Manitoba general election, 1922
This election was a watershed moment in Manitoba's political history. Since the formal introduction of partisan government in 1888, Manitoba had been governed alternately by the Liberal Party and the Conservative Party. Although the previous election of 1920 sustained the Liberals in power, it also saw the two-party dichotomy weakened by the rise of farmer and labour parliamentary blocs. In 1922, the old system was entirely swept away by the rise of the United Farmers of Manitoba (UFM).
The UFM had existed for several years as a farmer's organization, but some of its members ran as "Independent-Farmers" in the 1920 election. In 1921, however, the UFM announced it would field candidates during the 1922 campaign. The UFM was opposed to partisanship, and its most prominent members insisted that it was not a "party" in the traditional sense. UFM candidates often highlighted their lack of experience in partisan politics, and promised to govern the province in a restrained and responsible manner if elected to office.
The UFM membership was also heterogeneous. Although many supporters were free-trade agrarian Liberals before 1920, a number were also Conservatives. Some prominent UFM figures were also notable members of Manitoba's francophone community, which generally supported the Conservative Party before 1920.
The United Farmers fielded candidates in rural constituencies, and also endorsed candidates of the Progressive Association in Winnipeg. Even with these endorsements, the UFM operated on a shoestring budget, and was only able to field candidates in two-thirds of the ridings. However, in a major upset, the UFM and Progressives won 25 seats out of 52. Elections in three northern seats were deferred until later.
Not even the UFM had expected to win government. Indeed, its expectations were so low that it had not had a formal leader during the campaign. Thus, when the UFM caucus met for the first time after the election, its first task was to choose a leader who would become the province's next premier. After Thomas Crerar and Robert Hoey declined the invitation to govern, the caucus selected medical doctor John Bracken, president of the Manitoba Agricultural College. Although he had no political experience, Bracken accepted the nomination. He ran for a deferred election in The Pas, and was duly elected. The UFM also won deferred elections in Ethelbert and Rupertsland, giving them a narrow majority in the legislature. The UFM's political arm branded itself as the Progressive Party of Manitoba.
The other parties fared poorly in the 1922 campaign. The Liberals, led by outgoing premier Tobias Norris, fell from twenty-one seats to eight. The Conservatives, under their newly chosen leader Fawcett Taylor, fell from eight seats to seven.
The Independent Labour Party also experienced difficulties. In the 1920 election, Manitoba's various left-wing and working-class groups submerged their differences to run a united campaign. This cooperation was successful, and eleven labour candidates were elected to form the second-largest parliamentary bloc. By the 1922 election, however, the Labour Party was beset by long-standing divisions among socialists, communists and conservative trade unionists.
A total of thirteen labour candidates ran for ten seats in Winnipeg. Six were members of the ILP, and a seventh, former Social Democrat John Queen, ran as an "Independent Workers" candidate allied with the ILP. The other candidates were divided among themselves. The banned Communist Party ran three candidates under its legal front, the Workers Party. These candidates disrupted meetings of Socialist incumbent George Armstrong, and accused him of selling out his principles to moderates and social gospellers. Two conservative trade-unionists also ran as Union Labour candidates, opposing radicalism in the labour movement.
Five ILP candidates were elected, and John Queen was also elected in Winnipeg. Labour leader Fred Dixon topped the poll in Winnipeg for a second time, although by a reduced margin from 1920. George Armstrong lost his Winnipeg seat, and no other labour parties candidates were elected.
Six independent candidates were also elected. After the election, the United Farmers governed as the "Progressive Party of Manitoba".
|Party||Party leader||Candidates||Seats||Popular vote[a 1]|
|Dominion Labour Party||Fred Dixon||12||8||5||-3||23,390||16,781||-6,609||11.1%||-5.2%|
|Moderation League||J.K. Downes||1||–||1||+1||–||3,621||+3,621||2.8%||n/a|
|Independent Workers||John Queen[a 2]||1||1||1||–||1,253||2,348||+1,095||2.7%||+1.8%|
|Brandon Labour Party||Albert Edward Smith||1||1||–||-1||2,007||2,060||+53||1.4%||–|
|Registered voters and turnout||209,760||222,499||+12,739||69.4%||-1.2%|
|Arthur||Duncan Lloyd McLeod
|Beautiful Plains||George Little
|James A. Dempsey
|Richard E. Coad
|Brandon City||Albert Edward Smith (Brandon Labour Party/CLP)
|John Edmison (Ind)
|Albert Edward Smith|
|Maurice Duprey (Ind)
|Cypress||John Alexander Young
|Dauphin||Henry Pears Nicholson
|George Palmer (ILP)
|Deloraine||Duncan Stuart McLeod
|Herbert Robinson (Ind)
|Dmytro Yakimischak (Ind. Farmer)
|John Garfield Hamilton
|Henry L. Mabb (Ind)
|Henry L. Mabb|
|Gilbert Plains||Arthur Berry
|George Darling Shortreed
|Horace Priestly Barrett (Ind)
|F.J. Erick Rhind
|Glenwood||Wellington Geddas Rathwell
|John Henry McConnell
|John Henry McConnell|
|Thomas H. Buck
|Charles Duncan McPherson|
|Lansdowne||John Morrison Allen
|La Verendrye||Philippe Adjutor Talbot
|Philippe Adjutor Talbot|
|Joseph B. Lane (Ind)
|Morden and Rhineland||John Sweet
|George M. Fraser
|Reuben J. Waugh
|Reuben J. Waugh|
|Portage la Prairie||Charles D. McPherson
|Robert William Rutherford (Ind)
|William W.W. Wilson
|Edgar Carnegy De Balinhard
|William W.W. Wilson|
|St. George||Albert E. Kristjansson
|Albert E. Kristjansson|
|Ste. Rose||Thomas McDonald
|Joseph Hamelin (Ind)
|Swan River||Robert Emmond
|Daniel Hawe Sr.
|Turtle Mountain||R.W. Ramson
|Richard G. Willis
|George William McDonald|
|Assiniboia||Charles L. Richardson
|William Bayley (ILP)
|William Bourke (Ind)
John Haddon (Ind)
|Kildonan & St. Andrews||Samuel Henry Summerscales
|Charles Albert Tanner (ILP)
|Charles Albert Tanner|
|St. Boniface||H.M. Sutherland
|Charles W. Foster (ILP)
|Joseph Bernier (Ind)
|St. Clements||Hugh Connolly
|Nicolas Kolisynk (Workers)
Matthew Stanbridge (ILP)
|Donald Ross (Ind)
|William James Black
|Samuel Leonard Henry
Note: Reports of vote tallies were incomplete for counts 32-36. Count 31 was used as the base for calculating applicable percentages above.
Elections for several northern ridings were deferred to later dates:
(August 26, 1922)
|Nicholas A. Hryhorczuk
|Nicholas A. Hryhorczuk|
(September 13, 1922)
(October 5, 1922)
|Herman Finger (Ind) 118
P.C. Robertson (Ind) 71
R.H. MacNeill (Ind) 38
When Duncan Lloyd McLeod (Arthur), Neil Cameron (Minnedosa) and William Clubb (Morris) were appointed to cabinet on August 8, 1922, they were obliged to resign their seats and seek re-election. All were returned by acclamation on August 26, 1922.
- Charles Cannon (P) 1630
- George Fraser (C) 857
- Albert Prefontaine (P) 1177
- Maurice Dupez (Ind) 494
- Tobias Norris (L) accl.