Vidyasagar known as "Gaanaa" Vidyasagar is an Indian composer and singer best known for his super hit/blockbuster songs who works predominantly in the Malayalam, Telugu and Hindi film industries. After working with several composers as assistant and conductor, Vidyasagar made his debut as a film composer in the 1989 Tamil film Poomanam. Working for over 225 feature films, he is the recipient of the prestigious National Award and five Filmfare Awards. Vidyasagar was born to a Telugu musical family, as the son of Ramachander, a self-led musician himself, Sooryakantham, he was named after the 19th century social reformer Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar. He was brought up in Bobbili, got exposed to music at a early age of 3 by his father, he underwent carnatic vocals training first and started taking classical guitar classes in Chennai from Master Dhanraj along with A. R. Rahman and later piano.. Vidyasagar became an independent film composer with the song En Anbe in the 1989 Tamil movie Poomanam. Vidyasagar started his music career with a Tamil film, he gained recognition in the Tamil music industry at a stage.
He shifted base to Telugu cinema in 1989. In 1994–95, Vidyasagar was approached by Tamil actor-director Arjun, with whom he worked for many acclaimed musical films like Jai Hind and Subash, their combination resulted in acclaimed Tamil language melodic songs like Padu Padu. From 1996 to 2001 Vidyasagar concentrated on Malayalam films. During this period, Vidyasagar composed for a few Tamil movies like Nilaave Vaa and Uyirodu Uyiraga, he won three Kerala State Film Awards. About his stint in the Malayalam Cinema, Vidyasagar was quoted saying "I believe that it was a God sent opportunity for me to work in one of the finest film industries". From the year 2002, he started composing churning out blockbusters in Tamil and Malayalam with Dhil, Dhool, Ghilli etc. in Tamil and Meesha Madhavan, Kilichundan Mampazham, Pattalam, C. I. D. Moosa etc. in Malayalam. The song'appadi podu' in Ghilli was accepted by all the listeners. Akshay Kumar used it in the Hindi movie Boss; every song of Meesha Madhavan was a colossal hit.
The film too emerged as an all-time blockbuster. During this period, Vidyasagar composed for his first English language feature, Beyond The Soul, a low-budget independent film directed by Rajiv Anchal. Between 2003 and 2005, he composed songs for several notable films like Anbe Sivam, Madhurey, Ji and Chandrolsavam in 2004–05; the year 2005 saw Vidyasagar receiving his first National Film Awards for his music in the Telugu film Swarabhishekam directed by K. Vishwanath; the music in the film was predominantly Carnatic. The same year, he composed music for the film Chandramukhi, the only Rajinikanth starrer he has composed for till date; the songs become chartbuster, so was the background score. Vidyasagar has notably used rare Carnatic ragas otherwise unheard of in film music in his compositions. In 2007, Vidyasagar was signed by Prakash Raj for his production venture Mozhi starring Prithviraj Sukumaran and Jyothika; the film directed by Radha Mohan had critically acclaimed melodies like Kaatrin Mozhiye and Sevvanam.
The songs of Mozhi had the distinction of being devoid of duets. The only female voice was of Sujatha Mohan in Katrin Mozhi. In 2008 Vidyasagar's notable releases were Vijay's Kuruvi and the Priyadarshan directed Mere Baap Pehle Aap in Hindi. After his brief dull phase in Malayalam, he bounced back into the scene with the Lal Jose directorial Neelathamara, scripted by the legendary M. T. Vasudevan Nair, with the song Anuraga Vilochananaayi becoming a cult favourite, he followed it up with hits in Makeup Man. Meanwhile, in Tamil, he delivered hits with Vijay's Kaavalan. In 2012, Vidyasagar delivered two superhits in Malayalam with Diamond Ordinary. In 2013, Priyadarshan signed him in for his ambitious psychological thriller, Geethaanjali in Malayalam with Mohanlal in the lead role. Lal Jose's Pullipulikalum Aattinkuttiyum and Jannal Oram, the Tamil remake of Ordinary were his other releases of the year; the end of veteran filmmaker Sathyan Anthikkad's 10-film long collaboration with composer Ilaiyaraaja saw him join hands with Vidyasagar for the film Oru Indian Pranayakatha.
The film became a success and Sathyan Anthikad continued his collaboration with Vidyasagar in for his next, Ennum Eppozhum which starred Mohanlal and Manju Warrier in the lead, which opened to packed theaters in 2015. The duos association is continuing, Vidyasagar has created chart toppers for Anthikkad's latest movie Jomonte Suvisheshangal, released in 2017. List of films directed by Lal Jose featuring Vidyasagar Official website Vidyasagar at AllMusic Vidyasagar Facebook Vidyasagar on IMDb
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India. Situated in the south-east of the country, it is the seventh-largest state in India, covering an area of 162,970 km2; as per the 2011 census, it is the tenth most populous state, with 49,386,799 inhabitants. The largest city in Andhra Pradesh is Visakhapatnam. Telugu, one of the classical languages of India, is the major and official language of Andhra Pradesh. On 2 June 2014, the north-western portion of Andhra Pradesh was separated to form the new state Telangana and the longtime capital of Andhra Pradesh, was transferred to Telangana as part of the division. However, in accordance with the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014, Hyderabad was to remain as the acting capital of both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states for a period of time not exceeding ten years; the new riverfront de facto capital, Amaravati, is under the jurisdiction of the Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority. Andhra Pradesh has a coastline of 974 km – the second longest coastline among the states of India, after Gujarat – with jurisdiction over 15,000 km2 of territorial waters.
The state is bordered by Telangana in the north-west and Odisha in the north-east, Karnataka in the west, Tamil Nadu in the south, to the east lies the Bay of Bengal. The small enclave of Yanam, a district of Puducherry, lies to the south of Kakinada in the Godavari delta on the eastern side of the state; the state is made up of the two major regions of Rayalaseema, in the inland southwestern part of the state, Coastal Andhra to the east and northeast, bordering the Bay of Bengal. The state comprises thirteen districts in total, nine of which are located in Coastal Andhra and four in Rayalaseema; the largest city and commercial hub of the state are Visakhapatnam, located on the Bay of Bengal, with a GDP of US$43.5 billion. The economy of Andhra Pradesh is the seventh-largest state economy in India with ₹8.70 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹142,000. Andhra Pradesh hosted 121.8 million visitors in 2015, a 30% growth in tourist arrivals over the previous year, making it the third most-visited state in India.
The Tirumala Venkateswara Temple in Tirupati is one of the world's most visited religious sites, with 18.25 million visitors per year. Other pilgrimage centres in the state include the Mallikarjuna Jyotirlinga at Srisailam, the Srikalahasteeswara Temple at Srikalahasti, the Ameen Peer Dargah in Kadapa, the Mahachaitya at Amaravathi, the Kanaka Durga Temple in Vijayawada, Prasanthi Nilayam in Puttaparthi; the state's natural attractions include the beaches of Visakhapatnam, hill stations such as the Araku Valley and Horsley Hills, the island of Konaseema in the Godavari River delta. A tribe named. According to Aitareya Brahmana of the Rig Veda, the Andhra left north India and settled in south India; the Satavahanas have been mentioned by the names Andhra, Andhrara-jateeya and Andhrabhrtya in the Puranic literature. They did not refer themselves as Andhra in any of their inscriptions. Archaeological evidence from places such as Amaravati and Vaddamanu suggests that the Andhra region was part of the Mauryan Empire.
Amaravati might have been a regional centre for the Mauryan rule. After the death of Emperor Ashoka, Mauryan rule weakened around 200 BCE and was replaced by several smaller kingdoms in the Andhra region; the Satavahana dynasty dominated the Deccan region from the 1st century BC to the 3rd century. The Satavahanas made Dharanikota and Amaravathi their capital, which according to the Buddhists is the place where Nagarjuna, the philosopher of Mahayana lived in the 2nd and 3rd centuries; the Andhra Ikshvakus, with their capital at Vijayapuri, succeeded the Satavahanas in the Krishna River valley in the latter half of the 2nd century. Pallavas, who were executive officers under the Satavahana kings, were not a recognised political power before the 2nd century AD and were swept away by the Western Chalukyan invasion, led by Pulakesin II in the first quarter of the 7th century CE. After the downfall of the Ikshvakus, the Vishnukundinas were the first great dynasty in the 5th and 6th centuries, held sway over the entire Andhra country, including Kalinga and parts of Telangana.
They played an important role in the history of Deccan during the 5th and 6th century CE, with Eluru and Puranisangam. The Salankayanas were an ancient dynasty that ruled the Andhra region between Godavari and Krishna with their capital at Vengi from 300 to 440 CE; the Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi, whose dynasty lasted for around five hundred years from the 7th century until 1130 C. E. merged with the Chola empire. They continued to rule under the protection of the Chola empire until 1189 C. E. when the kingdom succumbed to the Hoysalas and the Yadavas. The roots of the Telugu language have been seen on inscriptions found near the Guntur district and from others dating to the rule of Renati Cholas in the fifth century CE. Kakatiyas constructed several forts, they were succeeded by the Musunuri Nayaks. The Reddy dynasty was established by Prolaya Vema Reddi in the early 14th century, who ruled from present day Kondaveedu. Prolaya Vema Reddi was part of the confederation of states that started a movement against the invading Turkic Muslim armies of the Delhi
Ullathai Allitha is 1996 Tamil Comedy film directed by Sundar C. The film starred Karthik and Goundamani in the lead roles; the film's score and soundtrack are composed by Sirpi. The film received positive reviews from the critics and audience; the film was a'blockbuster hit' at the box office. The movie is inspired by the Tamil-language comedy-drama Sabaash Meena, it was remade in Telugu in Kannada as Galate Aliyandru. Raja is the only son of retired military officer Col. Chandrasekhar who though being rich, raises his son strictly. Chandrasekhar decides to get Raja married to his long time friend Viswanathan's daughter Indhu. Vishwanathan is a tea-estate owner. Raja decides to run away from house to escape from wedding. Shankar is the nephew of Chandrasekhar and he plans to grab Chandrasekhar's properties by triggering Raja to leave the house. Raja runs away and reaches Ooty where he meets Vasu, a fraud but becomes friend with Raja. One day, Raja sees Indhu in Ooty and gets attracted towards her not knowing that she was the girl fixed for him by his father.
Raja finds her home. Raja secures a driver job in Viswanathan's home to woo Indhu. Raja gives his family ring to Vasu to prevent him from disclosing the truth to Viswanathan, but Viswanathan misunderstands. Viswanathan introduces as the fiancé of Indhu. One day, a gang tries to attack Vasu but he is saved by Raja which makes him understand that there is someone looking out to kill him. So Raja decides to remain in the identity of driver to unearth the reason behind the goons trying to attack him. Viswanathan informs Chandrasekhar that his son is found but asks him not to come to see him as he does not like his father. Meanwhile, at Ooty, Raja tries to impress Indhu while Vasu is attracted towards Meena, the personal secretary of Viswanathan. Love blossoms between Indhu and Raja. Chandrseakhar comes to Ooty to Viswanathan's home to meet Raja. Now problem erupts. Both Raja and Vasu try to manage by roaming together for a few days so that they can convince both Viswanathan and Chandrasekhar. Meanwhile, Shankar gets furious knowing.
He befriends Kasinathan, the twin brother of Viswanathan but is a criminal and has just released from jail. They kidnap Viswanathan and now Kasinathan comes to Viswanathan's place so that he can enjoy all the properties and wealth. Doubt erupts for Raja and Vasu seeing Kasinathan as he spends money lavishly compared to Viswanathan, stingy. Raja and Vasu secretly follow Kasinathan and finds the whereabouts of Viswanathan and the plan behind his kidnap. Raja is shocked to see his cousin Shankar there. A hilarious fight follows where in the end and Kasinathan get arrested, it is revealed that Raja is the son of Chandrasekhar. Raja unites with Indhu. Karthik as Raja Rambha as Indhu Goundamani as The Great Vasu Manivannan as Viswanathan and Kasinathan Jaiganesh as Chandrasekar Senthil as Viswanathan's manager Pandu as Viswanathan's manager Jyothi Meena as Meena Kazan Khan as Shankar Vichu Vishwanath as Chandrasekar's manager K. Selva Bharathy Karuppu Subbiah as Seth During the making of the film, there was a misunderstanding and subsequent falling out between the lead actress Rambha and the producer of the film.
Vijay was approached for the hero role. The music was composed by Sirpy and lyrics were written by Pazhani Bharathi. All the songs from this film were plagiarised from various sources; the film, released alongside another Karthik starrer Kizhakku Mugam was a success at box-office. Balaji wrote:" It stands out in that every aspect of it, be it the romance or the fights, has been handled with an eye on comedy and there is not a single moment of emotions or sentiments"; the success of the film paved way for numerous comedy films. The film made Sundar C. as one of the most sought directors. Rambha became one of the leading heroines; the film made Manivannan as one of the famous comedians. Karthik and Goundamani became one of the famous comic pairs from the film, the pair went on to do many films; the success of the film led Sundar C. to collaborate with Karthik in subsequent projects - Mettukudi, Unakkaga Ellam Unakkaga and Azhagana Naatkal. Azhagana Naatkal was compared by critics with Ullathai Allitha due to its similarity in sequences and characterisations.
Sundar C. himself listed it as one of the favourite films he had directed. Vimal who acted in director's Kalakalappu recalled that he had watched this film during his schooldays. Subha J. Rao and K. Jeshi of The Hindu placed the film in league with other successful comedy films like Kadhalikka Neramillai, Thillu Mullu and Michael Madana Kama Rajan. Ullathai Allitha on IMDb
Voice acting is the art of performing voice-overs or providing voices to represent a character or to provide information to an audience or user. Examples include animated, off-stage, off-screen or non-visible characters in various works, including feature films, dubbed foreign language films, animated short films, television programs, radio or audio dramas, video games, puppet shows, amusement rides and documentaries. Voice acting is done for small handheld audio games. Performers are called voice artists or voice talent, their roles may involve singing, although a second voice actor is sometimes cast as the character's singing voice. Voice acting is recognised in Britain as a specialized dramatic profession, chiefly owing to the BBC's long tradition of radio drama. Voice artists are used to record the individual sample fragments played back by a computer in an automated announcement; the voices for animated characters are provided by voice actors. For live action productions, voice acting involves reading the parts of computer programs, radio dispatchers, or other characters who never appear on screen.
With a radio drama or Compact Disc drama, there is more freedom in voice acting, because there is no need to match a dub to the original actors, or to match an animated character. Producers and agencies are on the look out for many styles of voices such as booming voices, which may be perfect for more dramatic productions or cute, young sounding voices that are perfect for trendier markets; some just sound like regular, everyday people and all of these voices have their place in the Voiceover world, provided they are used and in the right context. In the context of voice acting, narration is the use of spoken commentary to convey a story to an audience. A narrator is a personal character or a non-personal voice that the creator of the story develops to deliver information to the audience about the plot; the voice actor who plays the narrator is responsible for performing the scripted lines assigned to the narrator. In traditional literary narratives, narration is a required story element. One of the most common uses for voice acting is within commercial advertising.
The voice actor is hired to voice a message associated with the advertisement. This has different subgenres; the subgenres are all different styles in their own right. For example, television commercials tend to be voiced with a narrow, flat inflection pattern, whereas radio commercials tend to be voiced with a wide inflection pattern in an over-the-top style. Markerters and advertisers use voiceover all over their projects, from radio, to TV, to online and more! Total advertising spend in the UK is forecast to be £21.8 billion in 2017. Voiceover used in commercial adverts is the only area of voice acting where de-breathing is used. De-breathing means artificially removing breaths from the recorded voice; this is done to stop the audience being distracted in any way from the commercial message, being put across. Dub localization is a type of voice-over, it is the practice of voice-over translation altering a foreign language film, art film or television series by voice actors. Voice-over translation is an audiovisual translation technique, in which, unlike in Dub localization, actor voices are recorded over the original audio track, which can be heard in the background.
This method of translation is most used in documentaries and news reports to translate words of foreign-language interviewees. Automated dialogue replacement is the process of re-recording dialogue by the original actor after the filming process to improve audio quality or reflect dialogue changes. ADR is used to change original lines recorded on set to clarify context, improve diction or timing, or to replace an accented vocal performance. In the UK, it is called "post-synchronization" or "post-sync". Voice artists are used to record the individual sample fragments played back by a computer in an automated announcement. At its simplest, each recording consists of a short phrase, played back when necessary, e.g. the "Mind the gap" announcement introduced by London Underground in 1969. In a more complicated system, such as a speaking clock, the announcement is re-assembled from fragments such as "minutes past" "eighteen" and "p.m." For example, the word "twelve" can be used for both "Twelve O'Clock" and "Six Twelve."
Automated announcements can include on-hold messages on phone systems and location-specific announcements in tourist attractions. Seiyū occupations include performing roles in anime, audio dramas and video games, performing voice-overs for dubs of non-Japanese movies, providing narration to documentaries and similar programs; because the animation industry in Japan is so prolific, voice actors in Japan are able to have full-time careers as voice-over artists. Japanese voice actors are able to take greater charge of their careers than voice actors in other countries. Japan has 130 voice acting schools and troupes of voice actors, who work for a specific broadcast company or talent agency, they attract their own appreciators and fans, who watch shows to hear their favorite actor or actress. Many Japanese voice actors branch into music singing the opening or closing themes of shows in which their character stars, or become involved in non-animated side projects such as audio dram
Kadhalan is a 1994 Indian Tamil-language romantic thriller film written and directed by S. Shankar and produced by K. T. Kunjumon; the film stars Prabhu Deva and Nagma, while Raghuvaran, Girish Karnad and Vadivelu play other pivotal roles. The film's score and soundtrack were composed by A. R. Rahman. Kadhalan was dubbed in Hindi as Humse Hai Muqabala and in Telugu as Premikudu and performed well in both regions; the film received positive reviews from critics and enjoyed commercial success upon release in September 1994. It won many recognitions and honours, including the Filmfare Best Director for S. Shankar and Filmfare Best Music Director for A. R. Rahman. Prabhu, the student chairman of Chennai's Government Arts College, is asked by his principal to invite the Governor of Tamil Nadu, Kakarla Sathyanarayana Moorthy, to be the chief guest on the annual day of the college; when he goes to invite Kakarla, he falls in love with her. She too falls in love with him. Since there is a considerable fear of terrorism in the state, Kakarla does not permit his daughter to travel anywhere without bodyguards.
On one occasion, she runs away with Prabhu at a dance festival. Shortly after, there is the threat of a bomb being planted. Shruthi is brought home, Prabhu is arrested. Shruthi is forbidden to see Prabhu. After being beaten Prabhu is released from police custody and taken back home, tended by his police father Kathiresan. Prabhu goes to meet Shruthi, unaware of the changed circumstances; this is where he finds evidence that will lead him to a hideout of bomb specialist Mallikarjuna, the mastermind of all the bomb blasts. Prabhu realizes that Mallikarjuna has been working for Kakarla to kill innocent civilians with bombs. Kakarla pays Mallikarjuna to put a bomb in the Government General Hospital and betrays him by trying to kill him with a bomb radio. Mallikarjuna is wounded, he changes the time. When Kakarla shows up, he realizes that Mallikarjuna is still alive. Prabhu and other people take the patients out of the hospital. Kakarla, his wife, Shruthi get stuck in an elevator. Prabhu finds the bomb and manages to get out of the hospital so he can throw the bomb off the bridge into the water.
The bomb explodes in the water. After Shruthi gets out of the elevator, a wounded Mallikarjuna breaks from the top and electrocutes Kakarla to death. Mallikarjuna dies because of blood loss; the film ends with the reunion of Shruthi. It is presumed. Voice overVikram for Prabhu Deva Saritha for Nagma Kitty for Girish Karnad Prabhu Deva was roped in to portray the lead role after Shankar felt that he would do justice to the role. Dubbing voice for Prabhu Deva was provided by struggling actor Vikram. Madhuri Dixit was considered as the lead actress. Busy schedules meant; the set resembling that of Natyanjali dance school was built at Pondicherry. The song "Urvasi" was shot near the SPIC building in Guindy; the background music score and the soundtrack were composed by A. R. Rahman; the soundtrack, released as Kadhalan: The Original Motion Picture Soundtrack, features 9 songs composed by Rahman, with lyrics written by Vaali, Vairamuthu and S. Shankar who penned the Pettai Rap number. While the entire soundtrack was well received commercially and critically by reviewers, one song Mukkabla became recognised on a national level, becoming one of the most recognisable Tamil songs in history.
The song was plagiarised by Bollywood's tunesmiths and nearly a dozen versions of the song were churned out, a feat that earned Mukkabla and Rahman a place in the Limca Book of Records. New styles were experimented with, as in the song "Pettai Rap", a Madras bashai song, written in a rap-like style, interspersing Tamil with English words; this song was penned by ace director S. Shankar; the synthesiser and the keyboard feature while drawing from Tamil folk music. Playback singer Unnikrishnan made his singing debut with the song "Ennavale Ennavale" and the song was composed in Kedaram raga; the Hindi version of the soundtrack, Humse Hai Muqabala, sold 2.5 million units in India. The song "Urvasi Urvasi" inspired the 2014 song. Malini Mannath of The Indian Express said, " is better than expected, will appeal to the college crowd." K. Vijiyin of New Straits Times said, "Sadly, the love story is not all that endearing as it is eclipsed by the dance songs." The film went on to win four National Film Awards in 1994, securing a recognition for the soundtrack and three technical awards.
Unnikrishnan won the Best Male Playback Singer with his first song in Tamil films for "Ennavale Ennavale". Meanwhile, A. S. Laxmi Narayanan and V. S. Murthy won an award for Best Audiography, B. Lenin and V. T. Vijayan for Best Editing while Venky picked up an award for Best Special Effects. Congress MP R. Anbarasu expressed ban on the film alleging the negative the portrayal of governor; the song "Urvasi Urvasi" inspired. Furthermore, the gibberish line "Jil Jung Juk", spoken by Vadivelu in the film inspired the title of a film of the same name, released in 2016, it was remade in Hindi as a single, Urvashi in 2018, sung and composed by Yo Yo Honey Singh, features Shahid Kapoor and Kiara Advani. Kadhalan on IMDb Dhananjayan, G.. Pride of Tamil Cinema: 1931 to 2013. Blue Ocean Publishers. ISBN 978-93-84301-05-7
An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia
K. S. Chithra
Krishnan Nair Shantakumari Chithra credited as K. S. Chithra or Chithra, is an Indian playback singer and carnatic musician from Kerala. Chithra sings Indian classical and popular music, she has sung more than 25,000 songs in a number of Indian languages, including Malayalam, Telugu, Hindi, Oriya, Gujarati, Rajasthani, Urdu and Badaga, as well as foreign languages such as Malay, Arabic, Sinhalese and French. Chithra is a recipient of six National Film Awards, eight Filmfare Awards South and 36 different state film awards, she has won all the four south Indian state film awards. She was honored with India's civilian honor Padma Shri in 2005, she is the first Indian woman, honored by House of Commons, British Parliament, United Kingdom in 1997. She is the only singer from India, honored by the Government of China at the Qinghai International Music and Water Festival in 2009, she is the only singer from the South India who has received the MTV Video Music Award – International Viewer's Choice at Metropolitan Opera House, New York, United States.
In 2018, She was honoured by the Mr. Craig Coughlin, Speaker of the General Assembly, New Jersey, United States. In 2019, she was honoured by the Sultan bin Muhammad Al-Qasimi, sovereign ruler of the Emirate of Sharjah and is a member of the Federal Supreme Council of the United Arab Emirates, UAE for completing 40 Years in Indian Film Industry, she is the only South Indian female singer who has presented her maiden concert at the world's prestigious concert hall Royal Albert Hall in London in 2001. Her song "Kannalane/Kehna Hi Kya" from the film Bombay was included in England The Guardian's "1000 Songs Everyone Must Hear" list. Born in Thiruvananthapuram, into a family of musicians, Chithra's father, the late Krishnan Nair, was her first guru, her elder sister K. S. Beena and her younger brother K. Mahesh are playback singers. Chithra received her training in Carnatic music from Dr. K. Omanakutty, passed B. A. in music with first class and third rank from the University of Kerala, completed a master's degree in music.
She was selected to the National Talent Search Scholarship from the Central Government from 1978 to 1984. Chithra was introduced to Malayalam playback by M. G. Radhakrishnan in 1979 who recorded her voice for films and private albums. Attahasam, Snehapoorvam Meera and Njan Ekananu were the first few films in which she recorded her voice, she performed live concerts with K. J. Yesudas in India and abroad; the song "Manjal Prasadavum" from the film Nakhakshathangal composed by Bombay Ravi got her the second National Film Award for Best Female Playback Singer. For the same composer, she sang the song "Indupushpam Choodi Nilkum" for the film Vaishali and won her third National Film Award, her first Kerala State Film Award for Best Singer was for the song "Aayiram Kannumayi" from the film Nokkethadhoorathu Kannum Nattu composed by Jerry Amaldev. Since she has earned wide recognition by singing popular songs under the compositions of Raveendran, Shyam, S. P. Venkitesh, Mohan Sithara, Kannur Rajan, Johnson, Ouseppachan, M. K. Arjunan, A. T. Ummer, Berny Ignatius, M. B.
Sreenivasan, Mohan Sithara, Ramesh Narayan, Sharreth and M. Jayachandran, she recorded many successful songs in Malayalam. She recorded a number of songs for the composer S. P. Venkitesh and her maximum duet songs in Malayalam are with K. J. Yesudas and M. G. Sreekumar; as of 2017, she has won the Kerala State Awards for the record 16 times. Chithra made her debut in the Tamil film industry through the song "Poojaikketha Poovithu" from the film Neethana Antha Kuyil, composed by Ilaiyaraaja, she was given the title Chinnakuyil after singing the song "Chinna Kuyil Paadum" from the 1985 released film Poove Poochudava. Director Fazil cast her for this song after Ilaiyaraaja got impressed with her song sung in original version in Malayalam for the film Nokkethadhoorathu Kannum Nattu in 1985 directed by himself.. For the folksy classical song "Paadariyaen Padippariyaen" from the film Sindhu Bhairavi, she was awarded with the National Film Award for Best Female Playback Singer. Since she has recorded thousands of Tamil film songs composed by Ilaiyaraaja, A. R. Rahman, Deva, S. A. Rajkumar, Sirpy, Yuvan Shankar Raja, G. V. Prakash Kumar, Harris Jayaraj and Santhosh Narayanan.
She has sung huge number of evergreen hit songs in Tamil. She is the only female singer who has sung the maximum number of songs for the Academy Award winning composer A. R. Rahman for his Tamil film songs.. Her fifth National award for best singer was for the song "Oooh La La" from the film Minsara Kanavu. Chithra started her journey in Kannada cinema through the film Preethi released in 1986; the duet song "Nee Hacchida Ee Kumkuma" along with S. P. Balasubrahmanyam was composed by G. K. Venkatesh. In the same year, composer M. Ranga Rao offered her two songs in the film Aruna Raaga; this was followed by "Sheela O My Sheela", a duet song with K. J. Yesudas and composed by Bappi Lahiri for the Dwarakish directorial fantasy-adventure film Africadalli Sheela. For the rest of the 1980s, she recorded songs for composers like Rajan-Nagendra, S. P. Venkatesh, Sankar Ganesh and Vijay Anand; some of her popular songs in the 1980s were from the films such as Karunamayi, Suprabhatha, C. B. I. Shankar, Hrudaya Geethe and Krishna Nee Kunidaga.
From the early 90s, she was the most preferred female voice in Kannada industry and Chitra sang for most of songs released for the entire decade. The 199