a porch, it was in 1878 that Thomas Guthrie established the first post office in the Argyle District. At first, Guthrie had to walk to Stonewall and in 1882 he picked up the mail as it arrived in Marquette by rail, it is said that he received $50.00 annually for postmaster and an extra $12.00 per month for carrying the mail.
In 1882 the local one-room schools were built for the settler's children. Brant, McLeod and Argyle schools were the original educational facilities that would combine, making the Brant Consolidated School in 1914, it is Brant Argyle school is a 4-room brick school, the only one of its kind in Manitoba, still used as it was intended to - as a school for the local community children. The school is part of a Heritage agreement certificate which keeps it from being demolished, abandoned or having significant architectural changes; as of June 2015, the school has about 60 students. It has a capacity of 100, this multi-grade environment hosts grades Kindergarten to grade 8. In 2014, the Brant-Argyle School celebrated its 100th Anniversary on the weekend of October 5, 2014. In 1912, a small spur line built by the Canadian Northern Railway branched off the Oak Point Subdivision at Grosse Isle heading north; this first year, the railway reached a gravel pit to supply future or existing railbeds. The next year, this new local line reached through the Argyle and Brant Districts, ending at Woodroyd, Manitoba.
The line was built to Hodgson, following a zig-zag formation to pass nearest the existing settlements. When the railway came to the Argyle District, there was a church, post office and farms; as they were spread across the country side, the nearest railstop was called Argyle Station. This was to distinguish the railway depot from the nearby post office. With the arrival of the Canadian Northern Railway, the J. D. Douglas General Store, blacksmith shop, railway station, stock yards, section master's house and were built. Over the next few years, the post office moved to Argyle Village, more homes were built and the new Brant Consolidated School was constructed; this united three small schools in the region. The railway made it easier to ship materials to and from the district, in 1919 the CNoR was assumed by the Canadian National Railway which operated it until 1991, it was the arrival of the CNR that guaranteed the long term existence of Argyle. The rail bed now serves as a recreational trail for hikers and snowmobilers in the Interlake region, called the Prime Meridian Trail.
In 2003, the Brant-Argyle School became a Provincial Historic Site. This is recognition that it is one of the last consolidated schools in
Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada. It is considered one of the three prairie provinces and is Canada's fifth-most populous province with its estimated 1.3 million people. Manitoba covers 649,950 square kilometres with a varied landscape, stretching from the northern oceanic coastline to the southern border with the United States; the province is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, Northwest Territories to the northwest, the U. S. states of North Minnesota to the south. Aboriginal peoples have inhabited. In the late 17th century, fur traders arrived on two major river systems, what is now called the Nelson in northern Manitoba and in the southeast along the Winnipeg River system. A Royal Charter in 1670 granted all the lands draining into Hudson's Bay to the British company and they administered trade in what was called Rupert's Land. During the next 200 years, communities continued to grow and evolve, with a significant settlement of Michif in what is now Winnipeg.
The assertion of Métis identity and self-rule culminated in negotiations for the creation of the province of Manitoba. There are many factors that led to an armed uprising of the Métis people against the Government of Canada, a conflict known as the Red River Rebellion aka Resistance; the resolution of the assertion of the right to representation led to the Parliament of Canada passing the Manitoba Act in 1870 that created the province. Manitoba's capital and largest city, Winnipeg, is the eighth-largest census metropolitan area in Canada. Other census agglomerations in the province are Brandon, Portage la Prairie, Thompson; the name Manitoba is believed to be derived from the Ojibwe or Assiniboine languages. The name derives from Cree manitou-wapow or Ojibwa manidoobaa, both meaning "straits of Manitou, the Great Spirit", a place referring to what are now called The Narrows in the centre of Lake Manitoba, it may be from the Assiniboine for "Lake of the Prairie". The lake was known to French explorers as Lac des Prairies.
Thomas Spence chose the name to refer to a new republic he proposed for the area south of the lake. Métis leader Louis Riel chose the name, it was accepted in Ottawa under the Manitoba Act of 1870. Manitoba is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, the US states of North Dakota and Minnesota to the south; the province meets the Northwest Territories at the four corners quadripoint to the extreme northwest, though surveys have not been completed and laws are unclear about the exact location of the Nunavut–NWT boundary. Manitoba adjoins Hudson Bay to the northeast, is the only prairie province to have a saltwater coastline; the Port of Churchill is Canada's only Arctic deep-water port. Lake Winnipeg is the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world. Hudson Bay is the world's second-largest bay by area. Manitoba is at the heart of the giant Hudson Bay watershed, once known as Rupert's Land, it was a vital area of the Hudson's Bay Company, with many rivers and lakes that provided excellent opportunities for the lucrative fur trade.
The province has a saltwater coastline bordering Hudson Bay and more than 110,000 lakes, covering 15.6 percent or 101,593 square kilometres of its surface area. Manitoba's major lakes are Lake Manitoba, Lake Winnipegosis, Lake Winnipeg, the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world; some traditional Native lands and boreal forest on Lake Winnipeg's east side are a proposed UNESCO World Heritage Site. Manitoba is at the centre of the Hudson Bay drainage basin, with a high volume of the water draining into Lake Winnipeg and north down the Nelson River into Hudson Bay; this basin's rivers reach far west to the mountains, far south into the United States, east into Ontario. Major watercourses include the Red, Nelson, Hayes and Churchill rivers. Most of Manitoba's inhabited south has developed in the prehistoric bed of Glacial Lake Agassiz; this region the Red River Valley, is flat and fertile. Baldy Mountain is the province's highest point at 832 metres above sea level, the Hudson Bay coast is the lowest at sea level.
Riding Mountain, the Pembina Hills, Sandilands Provincial Forest, the Canadian Shield are upland regions. Much of the province's sparsely inhabited north and east lie on the irregular granite Canadian Shield, including Whiteshell and Nopiming Provincial Parks. Extensive agriculture is found only in the province's southern areas, although there is grain farming in the Carrot Valley Region; the most common agricultural activity is cattle husbandry, followed by assorted grains and oilseed. Around 12 percent of Canada's farmland is in Manitoba. Manitoba has an extreme continental climate. Temperatures and precipitation decrease from south to north and increase from east to west. Manitoba is far from the moderating large bodies of water; because of the flat landscape, it is exposed to cold Arctic high-pressure air masses from the northwest during January and February. In the summer, air masses sometimes come out of the Southern United States, as warm humid air is drawn northward from the Gulf of Mexico.
Temperatures exceed 30 °C numerous times each summer, the combination of heat and humidity can bring the humidex value to the mid-40s. Carman, Manitoba recorded the second-highest humidex in Canada in 2007, with
Teulon is a town located 59 kilometres north of Winnipeg, Canada, on Provincial Trunk Highway 7. Located between Stonewall and Gimli, Teulon is referred to as "The Gateway to the Interlake". Teulon is surrounded by the Rural Municipality of Rockwood. Teulon was founded in 1919, as a settlement for immigrant farmers, by Charles C. Castle, was affectionately named after his wife's maiden name of "Teulon". Teulon soon became a village, became a town in 1997, its current population in 2016 stands at 1,201. Teulon is situated in the South Interlake school division and is served by two schools: Teulon Elementary School teaches kindergarten to grade 6 students Teulon Collegiate Institute teaches grade 7 to grade 12 Teulon is represented by a Head of Council, a Deputy Mayor, 3 councillors; the current incumbents of the positions are: Debbie Kozyra - Mayor Michael Ledarney - Deputy Mayor Barb Mankewich - Councillor Rey Girardin - Councillor Danny Hutchinson - Councillor Teulon is located in the Riding of Lakeside of Legislative Assembly of Manitoba and is represented by Ralph Eichler of the Progressive Conservative Party of Manitoba.
Teulon is located in the Selkirk—Interlake electoral district with one Member of Parliament. The district's current MP is James Bezan of the Conservative Party of Canada; the Winnipeg-Interlake division of the Senate is represented by Janis Johnson, appointed by Brian Mulroney, is a member of the Conservative Party of Canada. Teulon's features include the Teulon Golf & Country Club, Green Acres Park & Campground, Teulon Curling Club, Teulon Rockwood Arena, Teulon Rockwood Centennial Centre, South Interlake Regional Library, the Teulon and District Museum. A two-room motel and the Teulon Motor Hotel & Bar are available for visitors. Teulon has been known for its Truck & Tractor Pull, along with the Demolition Derby, at the rodeo grounds contained within Green Acres Park; the contest brings out competitors from all over the county. Teulon Rodeo is held at the end of August every year, featuring a full heartland rodeo schedule, chariot races, other attractions. A short drive to Stonewall's "Quarry Days," Winnipeg Beach's "Boardwalk Days," and Gimli's "Icelandic Festival," visitors of Teulon are able to take in many stops of the Manitoba traveling carnival "Wonder Shows", as well as the local version known as "Teulon Dayz".
Nearby are Kinsmen Lake, Lake Winnipeg, Norris Lake. Annually, the Town of Teulon holds a Santa Claus parade started by Gloria Joy Anderson, most followed by a bonspiel. Volunteers create floats, decorating their vehicles and tractors, toss candy to guests. CJ107.5 FM is The Voice of The Interlake featuring Local News and events and plays today's Country, Classic Country, Classic Rock and more. Local newspapers of Teulon include the Stonewall Teulon Tribune, the Stonewall Argus & Teulon Times and the Interlake Spectator. In 2007, Teulon was the film location for The Haunting in Connecticut starring Virginia Madsen and Elias Koteas; the film premiered on March 27, 2009. Official website Rural Municipality of Rockwood Map of Teulon at Statcan