Royal Automobile Club
The Royal Automobile Club is a British private club and is not to be confused with RAC, an automotive services company, which it owned. It has two club houses: one in London at 89–91 Pall Mall, the other in the countryside at Woodcote Park, near Epsom in Surrey, both with accommodation and a range of dining and sporting facilities; the Royal Automobile Club welcomes both women as members. It was founded on 10 August 1897 as the Automobile Club of Great Britain; the headquarters was in a block of flats at 4 Whitehall Court, moving to 119 Piccadilly in 1902. During 1902 the organisation, together with the formed Association of Motor Manufactures and Traders campaigned vigorously for the relaxation of speed limits claiming that the 14 mph speed limit imposed by the Locomotives on Highways Act 1896 was'absurd' and was observed; the organisations, with support from the Prime Minister Arthur Balfour, had considerable influence over the forthcoming Motor Car Act 1903 which proposed to remove all speed limits for cars while introducing the offence of driving recklessly.
In the face of considerable opposition a speed limit of 20 mph was retained in addition to the creation of the offence of driving recklessly, dangerously or negligently. In 1905, the Club organised the first Tourist Trophy motorcycle race, the oldest run motor race; the Club became the governing body for motor sport in Britain. King Edward VII's interest in motoring led to the command in 1907 "that the Automobile Club of Great Britain and Ireland should henceforth be known as The Royal Automobile Club". In 1911 they moved to part of the site of the old War Office, it cost over a quarter of a million pounds and is described in the Survey of London as "a polished essay in the late French Renaissance manner". At the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914, the Club arranged for twenty-five of their members, with their personal cars, to accompany the British Expeditionary Force to France and Belgium to act as chauffeurs and messengers for the British General Staff. Describing themselves as the "RAC Corps of Volunteer Motor Drivers", the drivers included the Duke of Westminster, Lord Dalmeny and "Toby" Rawlinson.
In September 1914, a further group of RAC members put themselves and their cars at the disposal of the British Red Cross, to help transport war casualties. The RAC was responsible for organising the first British Grand Prix motor race at Brooklands, Surrey in 1926 and runs its sister organisation, the MSA. In 1978 during a re-organisation the'Associate Section' was established as a separate company RAC Motoring Services Ltd, owned by the organisation. In 1991 the RAC Foundation was split off as the research arm of'RAC Motoring Services'; when RAC Motoring Services was sold in 1999 the Foundation was granted a legacy and was subsequently established as a charity to research and promote issues of safety, mobility and the environment related to motoring. In September 1999 members sold RAC Motoring Services to Lex Service plc, who renamed themselves RAC plc in 2002. RAC Plc was acquired by Aviva plc in March 2005 for around £1.1 billion. The RAC introduced uniformed mobile patrols around the roads of Britain during 1901 with the patrolmen wearing a uniform not unlike the military police of the day, including tailored jodhpur trousers.
The patrolmen had an army-like rank structure with corporals and officers. Mounted on Matchless motorbikes with sidecars containing a tool kit, engine hoses, metal cans of spare petrol they were located on standby at laybys and major road junctions; until around 1930 control could only contact the mobile patrolmen by telephone, so they waited by public telephone boxes for the callout. From 1957 onwards they were equipped with radio sets for two way contact with their local headquarters. In 1912, following the lead of the competitor organisation The Automobile Association, the RAC installed roadside telephones on laybys and junctions of the main trunk roads in the UK for members to summon help. Although they were never as numerous as AA boxes there was a measure of cooperation between the two motoring clubs—keys fitted both types of box and members' messages were passed on; the telephones were installed in locked boxes painted in royal blue with the RAC logo badge mounted on the top of the box.
Members were provided with a key to the boxes. Members' cars were identified by a metal club badge affixed to the radiator grille and the patrolmen would come to attention and salute as a member drove past, or, if the patrolman was riding a motorcycle salute; this practise was the basis of an unofficial service given by the club to its members. The RAC issued an annual'Guide and Handbook' that contained road maps of the UK with the location of all RAC telephones marked on it, together with lists of local RAC approved garages and hotels. To give members an indication of the quality of each establishment the RAC was one of the first organisations to provide an recognisable grading system, their inspectors assessed each hotel and garage and awarded between one and five stars in the case of hotels and one to three spanners to garages. The RAC disbanded its hotel inspection team in 2004. Motorcycle patrols gave way to small vans during the 1960s and by 1970 the last motorcycle patrols had been phased out.
RAC telephone boxes were withdrawn from service when they were eclips
1935 Grand Prix season
The 1935 Grand Prix season was the third AIACR European Championship season. There were seven races that counted for the European Championship; the championship was won by Rudolf Caracciola. Note that the Nazi German flag, bearing the swastika, was adopted on 15 September 1935 – one week before the final championship race of the season; the Golden Era of Grand Prix Racing: 1935
The Motor was a British weekly car magazine founded on 28 January 1903 and published by Temple Press. It was launched as Motorcycling and Motoring in 1902 before the title was shortened. From the March 14, 1964 issue the magazine name was Motor. In 1988 the journal was absorbed by its long-standing rival Autocar, which became, from the September 7 issue, Autocar & Motor. Six years with the September 21, 1994 issue, the name reverted to Autocar
Bugatti Type 51
The Bugatti Type 51 series succeeded the famous Type 35 as Bugatti's premier racing car for the 1930s. Unlike the dominant Type 35s of the prior decade, the Type 51 were unable to compete with the government-supported German and Italian offerings; the original Type 51 emerged in 1931. Its engine was a 160 hp twin overhead cam evolution of the supercharged 2.3 L single overhead cam straight-8 found in the Type 35B. A victory in the 1931 French Grand Prix was a rare case of success for the line. About 40 examples of the Type 51 and 51A were produced; the Type 51 is visually similar to the Type 35. The obvious external differences of a Type 51 are: the supercharger blow-off outlet is lower the bonnet in the louvered section; however many Type 35 cars have been fitted with wheels, so, not a reliable signal. Grand Prix car of 1931, fitted with a twin overhead-cam 4.9 liter engine delivering 300 hp. Four or five were built. Chassis number 54201 was the first type 54 built and was the works car for Achille Varzi, factory number plate 4311-NV1 The final Bugatti race car of the 1930s was the Type 59 of 1934.
It used an enlarged 3.3 L version of the straight-eight Type 57's engine sitting in a modified Type 54 chassis. The engine was lowered for a better center of gravity, the frame was lightened with a number of holes drilled in the chassis; the signature piano wire wheels used splines between the brake drum and rim, relied on the radial spokes to handle cornering loads. 250 hp was on tap, eight were made. 1933 Bugatti Type 59 Grand Prix racer from the Ralph Lauren collection Bugatti Type 53 – Four wheel drive Type 51 racer Bugatti Type 57 – luxury 1930s car Bugatti Trust Type 53 article
Circuit de Monaco
Circuit de Monaco is a street circuit laid out on the city streets of Monte Carlo and La Condamine around the harbour of the principality of Monaco. It is referred to as "Monte Carlo" because it is inside the Monte Carlo neighbourhood of Monaco; the circuit is annually used on two weekends in May for Formula One Monaco Grand Prix and Formula E Monaco ePrix or Historic Grand Prix of Monaco. Formula One's respective feeder series over the years – Formula Two, Formula 3000 and today the GP2 Series – visit the circuit concurrently with Formula One; the idea for a Grand Prix race around the streets of Monaco came from Antony Noghès, the president of the Monegasque motor club, Automobile Club de Monaco, close friend of the ruling Grimaldi family. The inaugural race was won by William Grover-Williams in a Bugatti. To date, only three local drivers have won a race at the Circuit. Louis Chiron did it at the non-championship 1931 Monaco Grand Prix; the third driver to do so was Stéphane Richelmi at the sprint race of the 2014 Monaco GP2 Series round.
The building of the circuit takes six weeks, the dismantling after the race another three weeks. The race circuit is narrow; these features make it the most demanding track in Formula One racing. Although the course has changed many times during its history, it is still considered the ultimate test of driving skills in Formula One, it contains both the slowest corner in Formula one of the quickest. Due to the tight and twisty nature of the circuit, it favours the skill of the drivers over the power of the cars. However, there is little overtaking as the course is so narrow and dangerous. Nelson Piquet likened racing round the course to "riding a bicycle around your living room". Prior to 1987, the number of cars starting the race was limited to 20, compared to 26 at other circuits; the famous tunnel section is said to be difficult for drivers to cope with due to the quick switch from light to dark back to light again, at one of the fastest points of the course. As a result, race outcomes tend to be decided by grid positions as well as pit strategies, is hard on gearboxes and brakes.
Several attempts have been made to improve cramped conditions in the pit garages. In 2002, a substantial amount of land was reclaimed from the harbour to change the shape of one section of the circuit; the circuit is recognised to be less safe than other circuits used for Formula One. Driver and former winner Michael Schumacher stated before the 2012 Grand Prix that the additional risk is "justifiable once a year". If it were not an existing Grand Prix, it would not be permitted to be added to the Formula One schedule, for safety reasons. In January 2009, the circuit was voted top of the "Seven Sporting Wonders of the World" in a poll of 3,500 British sports fans; the lap starts with a short sprint up Boulevard Albert Ier, to the tight Sainte-Dévote corner, named after a small church just beyond the barriers. This is a nearly 90-degree right-hand bend taken in first or second gear; this corner has seen many first lap accidents, although these are less common since the removal of the mini roundabout on the apex of the corner before the 2003 event, making the entrance to the corner wider.
The cars head uphill along Avenue d'Ostende, before changing down for the long left-hander at Massenet. The maximum gradient in this part of the circuit is around 12%. Out of Massenet, the cars drive past the famous casino before reaching the aptly named Casino Square; this part of the track is 44 metres higher than the lowest part. The cars snake down Avenue des Beaux Arts, the next short straight, avoiding an enormous bump on the left of the track, a reminder of the unique nature of the circuit; this leads to the tight Mirabeau corner, followed by a short downhill burst to the tighter Fairmont Hairpin. It is a corner, used for many overtaking manoeuvres in the past; however it would be physically impossible for two modern F1 cars to go round side by side, as the drivers must use full steering lock to get around. It is so tight that many Formula 1 teams must redesign their steering and suspension to negotiate this corner. After the hairpin, the cars head downhill again to a double right-hander called Portier, named after region of Monaco, before heading into the famous tunnel, a unique feature of a Formula One circuit.
As well as the change of light making visibility poor, a car can lose 20–30% of its downforce due to the unique aerodynamic properties of the tunnel. The tunnel presents a unique problem when it rains; as it is indoors, the tunnel remains dry while the rest of the track is wet, with only the cars bringing in water from their tyres. Famously before the wet 1984 race, Formula One boss Bernie Ecclestone had local fire crews wet down the road in the tunnel to give it the same surface grip as the rest of the track. This
1934 Grand Prix season
The 1934 Grand Prix season was the final year of a two-year hiatus for the European Championship. Achille Varzi proved winning six Grands Prix. Alfa Romeo's cars proved difficult to beat, winning 18 of the season's 35 Grands Prix
Captain George Edward Thomas Eyston MC OBE was a British racing driver in the 1920s and 1930s, he broke the land speed record three times between 1937 and 1939. He was an engineer and inventor. George Eyston was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, his study of engineering at Cambridge was interrupted by World War I when he was commissioned in the Dorset Regiment and served in the Royal Field Artillery. After the war he was captain of the First Trinity Boat Club. Eyston's racing career began before World War One, when he was still a schoolboy, raced motorcycles under an assumed name. After the war he reverted to his own name, moved on to car racing and entered European road races in Bugattis, with success in races such as the 1921 and 1926 French Grand Prix Later he became well known for racing supercharged MGs such as the Magic Midget and the K3 Magnette, his entries with the K3 included the 1933 Isle of Man and 1934 Northern Ireland Tourist Trophy events, the 1934 Mille Miglia He fitted a diesel engine from an AEC bus into a car built on a Chrysler chassis and used it to set high-speed endurance records at Brooklands, attaining 100.75 mph in 1933 and 106 mph in 1936.
In 1935, he was one of the first British racers to travel to the Bonneville salt flats of Utah, with his 24- and 48-hour record-setting car Speed of the Wind. He is best known today for land speed records set in his car Thunderbolt. Between 1937 and 1939 he set three new land speed records, wresting them from Malcolm Campbell's Blue Bird, but was twice bettered by John Cobb; the rivalry was friendly, in years Eyston, as competitions manager for Castrol, assisted with Cobb's ill-fated attempt on the water speed record in Crusader. He was involved in the design of his Thunderbolt car at the Bean Cars factory in Tipton, Staffordshire; as an engineer and inventor, he held a number of patents related to motor engineering and supercharging. His work on developing high-power gearboxes was important for Thunderbolt, along with his invention of the Powerplus supercharger used on MGs. During World War II Eyston served on various bodies connected with industry and was a Regional Controller for the Ministry of Production.
Capt. Eyston sent his daughter to live in the United States. Eyston was awarded the Military Cross on 18 July 1917 - 2nd Lt. George Edward Thomas Eyston, RFA. Spec. Res. For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty, he rendered most valuable service. On several occasions he went forward under heavy machine gun fire, he carried out his duties with great courage and determination, was able to obtain most valuable information. He was awarded the Segrave Trophy in 1935, he was made a chevalier of the Légion d'honneur in 1938. He was made an OBE in 1948. Notes^1 – Eyston was co-driver with Birkin at the French GP and Birkin drove with Lewis at the Belgian GP, therefore rules excluded Eyston from the Championship. G. E. T. Eyston. Flat Out. John Miles. Foreword by Sir Malcolm Campbell G. E. T. Eyston. Motor Racing and Record Breaking. George Eyston. F. Bradley. Speed on Salt. Batsford. George Eyston. Fastest on Earth. Charles Jennings; the Fast Set. Abacus. ISBN 0-349-11596-6. EYSTON, Capt. George Edward Thomas, Who Was Who, A & C Black, 1920–2008.