8th Street and St. Mark's Place
8th Street is a street in the New York City borough of Manhattan that runs from Sixth Avenue to Third Avenue, from Avenue B to Avenue D. Between Third Avenue and Avenue A, it is named St. Mark's Place, after the nearby St. Mark's Church in-the-Bowery on 10th Street at Second Avenue. St. Mark's Place is considered a main cultural street for the East Village. Vehicular traffic runs east along both one-way streets. St. Mark's Place features a wide variety of retailers. Venerable institutions lining St. Mark's Place include the St. Mark's Hotel. There are several open front markets that sell sunglasses and jewelry. In her 400-year history of St. Mark's Place, Ada Calhoun called the street "like superglue for fragmented identities" and wrote that "the street is not for people who have chosen their lives... is for the wanderer, the undecided, the lonely, the promiscuous." Wouter van Twiller, colonial governor of New Amsterdam, once owned a tobacco farm near 8th and Macdougal Streets. Such farms were located around the area until the 1830s.
Nearby, a Native American trail crossed the island via the right-of-ways of Greenwich Avenue, Astor Place, Stuyvesant Street. Under the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, a city grid for much of Manhattan was defined. Eighth Street was to run from Sixth Avenue in the west to the Bowery to the east; the area west of Sixth Avenue was developed as Greenwich Village. Mercer, Wooster, Thompson Street, Sullivan Street, Macdougal Streets, as well as Laurens Street, extended to Eighth Street until the 1820s, when the construction of Washington Square Park severed Laurens and Sullivan Streets south of 4th Street. After the Commissioners' Plan was laid out, property along the street's right of way developed. By 1835, the New York University opened its first building, the Silver Center, along Eighth Street near the Washington Square Park. Row houses were built on Eighth Street; the street ran between the Jefferson Market, built in 1832 at the west end, the Tompkins Market, built in 1836, at the east end. These were factors in the street's commercialization in years.
Eighth Street was supposed to extend to a market place at Avenue C, but since that idea never came to fruition. Capitalizing on the high-class status of Bond, Great Jones, Lafayette Streets in NoHo, developer Thomas E. Davis developed the east end of the street and renamed it "St. Mark's Place". Davis built up St. Mark's Place between Third and Second Avenues between 1831 and 1832. Although the original plan was for Federal homes, only three such houses remained in 2014. Meanwhile, Eighth Street became home to a literary scene. At Astor Place and Eighth Street, the Astor Opera House was built by wealthy men and opened in 1847. Publisher Evert Augustus Duyckinck founded a private library at his 50 East Eighth Street home. Ann Lynch started a famous literary salon at 116 Waverly Place and relocated to 37 West Eighth Street in 1848. Around this time and up until the 1890s, Eighth Street was co-named Clinton Place in memory of politician DeWitt Clinton, whose widow lived along nearby University Place.
In the 1850s, Eighth Street housed an educational scene as well. The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, a then-free institution for art and engineering education, was opened in 1858; the Century Club, an arts and letters association, relocated to 46 East Eighth Street around that time. In addition, the Brevoort Hotel, as well as a marble mansion built by John Taylor Johnston, were erected at Fifth Avenue and Eighth Street. At the same time, German immigrants moved into the area around Tompkins Square Park; the area around St. Mark's Place was nicknamed Kleindeutschland, or "Little Germany", because of a huge influx of German immigrants in the 1840s and 1850s. Many of the homes turned into boarding houses, as the area had 50,000 residents but not a lot of real estate. Tenement housing was built on St. Mark's Place. By the 1870s, apartments replaced stables and houses along the stretch of Eighth Street west of Macdougal Street; the elevated Third and Sixth Avenue Lines were built during that time, with stops along the former at Ninth Street and along the latter at Eighth Street.
At the southwest corner of Broadway and Eighth Street, the street's first commercial building was built. By the 1890s, buildings on the stretch from Bowery to Fifth Avenue were used for trade. In 1904, the Wanamaker's Department Store opened at the former A. T. Stewart store along Broadway between 10th Streets, with an annex built at Eighth Street. In the early 1900s, Little Germany was shrinking. At the same time, Hungarians, Poles and Russians from Eastern Europe started moving in. At this point, St. Mark's Place was considered a part of the Lower East Side. On the western stretch of Eighth Street, an art scene was growing. Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, Daniel Chester French, other artists moved in the stables at Macdougal Alley at this time. By 1916, a studio complex for artists replaced most of these stables, making the areas around Eighth Street popular for bohemians. Whitney, a patron for other American painters, combined four houses on West Eighth Street houses into the Whitney Museum in 1931.
The 1927 construction of the skyscraper at One Fifth Avenue, as well as the Eighth Street Playhouse movie theater, helped influence development on the Sixth Avenue end of the street, where construction of the IND Eighth Avenue Line had required destruction of many buildings there. On an adjoining block, the Women's House of Detention was built in Jefferson Market complex in 1929–1932 and e
Manhattan referred to locally as the City, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City and its economic and administrative center, cultural identifier, historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, one of the original counties of the U. S. state of New York. The borough consists of Manhattan Island, bounded by the Hudson and Harlem rivers. S. mainland, physically connected to the Bronx and separated from the rest of Manhattan by the Harlem River. Manhattan Island is divided into three informally bounded components, each aligned with the borough's long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Manhattan has been described as the cultural, financial and entertainment capital of the world, the borough hosts the United Nations Headquarters. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, Manhattan is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization: the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.
Many multinational media conglomerates are based in Manhattan, the borough has been the setting for numerous books and television shows. Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island, including real estate, estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2013. Manhattan traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan. Manhattan is documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for 60 guilders, which equals $1038 in current terms; the territory and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York, based in present-day Manhattan, served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790; the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a world symbol of the United States and its ideals of liberty and peace.
Manhattan became a borough during the consolidation of New York City in 1898. New York County is the United States' second-smallest county by land area, is the most densely populated U. S. county. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 1,664,727 living in a land area of 22.83 square miles, or 72,918 residents per square mile, higher than the density of any individual U. S. city. On business days, the influx of commuters increases this number to over 3.9 million, or more than 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York City's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, is the smallest borough in terms of land area. Manhattan Island is informally divided into three areas, each aligned with its long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan are well known, as New York City received a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017, Manhattan hosts three of the world's 10 most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Grand Central Terminal.
The borough hosts many prominent bridges, such as the Brooklyn Bridge. Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, part of the Stonewall National Monument, is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement; the City of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of the city's government. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, Cornell Tech, Weill Cornell Medical College, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the world; the name Manhattan derives from the Munsee dialect of the Lenape language'manaháhtaan'. The Lenape word has been translated as "the place where we get bows" or "place for gathering the bows". According to a Munsee tradition recorded in the 19th century, the island was named so for a grove of hickory trees at the lower end, considered ideal for the making of bows.
It was first recorded in writing as Manna-hata, in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen. A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River. Alternative folk etymologies include "island of many hills", "the island where we all became intoxicated" and "island", as well as a phrase descriptive of the whirlpool at Hell Gate; the area, now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of King Francis I of France – became the first documented European to visit the area that would become New York City, he entered the tidal strait now known as The Narrows and named the land around Upper New York
L.A. Confidential (film)
L. A. Confidential is a 1997 American neo-noir crime film directed, produced and co-written by Curtis Hanson; the screenplay by Hanson and Brian Helgeland is based on James Ellroy's 1990 novel of the same name, the third book in his L. A. Quartet series; the film tells the story of a group of LAPD officers in 1953, the intersection of police corruption and Hollywood celebrity. The title refers to the 1950s scandal magazine Confidential, portrayed in the film as Hush-Hush. At the time, Australian actors Guy Pearce and Russell Crowe were unknown in North America. One of the film's backers, Peter Dennett, was worried about the lack of established stars in the lead roles. However, he supported Hanson's casting decisions, the director had the confidence to recruit Kevin Spacey, Kim Basinger and Danny DeVito; the film grossed $126 million worldwide and was critically acclaimed, holding a 99% rating at Rotten Tomatoes and an aggregated score of 90 out of 100 on Metacritic. It was nominated for nine Academy Awards, including Best Picture, winning two: Best Supporting Actress and Best Adapted Screenplay.
In 2015, the United States Library of Congress selected L. A. Confidential for preservation in the National Film Registry, finding it "culturally or aesthetically significant". In early 1950s Los Angeles, Sergeant Edmund "Ed" Exley, son of the legendary LAPD detective Preston Exley, is determined to live up to his father's reputation, his intelligence, insistence on following regulations, cold demeanor contribute to his isolation from other officers. He exacerbates this resentment by volunteering to testify in the "Bloody Christmas" case against his fellow officers in exchange for a promotion to Detective Lieutenant; this goes against the advice of Captain Dudley Smith, who says that a detective should be willing to shoot a guilty man in the back for the greater good. Exley's ambition is fueled by the murder of his father, killed by an unknown assailant, whom Exley nicknames "Rollo Tomasi". Officer Wendell "Bud" White, whom Exley considers a "mindless thug", is a plainclothes officer obsessed with violently punishing woman-beaters.
One such incident leads him to confront a former cop named Leland "Buzz" Meeks, a driver for Pierce Patchett, operator of Fleur-de-Lis. His call girl service runs prostitutes. White comes to dislike Exley after White's partner, Dick Stensland, is fired due to Exley's testimony in the "Bloody Christmas" scandal. Smith wants White to torture the out-of-town criminal element who attempt to gain a foothold in Los Angeles when gangster Mickey Cohen is imprisoned for tax evasion; the "Nite Owl case", a multiple homicide at a coffee shop, becomes personal to the police after Stensland is found to be one of the victims. Sgt. Jack Vincennes is a narcotics detective who moonlights as a technical advisor on Badge of Honor, a popular TV police drama series, he is providing Sid Hudgens, publisher of the Hush-Hush tabloid magazine, with tips about celebrity arrests that will attract more readers to Hudgens' magazine. When Vincennes becomes involved in Hudgens' scheme to set up actor Matt Reynolds in a homosexual tryst with L.
A. district attorney Ellis Loew, Reynolds is killed, Vincennes becomes determined to find the killer. Three African Americans are charged with the Nite Owl murders. Although the Nite Owl crime looks like a botched robbery and White individually investigate it to discover indications of corruption all around them. White recognizes Nite Owl victim Susan Lefferts as one of Meeks' escorts which leads him back to Pierce Patchett, he begins a relationship with a Veronica Lake look-alike prostitute. The body count rises when White searches the crawl space under Lefferts' mother's house, finds the decomposed corpse of Meeks; when Vincennes approaches Smith with the evidence he has found with Exley, Smith realizes his scheme to take over Mickey Cohen's heroin empire is threatened. Smith shoots Vincennes, who utters "Rollo Tomasi" before dying, the origin of which Exley told Vincennes in confidence. Exley's suspicions are aroused. During an interrogation of Hudgens, Smith arranges for White to see photos of Bracken sleeping with Exley, which sends White into a rage.
Confident that White has gone after Exley to kill him, Smith kills Hudgens. Exley investigates and discovers Meeks and Stensland used to work with Smith. White drives to the police station and begins to fight Exley, but Exley is able to convince White that Smith is corrupt and has set them both up; the two decide to team together to take down Smith. They are able to obtain evidence against Smith by threatening Loew, find Patchett murdered. Exley and White realize Smith himself has been taking over after Cohen, the killings have been Smith tying up loose ends. Exley and White are set up with a trap against his hitmen. After a gunfight that kills all the hitmen, Smith shoots White in the face, but is forced to surrender to Exley; as police arrive, Exley shoots Smith in the back. The LAPD cover up Smith's crimes and say he died a hero in the shootout to protect the department's image, in exchange Exley bargains to be hailed a hero and receives a medal for his bravery. Upon leaving City Hall, Exley sees Bracken, who tells him she is returning home to Arizona with White, revealing White survived the shooting.
Exley and White shake hands and Bracken drives off into the sunset. Curtis Hanson had read half a dozen of James Ellroy's books before L. A. was drawn to its characters, not the plot. He said, "What hooked me on them was that, as I met
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper, published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, is the largest U. S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues salient to the U. S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters, it has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine. In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910; the paper's profile grew in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.
The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made the Times a financial success. Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment". Otis's editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. Toward those ends, the paper supported efforts to expand the city's water supply by acquiring the rights to the water supply of the distant Owens Valley; the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people.
Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who pleaded guilty. Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True." Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, took control as publisher of the Times. Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center, whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios; the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980.
Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations, he toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined. Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that: The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and social and political influence.
Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the generations found that only one or two branches got the power, everyone else got a share of the money. The coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family; the paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big, was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be. It has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades; the Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in 1991-1992. Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation.
They cut circulation in California's Central Valley, Nevada and the San Diego ed
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
A. O. Scott
Anthony Oliver Scott is a U. S. journalist and film critic. Along with Manohla Dargis, he serves as chief film critic for The New York Times. Scott was born in Massachusetts. Both of his parents were professors, his mother, Joan Wallach Scott, is the Harold F. Linder Professor at the School of Social Science in the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, his father, Donald Scott, is a professor of American history at The City University of New York. He is a great nephew of the married acting couple Eli Anne Jackson. Scott is Jewish through his mother's side. Scott attended public schools in Rhode Island, including Classical High School, he graduated magna cum laude from Harvard in 1988 with a degree in literature. Scott began his career at The New York Review of Books, where he served as an assistant to Robert B. Silvers, he served as book critic for Newsday, as a contributor to The New York Review of Books and Slate magazine. In 1993, he was a Television reviewer for Daily Variety, using the name Tony Scott.
He joined The New York Times' Arts section in January 2000, following Janet Maslin's retirement from film criticism. In 2004 he became chief critic, following Elvis Mitchell's resignation, he and the other film critics at the Times host a video podcast on the subject of film, called Critics' Picks. He is Distinguished Professor of Film Criticism at Wesleyan University. In 2006 and 2007, Scott served as guest critic on Ebert & Roeper with Richard Roeper in Roger Ebert's absence due to illness, he and Roeper counted down their selections for the top ten films of 2006 and again for 2007. Although Scott did not appear on the show for most of 2008, he continued to release his own list through The New York Times. On October 24, 2009, Scott began counting down his "Best of the Decade" list on At the Movies. On August 5, 2009, it was announced that Scott, along with Chicago Tribune critic Michael Phillips, would take over hosting duties on At the Movies from Ben Lyons and Ben Mankiewicz, who would no longer be involved in the show.
Scott and Phillips began their duties when the show started its new season on September 5, 2009, but ratings were low and the show aired for only one season. He has a son named a daughter named Carmen, he has stated that "Maybe not everyone, white is a racist, but racism is what makes us white”. New Yorkers in journalism Media related to A. O. Scott at Wikimedia Commons A. O. Scott on IMDb A. O. Scott: New York Times Biography A. O. Scott: New York Times articles A. O. Scott: New York Times movie reviews
Complex is an American New York-based media platform for youth culture, founded as a bi-monthly magazine by fashion designer Marc Milecofsky. Complex reports on trends in style, pop culture, music and sneakers with a focus on streetwear, sneaker culture, hip hop, graphic art. Complex reached over 90 million unique users per month in 2013, across its owned and operated and partner sites and YouTube channels; the magazine ceased publication with the December 2016/January 2017 issue. Complex has been named by Business Insider as one of the Most Valuable Startups in New York, Most Valuable Private Companies in the World. Complex CEO Rich Antoniello was named among the Silicon Alley 100. In 2012, the company launched an online broadcasting platform. Complex was established in 2002 by the founder of the Eckō Unltd. Brand, Marc Ecko, as a print magazine aimed at providing young males a report of the latest in hip hop and pop culture without regard to race; the name Complex evolved from a slogan developed to promote the Eckō Unltd.
Website: "Ecko.complex". The idea was to create a men's magazine that combined Eckō's streetwear and hip hop attitude along with the style of Japanese men's magazines by providing consumer guides; this was achieved by creating a magazine in two sections: one traditional magazine, the other a shopping guide. In 2005, Complex was joined by the former senior editor of Noah Callahan-Bever, he became editor-in-chief and chief content officer a year later. By 2006, Complex had begun to turn a profit which allowed the magazine to consider an expansion of their online presence. In April 2007, Complex soft-launched a media network with four websites: NahRight, Nice Kicks, SlamxHype and MoeJackson. In September 2007, Complex launched Complex Media in order to capitalize on the trend toward digital content. In 2010, ad sales grew 154%. According to comScore, Complex got 12 million unique hits in March 2012; this encouraged large brands such as Coors, AT&T, Ford, McDonald's, Nike and Apple to advertise within the collective.
Complex now includes over 100 sites. In 2011, Complex acquired Pigeons & Planes, an indie music and rap blog, brought their total sites to 51 with monthly traffic of 25 million uniques. In 2012, Complex launched Four Pins, a humorous menswear site, edited by Fuck Yeah Menswear author Lawrence Schlossman. In 2013, Complex launched the dance music site Do Androids Dance and Green Label, a branded content site presented by Mountain Dew; that year, Complex acquired the sneakerhead culture magazine and website Sole Collector. On November 4, 2013, Complex premiered a new logo and cover design on Instagram that would appear online, as well as on the December 2013 Eminem cover issue. In 2013, Complex partnered with Mountain Dew to launch "Green Label" an entertainment and culture website. In 2014, Complex launched an NBA-themed website called "Triangle Offense" in a partnership with Bacardi rum. In August 2014, Complex ranked #3 in the United States in a ComScore survey of unique visitors between the ages of 18 and 34 with 20.3 million in that demographic per month.
In January 2015, Complex announced its acquisition of Collider, the online source for movies, breaking news, incisive content, imminent trends. Collider.com reaches over 3 million monthly unique readers powered by a team of ten writers, including founder and Editor in Chief Steve Weintraub. In February 2018, Complex sold Collider.com to former head-of-video Marc Fernandez. In 2015, Do Androids Dance was merged into Complex. In 2016, Four Pins was closed. In 2009, Complex raised $12.8 million from Austin Ventures. In September 2013, Complex secured $25 million in a second round of funding from Iconix Brand Group, who own Rocawear, Eckō Unltd. and Umbro, among others. On April 18, 2016, Complex was acquired by a joint venture of Hearst Communications and Verizon Communications, Verizon Hearst Media Partners; the venture emphasized a goal of building "a portfolio of the emerging digital brands of the future for the millennial and Gen-Z audience", proposed that Complex would develop content for Verizon-owned AOL and go90.
Complex became known early on for split format. Complex covers combined celebrities from across music and sports. For example, Mos Def and David Bowie appeared together on the cover of the August/September 2003 issue; some of Complex's early covers included Nas, Tony Hawk and Xzibit and Dale Earnhardt Jr. and Mos Def and David Bowie. In 2007, Complex gave Kim Kardashian her first-ever magazine cover. Complex has since expanded to interactive digital covers. Complex TV launched in 2012 as an online broadcaster of original content. Nathan Brown, a long-time video development and production executive, serves as general manager of Complex TV and Video. In December 2013, a subsidiary of Complex TV, Complex News, was launched, focusing on day-to-day news. In 2014, Pluto.tv added Complex Media as a content partner in an attempt to challenge traditional TV. Complex Content Studio is supported by an 18-person editorial team. On November 10, 2017, a block of Complex TV series began airing on the U. S cable network Fuse under the Complex x Fuse banner.
Complex TV has produced more than two dozen original shows, which include: In 2014, Complex won "Best Original Non-Scripted Video Series" at the Digiday Video Awards for "Magnum Opus". Rich Antonie