Tirur is a Town and municipality in Malappuram district in the Indian state of Kerala spread over an area of 62.34 square kilometres. It is one of the business centers of Malappuram district and is situated 26 kilometres west of Malappuram and 41 kilometres south of Kozhikode, on the Shoranur–Mangalore section of the Mangalore–Chennai railway line. Tirur is a major regional trading centre for fish and betel leaf and has an average elevation of 2 metres; as of 2001 India census, Tirur had a population of 53,650, of which 48 % are 52 % female. Tirur has an average literacy rate of 80%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 81%, female literacy is 78%. In Tirur, 14% of the population is under six years of age. Tirur assembly constituency is part of Ponnani. Tirur was part of the Kingdom of Tanur in medieval times and the site of part of the first railroad laid by the British in Kerala; the 16th-century poet Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan, considered to be the father of the Malayalam language literature, lived in the town.
Thunchan Parambu in Tirur is venerated and its sand is believed to be sacred. The sand is used in Vidyāraṃbhaṃ on Vijayadashami; the birthplace of Thunjathu Ramanujan Ezhuthachan, the father of Malayalam language. The famous "Thunjan Utsavam" is held here every year in the first week of February. During this festival many literary luminaries and classical dancers gather here. Thunjan Paramba is located in Annara, 1.5 km away from Tirur railway station. A memorial for the great poet has been built at Thunjan Paramba, where a week-long literary mela is organised in the last week of December; this place is sacred for all. Thunjan Paramba is a hallowed ground where hundreds of children are introduced into the world of writing, soon after infancy, when they first trace the letters of the Malayalam alphabets in sand taken from that revered spot, Ezhuthachan's home. People in thousands reach Thunjan Paramba with their children, to initiate them into the world of letters on the Vijayadasami day. Children are made to write on the white sands of Thunjan Paramba with their fingers.
Young poets of Kerala come on that day to offer their first poem. A Nux vomica tree, the leaves of which are not bitter, is a surprise at the Thunjan Paramba. Kerala's Chief Minister Oommen Chandy inaugurated the Thunchathu Ezhuthachan Malayalam University at Tirur Thunchanparambu on 1 November 2012. There are seven MA courses in the Malayalam language, creative writing and traditional studies, mass communication and journalism, local self governance and environmental studies; the second intake of students were inducted on 18 August 2014. Thirunavaya is a small town in Tirur; the important land of ancient Mamankam, Thirunavaya is 7 kilometres south of Tirur on the banks of Bharathapuzha River. The area has three temples dedicated to the Trimurtis, the gods of creation and annihilation of life, according to the Hindu belief strewn on the banks of the Bharathapuzha; the well-known vedic Vidyalaya Othanmar Madom of ancient times, is on the bank of Bharathapuzha, near the Siva Temple. This madom was a centre of Aryanisation through Sanskrit and Vedic education, as Thirunavaya was believed to be the main centre where Parasurama brought and settled Brahmins.
The Palace of Puranic fame Azhvanchery Thamprakkal is 2 kilometres north of Thirunnavaya. Chandanakavu, the birthplace of the great 16th-century Sanskrit poet and grammarian Melapthur Narayana Bahttathiri, is 10 kilometres from Tirur on the Thirunnavaya-Kottakal road. A memorial has been built there for the poet, where small children are brought for their formal initiation into learning on Vijayadasami day, as in Thunjan parambu. Navamunkuda Temple, believed to be constructed by Nava yogis on the right bank of Bharathapuzha, is an important Vishnu temple in Kerala. Pitru Tharpanam is a ritual, held here on the day of Amavasi in Karkidakam. Balikarma is offered by people in their wet clothes, after a dip in the river, for the salvation of sins and to appease the manes; the martial arts festival Kalripayattu is conducted during summer on the sands of dry Bharathapuzha. The well known Changampalli Kalari, is near Thirunavaya. During the second week of February a Sarvodaya Mela is conducted in Thirunavaya where the Gandhians of Kerala used to assemble.
The Santikudeeram, established by the nationalist leader K. Kelappan, is the centre of this mela gathering; the Wagon Tragedy was the death of a large number of prisoners on 10 November 1921 in the Malabar region of Kerala state of India. The prisoners had been taken into custody following unrest known as Moplah rebellion in Malabar, their deaths through apparent negligence discredited the British Raj and generated sympathy for the Indian independence movement. Inspired by Mahatma Gandhi and the national leaders of India, there was a widespread and peaceful uprising against the British colonial rule of India. After a series of events that culminated in violent clashes between police and protesters, Martial law was introduced and the rebellion crushed; the British packed 70 prisoners into a railway goods wagon at Tirur railway station to be sent to the Coimbatore jails. By the time they reached their destination. Situated 6 kilometres from Tirur, Garudan Kavu is the only temple in India dedicated to Garuda, the bird deity.
This Garuda Temple is about 1800 years old. Worshipping here is meant for easy recovery from diseases and for relief from serpent poisons. All Sundays are important here the 41 days of Mandalakalam
Kerala, locally known as Keralam, is a state on the southwestern, Malabar Coast of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, following passage of the States Reorganisation Act, by combining Malayalam-speaking regions. Spread over 38,863 km2, Kerala is the twenty-second largest Indian state by area, it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, the Lakshadweep Sea and Arabian Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Kerala is the thirteenth-largest Indian state by population, it is divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram. Malayalam is the most spoken language and is the official language of the state; the Chera Dynasty was the first prominent kingdom based in Kerala. The Ay kingdom in the deep south and the Ezhimala kingdom in the north formed the other kingdoms in the early years of the Common Era; the region had been a prominent spice exporter since 3000 BCE. The region's prominence in trade was noted in the works of Pliny as well as the Periplus around 100 CE.
In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, paved the way for European colonisation of India. At the time of Indian independence movement in the early 20th century, there were two major princely states in Kerala-Travancore State and the Kingdom of Cochin, they united to form the state of Thiru-Kochi in 1949. The Malabar region, in the northern part of Kerala had been a part of the Madras province of British India, which became a part of the Madras State post-independence. After the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the modern-day state of Kerala was formed by merging the Malabar district of Madras State, the state of Thiru-Kochi, the taluk of Kasaragod in South Canara, a part of Madras State; the economy of Kerala is the 12th-largest state economy in India with ₹7.73 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹163,000. Kerala has the lowest positive population growth rate in India, 3.44%. The state has witnessed significant emigration to Arab states of the Persian Gulf during the Gulf Boom of the 1970s and early 1980s, its economy depends on remittances from a large Malayali expatriate community.
Hinduism is practised by more than half of the population, followed by Christianity. The culture is a synthesis of Aryan, Dravidian and European cultures, developed over millennia, under influences from other parts of India and abroad; the production of pepper and natural rubber contributes to the total national output. In the agricultural sector, tea, coffee and spices are important; the state's coastline extends for 595 kilometres, around 1.1 million people in the state are dependent on the fishery industry which contributes 3% to the state's income. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages English and Malayalam. Kerala is one of the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, hill stations, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions; the name Kerala has an uncertain etymology. One popular theory derives Kerala from alam; the word Kerala is first recorded as Keralaputra in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka, one of his edicts pertaining to welfare.
The inscription refers to the local ruler as Keralaputra. This contradicts the theory that Kera is from "coconut tree". At that time, one of three states in the region was called Cheralam in Classical Tamil: Chera and Kera are variants of the same word; the word Cheral refers to the oldest known dynasty of Kerala kings and is derived from the Proto-Tamil-Malayalam word for "lake". The earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala is the Aitareya Aranyaka of the Rigveda. Kerala is mentioned in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the two Hindu epics; the Skanda Purana mentions the ecclesiastical office of the Thachudaya Kaimal, referred to as Manikkam Keralar, synonymous with the deity of the Koodalmanikyam temple. Keralam may stem from the Classical Tamil chera alam; the Greco-Roman trade map. According to Tamil classic Purananuru, Chera king Senkuttuvan conquered the lands between Kanyakumari and the Himalayas. Lacking worthy enemies, he besieged the sea by throwing his spear into it. According to the 17th century Malayalam work Keralolpathi, the lands of Kerala were recovered from the sea by the axe-wielding warrior sage Parasurama, the sixth avatar of Vishnu.
Parasurama threw his axe across the sea, the water receded as far as it reached. According to legend, this new area of land extended from Gokarna to Kanyakumari; the land which rose from sea was filled with unsuitable for habitation. Out of respect and all snakes were appo
Postal Index Number
A Postal Index Number, or sometimes redundantly a PIN code, is a code in the post office numbering or postal code system used by India Post, the Indian postal entity. The code is six digits long; the PIN system was introduced on 15 August 1972 by Shriram Bhikaji Velankar, an additional secretary in the Union Ministry of Communications. The system was introduced to simplify the manual sorting and delivery of mail by eliminating confusion over incorrect addresses, similar place names, different languages used by the public. There are nine postal zones including eight regional zones and one functional zone; the first digit of the PIN indicates the zone. The second digit indicates the sub-zone, the third digit indicates the sorting district within that zone; the final three digits are assigned to individual post offices. The first digit of the PIN is allocated over the 9 zones as follows: 1 — Delhi, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir, Chandigarh 2 — Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand 3 — Rajasthan, Gujarat and Diu, Dadra and Nagar 4 — Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh 5 — Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka 6 — Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Lakshadweep 7 — West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Tripura, Meghalaya and Nicobar Islands, Sikkim 8 — Bihar, Jharkhand 9 — Army Post Office and Field Post Office The first three digits of the PIN represent a specific geographical region called a sorting district, headquartered at the main post office of the largest city and is known as the sorting office.
A state may have one or more sorting districts depending on the volume of mail handled. The fourth digit represents the route; this is 0 for offices in the core area of the sorting district. The last two digits represent the delivery office within the sorting district starting from 01 which would be the General Post Office or head office; the numbering of the delivery office is done chronologically with higher numbers assigned to newer delivery offices. If the volume of mails handled at a delivery office is too large, a new delivery office is created and the next available PIN is assigned. Thus, two delivery offices situated next to each other will only have the first four digits in common; each PIN is mapped to one delivery post office which receives all the mail to be delivered to one or more lower offices within its jurisdiction, all of which share the same code. The delivery office can either be a General Post Office, a head office, or a sub-office which are located in urban areas; the post from the delivery office is sorted and routed to other delivery offices for a different PIN or to one of the relevant sub-offices or branch offices for the same PIN.
Branch offices have limited postal services. Find Pincode – India Post
Ponnani is a Municipality in Ponnani Taluk, Malappuram District, in the state of Kerala. It serves as the administrative center of the Block Panchayat of the same name, it is situated at the estuary of Bharatappuzha, on its southern bank, is bounded by the Arabian Sea on the west and a series of brackish lagoons in the south. National Highway 66, from to Panvel to Kanyakumari, passes through Ponnani Municipality. River Tirur joins River Ponnani at its mouth at Patinjarekkara Beach from the north bank, opposite to Ponnani; the Colonial era Cannoly Canal bisects Ponnani town. In the Middle Ages, under the ambitious Hindu chiefs of Kozhikode, Ponnani developed as one of the most important the centers of Muslim trade - both overseas and domestic - on the Arabian Sea; the port served as the military headquarters of the Kozhikode rulers. With arrival of the Portuguese explorers in late - 15th century, the city witnessed several battles between the Admirals of Kozhikode and the Portuguese for the monopoly in the Spice Trade.
Whenever a formal war was broke out between the Portuguese and the Kozhikode rulers, the Portuguese attacked and plundered, as the opportunity offered, the port of Ponnani. The relentless battles lead to the eventual decline of the settlement, with exodus of Middle Eastern merchants, the rulers who protected it. Presently, Ponnani is one of the major fishing centers in Kerala; the city of Ponnani provided ideological support for the battles against the Estado da Índia. It was the home of the revered Makhdum family. Prominent members of this Yemeni family of Islamic theologians included Zain-ud-Din Makhdum I and his grandson Zain-ud-Din Makhdum II. Makhdum II is known for his formidable historical chronicle Tuhfat al-Mujahidin, first printed and published in Lisbon. A copy of this edition has been preserved in the library of Cairo; the Ponnani Jum'ah Masjid known as Valiya Jum'ah Palli/Makhdum Mosque, was built in the 16th century AD. Ponnani, once known as the "Little Mecca of Malabar" and the "Jami'at al-Azhar of Malabar", was a prominent center of Islamic learning.
It is known that students from as far as Sumatra and Sri Lanka traveled to Ponnani for their spiritual education. The town was described in many sources as "the Land of 23½ Mosques", it has around 50 mosques, spread around the town. During the months of February and March, large number of migratory birds flock at Ponnani. Arabi-Malayalam, a script used to write Malayalam, was originated at Ponnani; the script was known as "the Ponnani Script". Ponnani is described different authors, all the way from Europe to Arabia to China, in different names; some of the names are given below. Ponani/Paniyani: British/East India Company Ponam: the Chinese Sailors Funan: the Arab merchants Pananee/Pananie/Pananx: the Portuguese and Spanish Writers and Sailors Panane/Panany: the Dutch East India Company Pagnany/Pagniany: the French Sailors Pre-historical and Early Historical nature of this settlement is shrouded in mystery, its location at estuary of the Bharatappuzha amidst the fertile plains suitable for rice cultivation might have attracted early settlers.
It is known that the river mouth - situated opposite to the plains of Coimbatore across the Ghat mountains - was accessed by the rulers of central Tamil Nadu through the Palghat Gap. It is assumed that the archaic Tamil chiefs came into contact with Greco-Roman navigators at the mouth of the Bharatappuzha. In the times, Ponnani served as the major rice supplier to the Portuguese outposts in India. Throughout the Colonial rule, the Ponnani rice cargoes were shipped across the West Coast. Tobacco was the other major commodity exported from Ponnani to Goa. Ponnani used to be under the control of the Brahmins of "Tirumanasseri Natu", with protection from the Vellattiri chief, in medieval times; the Tirumanasseri Namputiri handed over the port Ponnani to the Samutiri of Kozhikode. An arrangement was reached between the Brahmin and the Samutiri, as a result of which, the former was obliged to protect the interests of the latter against the neighboring chiefs of Valluvanatu and Perumpatappu; as Kozhikode's political authority extended to South Malabar and Cochin, the Samutiri came to reside more and more at Ponnani.
The port town became the second home of the Kozhikotu chiefs. By the 15th century, we know that Ponnani served as the military capital of the Samutiris of Kozhikode; the city hosted the largest arsenal of the Kozhikotu rulers. The port at Ponnani was defended by fortifications on either bank of the river. At the time of the arrival of Vasco da Gama and his Portuguese fleet at Kozhikode, the Samutiri of Kozhikode was residing at Ponnani; when the Samutiri Kovilakam at Kozhikode was besieged by the Mysore Sultan Haidar'Ali, the Samutiri sent his family members to safe heavens at Ponnani. It is believed that Malik ibn Dinar, the first Islamic missionary to Kerala, visited Ponnani and established a mosque. In the 16th century, Ponnani witnessed several battles between Kozhikode naval chiefs, known as the Kunhali Marakkars, the Portuguese colonizers. Whenever a formal war was broke out between the Portuguese and the Kozhikode rulers, the Portuguese attacked and plundered, as the opportunity offered, the port of Ponnani.
As per some historians, the ancestral home of the Kunhali Marakkar family was at Ponnani. In course of time they spread to other settlements of the west coast, it seems that the Kunhalis shifted their
Mumbai is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. As of 2011 it is the most populous city in India with an estimated city proper population of 12.4 million. The larger Mumbai Metropolitan Region is the second most populous metropolitan area in India, with a population of 21.3 million as of 2016. Mumbai has a deep natural harbour. In 2008, Mumbai was named an alpha world city, it is the wealthiest city in India, has the highest number of millionaires and billionaires among all cities in India. Mumbai is home to three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Elephanta Caves, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus, the city's distinctive ensemble of Victorian and Art Deco buildings; the seven islands that constitute Mumbai were home to communities of Koli people, who originated in Gujarat in prehistoric times. For centuries, the islands were under the control of successive indigenous empires before being ceded to the Portuguese Empire and subsequently to the East India Company when in 1661 Charles II of England married Catherine of Braganza and as part of her dowry Charles received the ports of Tangier and Seven Islands of Bombay.
During the mid-18th century, Bombay was reshaped by the Hornby Vellard project, which undertook reclamation of the area between the seven islands from the sea. Along with construction of major roads and railways, the reclamation project, completed in 1845, transformed Bombay into a major seaport on the Arabian Sea. Bombay in the 19th century was characterised by educational development. During the early 20th century it became a strong base for the Indian independence movement. Upon India's independence in 1947 the city was incorporated into Bombay State. In 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra Movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital. Mumbai is the financial and entertainment capital of India, it is one of the world's top ten centres of commerce in terms of global financial flow, generating 6.16% of India's GDP and accounting for 25% of industrial output, 70% of maritime trade in India, 70% of capital transactions to India's economy. The city houses important financial institutions such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock Exchange, the National Stock Exchange of India, the SEBI and the corporate headquarters of numerous Indian companies and multinational corporations.
It is home to some of India's premier scientific and nuclear institutes like Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Power Corporation of India, Indian Rare Earths, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Atomic Energy Commission of India, the Department of Atomic Energy. The city houses India's Hindi and Marathi cinema industries. Mumbai's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over India, making the city a melting pot of many communities and cultures; the name Mumbai is derived from Mumbā or Mahā-Ambā—the name of the patron goddess Mumbadevi of the native Koli community— and ā'ī meaning "mother" in the Marathi language, the mother tongue of the Koli people and the official language of Maharashtra. The Koli people originated in Kathiawad and Central Gujarat, according to some sources they brought their goddess Mumba with them from Kathiawad, where she is still worshipped. However, other sources disagree.
The oldest known names for the city are Galajunkja. In 1508, Portuguese writer Gaspar Correia used the name "Bombaim" in his Lendas da Índia; this name originated as the Galician-Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning "good little bay", Bombaim is still used in Portuguese. In 1516, Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa used the name Tana-Maiambu: Tana appears to refer to the adjoining town of Thane and Maiambu to Mumbadevi. Other variations recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries include: Mombayn, Bombain, Monbaym, Mombaym, Bombaiim, Boon Bay, Bon Bahia. After the English gained possession of the city in the 17th century, the Portuguese name was anglicised as Bombay. Ali Muhammad Khan, imperial dewan or revenue minister of the Gujarat province, in the Mirat-i Ahmedi referred to the city as Manbai; the French traveller Louis Rousselet who visited in 1863 and 1868 tells us in his book L’Inde des Rajahs: "Etymologists have wrongly derived this name from the Portuguese Bôa Bahia, or, not knowing that the tutelar goddess of this island has been, from remote antiquity, Bomba, or Mamba Dévi, that she still... possesses a temple".
By the late 20th century, the city was referred to as Mumbai or Mambai in Marathi, Gujarati and Sindhi, as Bambai in Hindi. The Government of India changed the English name to Mumbai in November 1995; this came at the insistence of the Marathi nationalist Shiv Sena party, which had just won the Maharashtra state elections, mirrored similar name changes across the country and in Maharashtra. According to Slate magazine, "they argued that'Bombay' was a corrupted English version of'Mumbai' and an unwanted legacy of British colonial rule." Slate said "The push to rename Bombay was part of a larger movement to strengthen Marathi identity in the Maharashtra region." While the city is still referred to as Bombay by some of its residents and by Indians from other regions, mention of the ci
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, have the capability of interbreeding. The area of a sexual population is the area where inter-breeding is possible between any pair within the area, where the probability of interbreeding is greater than the probability of cross-breeding with individuals from other areas. In sociology, population refers to a collection of humans. Demography is a social science. Population in simpler terms is the number of people in a city or town, country or world. In population genetics a sex population is a set of organisms in which any pair of members can breed together; this means that they can exchange gametes to produce normally-fertile offspring, such a breeding group is known therefore as a Gamo deme. This implies that all members belong to the same species. If the Gamo deme is large, all gene alleles are uniformly distributed by the gametes within it, the Gamo deme is said to be panmictic.
Under this state, allele frequencies can be converted to genotype frequencies by expanding an appropriate quadratic equation, as shown by Sir Ronald Fisher in his establishment of quantitative genetics. This occurs in Nature: localization of gamete exchange – through dispersal limitations, preferential mating, cataclysm, or other cause – may lead to small actual Gamo demes which exchange gametes reasonably uniformly within themselves but are separated from their neighboring Gamo demes. However, there may be low frequencies of exchange with these neighbors; this may be viewed as the breaking up of a large sexual population into smaller overlapping sexual populations. This failure of panmixia leads to two important changes in overall population structure: the component Gamo demos vary in their allele frequencies when compared with each other and with the theoretical panmictic original; the overall rise in homozygosity is quantified by the inbreeding coefficient. Note that all homozygotes are increased in frequency – both the deleterious and the desirable.
The mean phenotype of the Gamo demes collection is lower than that of the panmictic original –, known as inbreeding depression. It is most important to note, that some dispersion lines will be superior to the panmictic original, while some will be about the same, some will be inferior; the probabilities of each can be estimated from those binomial equations. In plant and animal breeding, procedures have been developed which deliberately utilize the effects of dispersion, it can be shown that dispersion-assisted selection leads to the greatest genetic advance, is much more powerful than selection acting without attendant dispersion. This is so for both autogamous Gamo demes. In ecology, the population of a certain species in a certain area can be estimated using the Lincoln Index. According to the United States Census Bureau the world's population was about 7.55 billion in 2019 and that the 7 billion number was surpassed on 12 March 2012. According to a separate estimate by the United Nations, Earth’s population exceeded seven billion in October 2011, a milestone that offers unprecedented challenges and opportunities to all of humanity, according to UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund.
According to papers published by the United States Census Bureau, the world population hit 6.5 billion on 24 February 2006. The United Nations Population Fund designated 12 October 1999 as the approximate day on which world population reached 6 billion; this was about 12 years after world population reached 5 billion in 1987, 6 years after world population reached 5.5 billion in 1993. The population of countries such as Nigeria, is not known to the nearest million, so there is a considerable margin of error in such estimates. Researcher Carl Haub calculated that a total of over 100 billion people have been born in the last 2000 years. Population growth increased as the Industrial Revolution gathered pace from 1700 onwards; the last 50 years have seen a yet more rapid increase in the rate of population growth due to medical advances and substantial increases in agricultural productivity beginning in the 1960s, made by the Green Revolution. In 2017 the United Nations Population Division projected that the world's population will reach about 9.8 billion in 2050 and 11.2 billion in 2100.
In the future, the world's population is expected to peak, after which it will decline due to economic reasons, health concerns, land exhaustion and environmental hazards. According to one report, it is likely that the world's population will stop growing before the end of the 21st century. Further, there is some likelihood that population will decline before 2100. Population has declined in the last decade or two in Eastern Europe, the Baltics and in the Commonwealth of Independent States; the population pattern of less-developed regions of the world in recent years has been marked by increasing birth rates. These followed an earlier sharp reduction in death rates; this transition from high birth and death rates to low birth
Māmānkam was a duodecennial medieval fair held on the bank, on the dry river-bed, of Pērār at Tirunāvāya, southern India. The Hindu temple associated with the festival was Tirunavaya, it seems to have begun as a temple festival, analogous to the Kumbha Melas at Ujjaini, Prayaga and Kumbakonam. Tirunāvāya, known for its ancient Hindu temples, is considered as one of the earliest Brāhmin settlement west of the Ghats; the festival was most flamboyantly celebrated under the auspices and at the expenses of the Hindu chiefs of Kōzhikōde, the Samutiris. The fair was not only a religious festival for the Samutiris, but an occasion for the display of all their pomp and power as the most powerful chiefs of Kerala. During the Mamankam it was believed that the goddess Ganga descended into the Perar and by her miraculous advent made the river as holy as the Ganges itself. Much like the famous Kumbha Mēḷas, the fair is held once in every 12 years and carried huge economic and political significance. Apart from the brisk trading, attested by travelers from Arabia and China, various forms of martial art and intellectual contests, cultural festivals, Hindu ritual ceremonies and folk art performances were held at Tirunāvāya.
Hindu pilgrims from distant places, trading groups and travelers leave colorful accounts of Māmānkam. Duarte Barbosa mentions "scaffoldings erected in the field with silken hangings spread over it". Kozhikode Granthavari, Mamakam Kilippattu and Kandaru Menon Patappattu, along with Keralolpatti and Keralamahatmya, are the major native chronicles mentioning the Mamankam festival; the innate nature of the festival, dateable at least to the era before the of Cheras of Cranganore, muddled in myths and legends, is still disputed. As per some sources, the nature of the fair underwent tragic changes after the capture of Tirunāvāya by the chief of Kōzhikōde from the Veḷḷāṭṭiri chief. From that day forth, the Vaḷḷuvanāṭu chiefs started to send warriors to kill the Sāmūtiri and regain the honor of conducting the festival; this bloodshed between these two clans. As per K. V. Krishna Iyer, the last Māmānkam fair was held in 1755 CE, as per William Logan, in 1743 CE; the Māmānkam came to an end with the conquest of Kōzhikōde by the Sultān of Mysōre, Ḥaidar ʿAlī and the subsequent Treaty of Seringapatam with the English East India Company.
Canganpaḷḷi Kaḷari, Paḻukkāmandapam, Nilapāṭu Tara and Manikkiṇar at Tirunāvāya are protected by the State Archaeology Department, Kēral̥a. The word "Māmānkam" is sometimes considered as a Tamiḻ/Malayālam corruption of two Sanskrit words, one related to the Māgha month. According to William Logan, "Maha Makham" means "Great Sacrifice". Different renderings of the name is given below, Maha-Magham - Great Magha Maha-Makham - Great Sacrifice Maha-Maham - Great Festival Maha-Ankam - Great Fight Magha Makam - Elamkulam P. N. Kunjan Pillai Canganpalli Kalari, Nilapatu Tara and Manikkiṇar at Tirunavaya are protected by the State Archaeology Department, Kerala. All of them are situated on private land, which means the Kerala Tourism Department is not able to get involved in preserving the monuments; the Marunnara is situated on around 4.5 acre land owned by Kerala State Electricity Board and the Nilapatu Tara is inside the land of the Kodakkal Tile Factory. In August 2010, the renovation of Mamankam ruins was inaugurated up by the authorities, which came under the Nila Tourism Project with the support of State Archaeology Department, Kerala.
Kerala Industrial and Technical Consultancy Organisation was appointed as the implementing agency of the project. Canganpalli Kalari, Nilapatu Tara, Manikkinar and Marunnara were renovated during this period. Assistance from the Kerala-state government, around Rs. 90 lakhs, funded this renovation. As per a mid-2011 report in the Times of India, the Mamankam relics at Tirunavaya are "fading to oblivion" and in a ruined state due to the neglect of the authorities concerned. Tirunavaya seems to be a sacred place for the Hindus of Kerala from time immemorial. Perar at Tirunavaya is considered to assume a special sanctity, because it flows between the temple of god Vishnu on its right bank and temples of Brahma and Siva on its left. Tirunavaya, on the fertile Perar basin, must have been one of the earliest Brahmin settlement in Kerala. Perar acts as the main artery of communication with the interior Kerala lands, otherwise inaccessible due to the thick vegetation, in the rainy season. Rivers and backwaters in Kerala afforded the easiest and cheapest and only means of communication in times when wheeled traffic and pack-bullock traffic were unknown.
And accordingly it is found that the Brahmins settled most thickly close to or on the rivers and selected sites for their settlements so as to command as much as possible of these arteries of traffic. The following is a description of the origins of the festival, prior to the hegemony of the chiefs of Valluvanatu over the Mamankam, based on native legends and myths The fair was conducted by the Brahmin landlords, lead by an executive officer styled the Rakshapurusha; each Rakshapurusha was to continue in office only for three years. Once some dispute arose as to the selection of the next Great Protector, in the assembly at Tirunavaya, principle