George H. W. Bush
George Herbert Walker Bush was an American politician who served as the 41st president of the United States from 1989 to 1993 and the 43rd vice president of the United States from 1981 to 1989. A member of the Republican Party, he held posts that included those of congressman, CIA director; until his son George W. Bush became the 43rd president in 2001, he was known as George Bush. Bush postponed his university studies after the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, enlisted in the Navy on his 18th birthday, became one of its youngest aviators, he served until September 1945, attended Yale University, graduating in 1948. He moved his family to West Texas where he entered the oil business and became a millionaire by the age of 40 in 1964. After founding his own oil company, Bush was defeated in his first run for the United States Senate in 1964, but won election to the House of Representatives from Texas's 7th congressional district in 1966, he was reelected in 1968 but was defeated for election to the Senate in 1970.
In 1971, President Richard Nixon appointed Bush as Ambassador to the United Nations, he became Chairman of the Republican National Committee in 1973. The following year, President Gerald Ford appointed him Chief of the Liaison Office in China and made him the director of Central Intelligence. Bush ran for president in 1980, was defeated in the Republican primary by Ronald Reagan, as Reagan's running mate Bush became vice-president after the ticket's election. During his eight-year tenure as vice president, Bush headed task forces on deregulation and the war on drugs. Bush in 1988 defeated Democratic opponent Michael Dukakis, becoming the first incumbent vice president to be elected president in 152 years. Foreign policy drove the Bush presidency. Bush signed the North American Free Trade Agreement, which created a trade bloc consisting of the United States and Mexico. Domestically, Bush signed a bill to increase taxes, he lost the 1992 presidential election to Democrat Bill Clinton following an economic recession and the decreased importance of foreign policy in a post–Cold War political climate.
After leaving office in 1993, Bush was active in humanitarian activities alongside Clinton, his former opponent. With George W. Bush's victory in the 2000 presidential election and his son became the second father–son pair to serve as President, following John Adams and John Quincy Adams. At the time of his death, he was the longest-lived president in U. S. history, a record surpassed by Jimmy Carter on March 22, 2019. George Herbert Walker Bush was born at 173 Adams Street in Milton, Massachusetts on June 12, 1924 to Prescott Sheldon Bush and Dorothy Bush; the Bush family moved from Milton to Connecticut shortly after his birth. Bush was named after his maternal grandfather George Herbert Walker, known as "Pop", young Bush was called "Poppy" as a tribute to his namesake. Bush began his formal education at the Greenwich Country Day School attended Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts beginning in 1938, where he held a number of leadership positions which included president of the senior class, secretary of the student council, president of the community fund-raising group, a member of the editorial board of the school newspaper, captain of the varsity baseball and soccer teams.
Six months after the United States entered World War II following Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, Bush enlisted in the U. S. Navy after he graduated from Phillips Academy on his 18th birthday, he became a naval aviator. After completing the 10-month course, he was commissioned as an ensign in the Naval Reserve at Naval Air Station Corpus Christi on June 9, 1943, just three days before his 19th birthday, which made him one of the youngest aviators in the Navy. In September 1943, he was assigned to Torpedo Squadron 51 as the photographic officer; the following year, his squadron was based in USS San Jacinto as a member of Air Group 51, where his lanky physique earned him the nickname "Skin". During this time, the task force was victorious at the Battle of the Philippine Sea, one of the largest air battles of World War II. Bush was promoted to lieutenant on August 1, 1944, San Jacinto commenced operations against the Japanese in the Bonin Islands, he piloted one of the four Grumman TBM Avengers of VT-51 that attacked the Japanese installations on Chichijima on September 2, 1944.
His crew included Lt. William White, his aircraft was hit by flak during the attack, but Bush released bombs and scored several hits. With his engine ablaze, he flew several miles from the island, where he and one other crew member bailed out. Bush spent four hours in his inflated liferaft, protected by fighter aircraft circling above, until the submarine USS Finback came to his rescue, he participated in the rescue of other aviators. Several of those shot down during the attack were executed, their livers were eaten by their captors; this experience shaped Bush profoundly, leading him to ask, "Why had I been spared and what did God have for me?"In November 1944, Bush returned to San Jacinto and participated in operations in the Philippines until his squadron was replaced and sent home to the United States. By 1944 he had flown 58 combat missions for which he received the Distinguished Flying Cross, three Air Medals, the Presiden
The five basketball positions employed by organized basketball teams are the point guard, the shooting guard, the small forward, the power forward, the center. The point guard is the leader of the team on the court; this position requires substantial ball handling skills and the ability to facilitate the team during a play. The shooting guard, as the name implies, is the best shooter; as well as being capable of shooting from longer distances, this position tends to be the best defender on the team. The small forward has an aggressive approach to the basket when handling the ball; the small forward is known to make cuts to the basket in efforts to get open for shots. The power forward and the center are called the "frontcourt" acting as their team's primary rebounders or shot blockers, or receiving passes to take inside shots; the center is the larger of the two. Only three positions were recognized based on where they played on the court: Guards played outside and away from the hoop and forwards played outside and near the baseline, with the center positioned in the key.
During the 1980s, as team strategy evolved. More specialized roles developed. Team strategy and available personnel, still dictate the positions used by a particular team. For example, the dribble-drive motion offense and the Princeton offense use four interchangeable guards and one center; this set is known as a "four-in and one-out" play scheme. Other combinations are prevalent. Besides the five basic positions, some teams use non-standard or hybrid positions, such as the point forward, a hybrid small forward/point guard; the point guard known as the one, is the team's best ball handler and passer. Therefore, they lead their team in assists and are able to create shots for themselves and their teammates, they are quick and are able to hit shots either outside the three-point line or "in the paint" depending on the player's skill level. Point guards are looked upon as the "floor general" or the "coach on the floor", they should study the game and game film to be able to recognize the weaknesses of the defense, the strengths of their own offense.
They are responsible for directing plays, making the position equivalent to that of quarterback in American football, playmaker in association football, center in ice hockey, or setter in volleyball. Good point guards increase team efficiency and have a high number of assists, they are referred to as dribblers or play-makers. In the NBA, point guards are the shortest players on the team and are 6 feet 4 inches or shorter; the shooting guard is known as the two or the off guard. Along with the small forward, a shooting guard is referred to as a wing because of its use in common positioning tactics; as the name suggests, most shooting guards are prolific from the three-point range. Besides being able to shoot the ball, shooting guards tend to be the best defender on the team, as well as being able to move without the ball to create open looks for themselves; some shooting guards have good ball handling skills creating their own shots off the dribble. A versatile shooting guard will have good passing skills, allowing them to assume point guard responsibilities known as combo guards.
Bigger shooting guards tend to play as small forwards. In the NBA, shooting guards range from 6 feet 4 inches to 6 feet 8 inches; the small forward known as the three, is considered to be the most versatile of the main five basketball positions. Versatility is key for small forwards because of the nature of their role, which resembles that of a shooting guard more than that of a power forward; this is why the small forward and shooting guard positions are interchangeable and referred to as wings. Small forwards have a variety such as quickness and strength inside. One common thread among all kinds of small forwards is an ability to "get to the line" and draw fouls by aggressively attempting plays, lay-ups, or slam dunks; as such, accurate foul shooting is a common skill for small forwards, many of whom record a large portion of their points from the foul line. Besides being able to drive to the basket, they are good shooters from long range; some small forwards have good passing skills, allowing them to assume point guard responsibilities as point forwards.
Small forwards should be able to do a little bit of everything on the court playing roles such as swingmen and defensive specialists. In the NBA, small forwards range from 6 feet 6 inches to 6 feet 9 inches; the power forward known as the four plays a role similar to that of the center, down in the "post" or "low blocks". The power forward is the team's most versatile scorer, being able to score close to the basket while being able to shoot mid-range jump shots from 12 to 18 feet from the basket; some power forwards have become known as stretch fours, since extending their shooting range to three-pointers. On defense, they are required to have the strength to guard bigger players close to the basket and to have the athleticism to guard quick players away from the basket. Most power forwards tend to be more versatile than centers since they can be part of plays and are not always in the low block. In the
Rafer Lewis Johnson is an American former decathlete and film actor. He was the 1960 Olympic gold medalist in the decathlon, having won silver in 1956, he had won a gold in the 1955 Pan American Games. He was the USA team's flag bearer at the 1960 Olympics and lit the Olympic flame at the Los Angeles Games in 1984. In 1968, he, football player Rosey Grier and journalist George Plimpton tackled Sirhan Sirhan moments after he had fatally shot Robert F. Kennedy. After he retired from athletics, Johnson turned to acting, public service and was instrumental in creating the California Special Olympics, his acting career included appearances in The Sins of Rachel Cade, the Elvis Presley film Wild in the Country, Pirates of Tortuga, None but the Brave, two Tarzan films with Mike Henry, The Last Grenade, Soul Soldier, Roots: The Next Generations, Think Big and the 1989 James Bond film Licence to Kill, with Timothy Dalton. Johnson was born in Hillsboro, but the family moved to Kingsburg, when he was 9.
For a while, they were the only black family in the town. A versatile athlete, he played on Kingsburg High School's football and basketball teams, he was elected class president in both junior high and high school. The Summer between his sophomore and junior years in high school, his coach Murl Dodson drove Johnson 24 miles to Tulare and watched Bob Mathias compete in the 1952 U. S. decathlon olympic trials. Johnson told his coach, "I could have beaten most of those guys." Dodson and Johnson drove back a month to watch Mathias' victory parade. Weeks Johnson competed in a high school invitational decathlon and won the event, he won the 1953 and 1954 California state high school decathlon meets. In 1954 as a freshman at the University of California, Los Angeles, his progress in the event was impressive, he pledged Pi Lambda Phi fraternity, America's first nondiscriminatory fraternity, was class president at UCLA. In 1955, in Mexico City, he won the title at the Pan American Games. Johnson qualified for both the decathlon and the long jump events for the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne.
However, he was forfeited his place in the long jump. Despite this handicap, he managed to take second place in the decathlon behind compatriot Milt Campbell, it would turn out to be his last defeat in the event. Due to injury, Johnson missed the 1957 and 1959 seasons, but he broke the world record in 1958 and 1960; the crown to his career came at the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome. His most serious rival was Yang Chuan-Kwang of Taiwan. Yang studied at UCLA. "Ducky" had become friends. In the decathlon, the lead swung forth between them. After nine events, Johnson led Yang by a small margin, but Yang was known to be better in the final event, the 1500 m. According to The Telegraph, "Legend has it" that Drake gave coaching to both men, with him advising Johnson to stay close to Yang and be ready for "a hellish sprint" at the end, advising Yang to put as much distance between himself and Johnson before the final sprint as possible. Johnson ran his personal best at 4:49.7 and finished just 1.2 sec slower than Yang, winning the gold by 58 points with an Olympic record total of 8,392 points.
Both athletes were exhausted and drained and came to a stop a few paces past the finish line leaning against each other for support. With this victory, Johnson ended his athletic career. At UCLA, Johnson played basketball under legendary coach John Wooden and was a starter on the 1959–60 men's basketball team. Wooden considered Johnson a great defensive player, but sometimes regretted holding back his teams early in his coaching career, remarking, "imagine Rafer Johnson on the break."Johnson was selected by the Los Angeles Rams in the 28th round of the 1959 NFL Draft as a running back. While training for the 1960 Olympics, his friend Kirk Douglas told him about a part in Spartacus that Douglas thought might make him a star: the Ethiopian gladiator Draba, who refuses to kill Spartacus after defeating him in a duel. Johnson read for and got the role, but was forced to turn it down because the Amateur Athletic Union told him it would make him a professional and therefore ineligible for the Olympics.
The role went to another UCLA great, Woody Strode. In 1960, he began working as a sportscaster. In the 1963–1964 season, he appeared on an episode of ABCs drama about college life, starring Jason Evers and Henry Jones. Johnson made several film appearances including the James Bond film Licence to Kill as a DEA agent. After his acting career, he worked full-time as a sportscaster in the early 1970s, he weekend sports anchored on the local Los Angeles NBC news, but seemed uncomfortable in that position and moved on to other things. In 1968, he worked on the presidential election campaign of Robert F. Kennedy, with the help of Rosey Grier, he apprehended Sirhan Sirhan after Sirhan had assassinated Kennedy, he discusses the experience in The Best That I Can Be. Rafer Johnson is the spokesperson for Hershey's Track & Field Games and is involved in Special Olympics Southern California. After attending the first Special Olympics competition in Chicago in 1968, conducted by Special Olympics founder, Eunice Kennedy Shriver, he was inspired to become involved.
Johnson, along with a small group of volunteers
William Sebastian Cohen is an American politician and author from the U. S. state of Maine. A Republican, Cohen served as both a member of the United States House of Representatives and Senate, as Secretary of Defense under Democratic President Bill Clinton. Described as "a Republican moderate from Maine, something of a maverick centrist" by David Halberstam, Cohen had good working relations with President Clinton and National Security Adviser Sandy Berger and "almost ideal" collaboration with the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Cohen was born in Maine, his mother, was of Protestant Irish ancestry, his father, Reuben Cohen, was a Russian Jewish immigrant. After graduating from Bangor High School in 1958, Cohen attended Bowdoin College, graduating cum laude with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Latin in 1962. While a student at Bowdoin, Cohen was initiated as a brother of the Kappa chapter of the Psi Upsilon Fraternity. While in high school and college, Cohen was a basketball player and was named to the Maine all-state high school and college basketball team, at Bowdoin was inducted into the New England All-Star Hall of Fame.
Cohen attended law school at the Boston University School of Law, graduating with a Bachelor of Laws degree cum laude in 1965. He became an assistant county attorney for Penobscot County. In 1968 he became an instructor at Husson College in Bangor, was an instructor in business administration at the University of Maine. Cohen served as the vice president of the Maine Trial Lawyers Association and as a member of the Bangor School Board, he became a fellow at the John F. Kennedy Institute of Politics at Harvard University in 1972, in 1975 was named as one of the U. S. Jaycee's "ten outstanding young men". Cohen was elected to the Bangor City Council and served as Bangor Mayor in 1971-72. In the 1972 election, Cohen won a seat in the U. S. House of Representatives, representing Maine's 2nd congressional district, succeeding Democrat William Hathaway, elected to the US Senate. Cohen defeated Democratic State Senator Elmer H. Violette of Van Buren. During his first term in Congress, Cohen became involved in the Watergate investigation.
As a member of the House Judiciary Committee, he was one of the first Republicans to break with his party, voted for the impeachment of President Richard Nixon. During this time, Time magazine named him one of "America's 200 Future Leaders". After three terms in the House, Cohen was elected to the U. S. Senate in 1978, defeating incumbent William Hathaway in his first bid for reelection. Cohen was reelected in 1990, serving a total of 18 years in the Senate. In 1990, he defeated Democrat Neil Rolde. Cohen developed a reputation as a moderate Republican with liberal views on social issues, has been described as "a career-long maverick with a reputation for fashioning compromise out of discord."In 1994 Cohen investigated the federal government's process for acquiring information technology, his report, Computer Chaos: Billions Wasted Buying Federal Computer Systems, generated much discussion. He chose not to run for another Senate term in 1996. While in the Senate, Cohen served on both the Senate Armed Services Committee and the Governmental Affairs Committee and was a member of the Senate Intelligence Committee 1983–1991 and again 1995–1997, serving as Vice Chairman from 1987-1991.
He participated in the drafting of several notable laws related to defense matters, including the Competition in Contracting Act, the Montgomery G. I. Bill Act, the Goldwater-Nichols Act, the Intelligence Oversight Reform Act, the Federal Acquisition Reform Act, the Nunn-Cohen Act Amendment creating the United States Special Operations Command, the Information Technology Management Reform Act known as the Clinger-Cohen Act. Cohen was appointed by President Bill Clinton to the position of Secretary of Defense during Clinton's second term, from 1997 to 2001, an instance of a cabinet appointment that crossed party lines; as Secretary of Defense Cohen played a large role in directing the United States military actions in Iraq and Kosovo, including the dismissal of Wesley Clark from his post as the NATO Supreme Allied Commander. Both Operation Desert Fox in Iraq and Operation Allied Force in Kosovo were launched just months after al-Qaeda carried out the United States embassy bombings in Dar es Salaam and Nairobi, Kenya, in 1998.
On December 5, 1996, President Clinton announced his selection of Cohen as secretary of defense. Cohen, a Republican about to retire from the United States Senate, was the "right person," Clinton said, to build on the achievements of William Perry, "to secure the bipartisan support America's armed forces must have and deserve." In responding to his nomination, Cohen said that during his congressional career he had supported a nonpartisan national security policy and commended the president for appointing a Republican to his cabinet. During his confirmation hearings, Cohen said he thought on occasion he might differ with Clinton on specific national security issues, he implicitly criticized the Clinton administration for lacking a clear strategy for leaving Bosnia and stated that he thought U. S. troops should be out by mid-1998. He asserted that he
Edwardsville is a city in Madison County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 24,293, it is the county seat of Madison County. The city was named in honor of Ninian Edwards Governor of the Illinois Territory. Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, the Edwardsville Arts Center, the Edwardsville Journal, the Madison County Record, the Edwardsville Intelligencer are here. Edwardsville High School and Metro-East Lutheran High School serve students in the area. Edwardsville is a part of Southern Illinois, the Metro East region, Greater St. Louis, it is part of the Edwardsville School District, which includes the villages of Glen Carbon and Moro, as well as the townships areas around them. A 2010 issue of Family Circle magazine named Edwardsville third of their "Top 10 Best Towns for Families." MCT Trails: Madison County Transit has developed more than 125 miles of scenic bikeways that weave throughout the communities of Edwardsville, nearby Glen Carbon and beyond, connects its MCTTrail system with its public bus system.
The trails are asphalt. Maps of the trails, which connect to neighborhoods, business districts, SIUE, more, are available on kiosks throughout the trail system or online at www.mcttrails.org. Watershed Nature Center: 46-acre wildlife preserve; the interpretive center displays native Illinois plants and animals and has education about the environment. Programming for children and adults is available. SIUE Campus: Located on 2,660 acres, the SIUE campus is one of the largest college campuses in the United States; the property includes rolling hills, acres of forests, extensive fields. Edwardsville Parks: Glik Park, City Park, Edwardsville Township Park, Leclaire Park, Lusk Park. Arts & Culture: Edwardsville Arts Center, Wildey Theater, Edwardsville Children's Museum, Madison County Historical Museum, Mannie Jackson Center for the Humanities. Edwardsville was incorporated in 1818; the first European-American settler was Thomas Kirkpatrick, who came in 1805, laid out a community, served as the Justice of the Peace.
He named the community after his friend Ninian Edwards territorial governor of Illinois. The Edwards Trace, a key trail in the settlement of Central Illinois, used Edwardsville as a northward launching point. In 1868 was founded The Bank of Edwardsville, still functioning regional bank. In 1890, St. Louis industrialist N. O. Nelson chose a tract of land just south of Edwardsville to build plumbing factories, he built a model workers' cooperative village called Leclaire. He offered workers fair wages with a share of the profits, he named the village in honor of the French economist Edme-Jean Leclaire. The village provided educational and recreational opportunities and made it financially possible for anyone to own his own home. Unlike company towns such as Pullman near Chicago, the welfare and quality of life for the workers and their families was a major concern. In 1934, the Village of Leclaire was incorporated into the City of Edwardsville; the area has a lake and park, baseball field, the Edwardsville Children's Museum in the former Leclaire schoolhouse.
Several Nelson factory buildings were renovated and adapted for use as the historic N. O. Nelson Campus of Lewis and Clark Community College; the recognized Historic District has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Each year on the third Sunday in October, the Friends of Leclaire host the annual Leclaire Parkfest with food, live heritage music, historic displays & tours, children's activities, a book sale, more. In 1983, Edwardsville’s historic Saint Louis Street was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Dating back to 1809, this Historic District has a mile-long visual landscape. More than 50 historic homes date from the middle 19th century to early 20th century; the protection and preservation of Saint Louis Street is overseen by the Historic Saint Louis Street Association. Five Illinois governors came from Edwardsville: namesake Ninian Edwards, who became a territorial governor in 1809 and served as governor from 1826–1830. Former president Abraham Lincoln was in Edwardsville twice, as an attorney in the 1814 courthouse and a speaker outside the 1857 courthouse on Sept. 11, 1858.
The present county courthouse, a square, four-story neoclassical structure of white marble that rises to six stories at the back section, was constructed from 1913-15. According to the 2010 census, Edwardsville has an area of 20.165 square miles, of which 19.56 square miles is land and 0.605 square miles is water. As of the census of 2005, 24,047 people, 7,975 households, 5,199 families resided in the city; the population density was 1,549.2 people per square mile. There were 8,331 housing units at an average density of 600.6 per square mile. The city's racial makeup was 87.70% White, 8.66% African American, 1.69% Asian, 0.28% Native American, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.29% from other races, 1.35% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.00% of the population. There were 10,000 households, out of which 32.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.4% were married couples living together, 9.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.8% were non-families.
25.9% of all households were made up of individuals, 8.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44, the average family siz
William P. Lawrence
William Porter "Bill" Lawrence, was a decorated United States Navy vice admiral and Naval Aviator who served as Superintendent of the U. S. Naval Academy from 1978 to 1981. Lawrence was a noted pilot, the first Naval Aviator to fly twice the speed of sound in a naval aircraft, one of the final candidates for the Mercury space program. During the Vietnam War, Lawrence was shot down while on a combat mission and spent six years as a prisoner of war, from 1967 to 1973. During this time, he became. Lawrence's parents and grandparents were from Tennessee, his father Robert Landy "Fatty" Lawrence attended Vanderbilt University, where he was a noted student-athlete who graduated in 1924. He was born in Nashville, attended local schools. Lawrence distinguished himself as a student athlete at Nashville's West High School, in 1947 turned down a scholarship for Yale University to attend the United States Naval Academy. Lawrence stood out as a varsity athlete in three sports at the Naval Academy: football and baseball.
During his time at the Academy, he held several high-ranking midshipman offices, including Commander of the Brigade of Midshipmen, President of the Class of 1951, while graduating 8th academically out of a class of 725. His other major accomplishments included helping to establish the honor concept governing midshipman's conduct, he graduated from the Naval Academy in 1951. Ensign Lawrence continued on at the Naval Academy as Aide to the Commandant of Midshipmen until September 1951, when he reported to flight training. Lawrence became a test pilot. After completing advanced flight training, All Weather Flight School, Jet Training, then-Lieutenant Lawrence served as an F2H Banshee pilot with VF-193 at NAS Moffett Field from March 1953 to October 1955. During this time, he deployed to Korea aboard the aircraft carrier USS Oriskany from March to April 1953, he attended the U. S. Naval Test Pilot School at the Naval Air Test Center, Naval Air Station Patuxent River, where he received the Outstanding Student Award with the Test Pilot School Class 16.
When the National Aeronautics and Space Administration established the manned spaceflight program, Lawrence became part of Project Mercury and made it to the final round of candidates. He was released from the program only because of a small heart murmur discovered during flight training. In 1967, then-Commander Lawrence was serving as commanding officer of Fighter Squadron 143, aboard the aircraft carrier USS Constellation. On 28 June 1967, Lawrence and his radar intercept officer, junior grade James W. Bailey, were flying an F-4B Phantom II aircraft, Bureau Number 152242, while leading an anti-aircraft suppression section during a raid northwest of Nam Dinh, North Vietnam, their aircraft was struck by an 85 mm round while rolling in on target. Despite failing hydraulics and Bailey released their bombs, but part of the aircraft's tail section separated while attempting to pull out of a dive. Both officers were forced to eject, were captured, were held as prisoners of war at the Hỏa Lò Prison – which the prisoners nicknamed the "Hanoi Hilton" – until 1973, during which time they suffered repeated torture and beatings.
Along with fellow prisoner, Naval Aviator and Commander James Stockdale, Lawrence became noted for his resistance to his captors. Additionally, he memorized every POW by rank while in captivity, he developed a code by tapping on the prison walls to communicate with other prisoners. Bailey was released on 18 February 1973 and Lawrence on 4 March 1973. Another fellow inmate was future presidential candidate and Senator John McCain, a Navy commander and Naval Aviator at the time. In Lawrence's obituary in the Los Angeles Times, Senator McCain stated, "He's the greatest man I've known in my life," and that it was the former's "...constant, inspirational, yet rational leadership that guided many of us through some difficult times." He was among the 591 Americans released as part of "Operation Homecoming." Lawrence tells of his POW's experience in Al Santoli's "Everything We Had". After promotion to rear admiral in July 1974, Lawrence served as Commander, Light Attack Wing, U. S. Pacific Fleet at Naval Air Station Lemoore, California.
Subsequently, he served as the Director, Aviation Programs Division and Assistant Deputy Chief of Naval Operations in the Pentagon. He was promoted to vice admiral on August 1, 1980. Lawrence assumed command of the U. S. Third Fleet in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, in September 1981. In 1983, he won the Hawaii Armed Forces singles tennis championship in the seniors division. Admiral Lawrence served as Superintendent of the U. S. Naval Academy from August 1978 to August 1981; the Naval Academy was opened to women starting with the Class of 1980. His daughter Wendy Lawrence was part of the Class of 1981, the second USNA class to include female graduates, he retired in 1986. While a prisoner of war, Lawrence mentally composed poetry to help keep up his spirits. During a 60-day period of solitary confinement, he composed, by memory, the poem "Oh Tennessee, My Tennessee," in honor of his native state. In 1973, the Tennessee State Legislature adopted the poem as Tennessee's official state poem. Oh Tennessee, My TennesseeWhat Love and Pride I Feel for Thee.
You Proud the Volunteer, Your Proud Traditions I Hold Dear. I Revere Your HeroesWho Bravely Fought our Country's Foes. Renowned Statesmen, so Wise and Strong,Who Served our Country Well and Long. I Thrill at Thought of Mountains Grand.
William Henry Cosby Jr. is an American stand-up comedian, actor and author who held an active career for over six decades before being convicted of sex offenses in 2018. Cosby began his career as a stand-up comic at the hungry i in San Francisco during the 1960s, he landed a starring role in the television show I Spy, followed by his own sitcom The Bill Cosby Show, which ran for two seasons from 1969 to 1971. In 1972, using the Fat Albert character developed during his stand-up routines, Cosby created and hosted the animated comedy television series Fat Albert and the Cosby Kids which ran until 1985, centering on a group of young friends growing up in an urban area. Throughout the 1970s, Cosby starred in about a half-dozen films, returned to film in his career. In 1976, he earned his Doctor of Education from the University of Amherst, his dissertation discussed the use of Fat Albert and the Cosby Kids as a teaching tool in elementary schools. Beginning in the 1980s, Cosby produced and starred in the television sitcom The Cosby Show, which aired from 1984 to 1992 and was rated as the number one show in America for 1985 through 1989.
The sitcom highlighted the experiences and growth of an affluent African-American family. Cosby produced the spin-off sitcom A Different World, which aired from 1987 to 1993, he starred in The Cosby Mysteries from 1994 to 1995 and in the sitcom Cosby from 1996 to 2000, hosted Kids Say the Darndest Things from 1998 to 2000. Cosby's reputation was damaged in the mid-2010s by numerous sexual assault accusations, the earliest of which date back decades. More than 60 women have accused him of either attempted assault, drug-facilitated sexual assault, sexual battery, child sexual abuse, sexual misconduct, allegations he denies, for which the statute of limitations had by expired in nearly all cases. After a year-long trial, Cosby was found guilty of three counts of aggravated indecent assault and sentenced to three to ten years in prison in September 2018. Cosby was born on July 1937, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, he is one of four sons of Anna Pearl, a maid, William Henry Cosby Sr. who served as a mess steward in the U.
S. Navy. Cosby was the class president as well as the captain of both the baseball and track and field teams at Mary Channing Wister Public School in Philadelphia. Teachers noted that he had a propensity for joking around instead of studying, he described himself as the class clown. At FitzSimons Junior High School, Cosby continued to compete in sports. Cosby went to Philadelphia's Central High School, a magnet school and academically rigorous college prep school, where he ran track and played baseball and basketball, he failed the tenth grade. In 1956, Cosby enlisted in the Navy and served as a hospital corpsman at the Marine Corps Base Quantico in Virginia, he worked in physical therapy with Navy and Marine Corps personnel who were injured during the Korean War. Cosby earned his high school equivalency diploma through correspondence courses and was awarded a track and field scholarship to Temple University in 1961. At Temple, he studied physical education while he ran track and played fullback on the college's football team.
He began bartending at a Philadelphia club, where he would earn bigger tips by making the customers laugh. He took his talent to the stage. Cosby left Temple to pursue a career in comedy, he lined up stand-up jobs at clubs in Philadelphia and in New York City, where he appeared at The Gaslight Cafe beginning in 1961. He booked dates in cities such as Chicago, Las Vegas, San Francisco, Washington, D. C. In the summer of 1963, he received national exposure on NBC's The Tonight Show; this led to a recording contract with Warner Bros. Records, who, in 1964, released his debut LP Bill Cosby Is a Very Funny Fellow... Right!, the first of a series of comedy albums. His album To Russell, My Brother, Whom I Slept With was number one on Spin magazine's list of "The 40 Greatest Comedy Albums of All Time", calling it "stand-up comedy's masterpiece". While many comics of the time were using the growing freedom of that decade to explore material, controversial and sometimes risqué, Cosby was making his reputation with humorous recollections of his childhood.
Many Americans wondered about the absence of race as a topic in Cosby's stories. As Cosby's success grew he had to defend his choice of material regularly. Okay. He's white. I'm Negro, and we both see things the same way. That must mean. Right? So I figure this way I'm doing as much for good race relations as the next guy."In 1983, Cosby released the concert film Bill Cosby: Himself. Younger, well-established comics like Jerry Seinfeld have credited Cosby as an innovator both as a practitioner of the genre of stand-up comedy, as well as a person who paved the way for comics to break into sitcom television. Seinfeld said of Cosby: "He opened a door for all of us, for all of the networks to consider that this was a way to create a character, was to take someone who can hold an audience just by being up there and telling their story, he created that. He created the whole idea of taking a quote-unquote'comic' and developing a TV show just from a persona that you see on stage." Comedian Larry Wilmore saw a connection between Bill Cosby: Himself and the success of The Cosby Show, saying: "It's clear that the concert is the template for The Cosby Show."Co