A spring is a point at which water flows from an aquifer to the Earth's surface. It is a component of the hydrosphere. A spring may be the result of karst topography where surface water has infiltrated the Earth's surface, becoming part of the area groundwater; the groundwater travels through a network of cracks and fissures—openings ranging from intergranular spaces to large caves. The water emerges from below the surface, in the form of a karst spring; the forcing of the spring to the surface can be the result of a confined aquifer in which the recharge area of the spring water table rests at a higher elevation than that of the outlet. Spring water forced to the surface by elevated sources are artesian wells; this is possible if the outlet is in the form of a 300-foot-deep cave. In this case the cave is used like a hose by the higher elevated recharge area of groundwater to exit through the lower elevation opening. Non-artesian springs may flow from a higher elevation through the earth to a lower elevation and exit in the form of a spring, using the ground like a drainage pipe.
Still other springs are the result of pressure from an underground source in the earth, in the form of volcanic activity. The result can be water at elevated temperature such as a hot spring; the action of the groundwater continually dissolves permeable bedrock such as limestone and dolomite, creating vast cave systems. Seepage or filtration spring; the term seep refers to springs with small flow rates in which the source water has filtered through permeable earth. Fracture springs, discharge from faults, joints, or fissures in the earth, in which springs have followed a natural course of voids or weaknesses in the bedrock. Tubular springs, in which the water flows from underground caverns. Spring discharge, or resurgence, is determined by the spring's recharge basin. Factors that affect the recharge include the size of the area in which groundwater is captured, the amount of precipitation, the size of capture points, the size of the spring outlet. Water may leak into the underground system from many sources including permeable earth and losing streams.
In some cases entire creeks disappear as the water sinks into the ground via the stream bed. Grand Gulf State Park in Missouri is an example of an entire creek vanishing into the groundwater system; the water emerges 9 miles away. Human activity may affect a spring's discharge—withdrawal of groundwater reduces the water pressure in an aquifer, decreasing the volume of flow. Springs are classified by the volume of the water they discharge; the largest springs are called "first-magnitude", defined as springs that discharge water at a rate of at least 2800 liters or 100 cubic feet of water per second. Some locations contain many first-magnitude springs, such as Florida where there are at least 27 known to be that size; the scale for spring flow is as follows: Minerals become dissolved in the water as it moves through the underground rocks. This may give the water flavor and carbon dioxide bubbles, depending on the nature of the geology through which it passes; this is why spring water is bottled and sold as mineral water, although the term is the subject of deceptive advertising.
Springs that contain significant amounts of minerals are sometimes called'mineral springs'. Springs that contain large amounts of dissolved sodium salts sodium carbonate, are called'soda springs'. Many resorts are known as spa towns. Water from springs is clear; however some springs may be colored by the minerals. For instance, water heavy with iron or tannins will have an orange color. In parts of the United States a stream carrying the outflow of a spring to a nearby primary stream may be called a spring branch or run. Groundwater tends to maintain a long-term average temperature of its aquifer; the cool water of a spring and its branch may harbor species such as certain trout that are otherwise ill-suited to a warmer local climate. Springs have been used for a variety of human needs including drinking water, domestic water supply, mills and electricity generation. Other modern uses include recreational activities such as fishing and floating. A sacred spring, or holy well, is a small body of water emerging from underground and revered either in a Christian, pagan or other religious context, sometimes both.
The lore and mythology of ancient Greece was replete with sacred and storied springs—notably, the Corycian and Castalian. In medieval Europe, holy wells were pagan sacred sites that became Christianized; the term "holy well" is employed to refer to any water source of limited size, which has some significance in local folklore. This can take the form of a particular name, an associated legend, the attribution of healing qualities to the water through the numinous presence of its guardian spirit or Christian saint, or a ceremony or ritual centred on the well site. In Christian legend, the spring water is said to have been made to flow by the action of a saint, a familiar theme in the hagiography of Celtic saints. LaMor
Provence is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It corresponds with the modern administrative région of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, includes the départements of Var, Bouches-du-Rhône, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence and parts of Alpes-Maritimes and Vaucluse; the largest city of the region is Marseille. The Romans made the region the first Roman province beyond the Alps and called it Provincia Romana, which evolved into the present name; until 1481 it was ruled by the Counts of Provence from their capital in Aix-en-Provence became a province of the Kings of France. While it has been part of France for more than five hundred years, it still retains a distinct cultural and linguistic identity in the interior of the region; the coast of Provence has some of the earliest known sites of human habitation in Europe. Primitive stone tools dating back 1 to 1.05 million years BC have been found in the Grotte du Vallonnet near Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, between Monaco and Menton.
More sophisticated tools, worked on both sides of the stone and dating to 600,000 BC, were found in the Cave of Escale at Saint Estėve-Janson, tools from 400,000 BC and some of the first fireplaces in Europe were found at Terra Amata in Nice. Tools dating to the Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic were discovered in the Observatory Cave, in the Jardin Exotique of Monaco; the Paleolithic period in Provence saw great changes in the climate. Two ice ages came and went, the sea level changed dramatically. At the beginning of the Paleolithic, the sea level in western Provence was 150 meters higher than today. By the end of the Paleolithic, it had dropped to 100 to 150 metres below the sea level today; the cave dwellings of the early inhabitants of Provence were flooded by the rising sea or left far from the sea and swept away by erosion. The changes in the sea level led to one of the most remarkable discoveries of signs of early man in Provence. In 1985, a diver named Henri Cosquer discovered the mouth of a submarine cave 37 metres below the surface of the Calanque de Morgiou near Marseille.
The entrance led to a cave above sea level. Inside, the walls of the Cosquer Cave are decorated with drawings of bison, auks and outlines of human hands, dating to between 27,000 and 19,000 BC; the end of the Paleolithic and beginning of the Neolithic period saw the sea settle at its present level, a warming of the climate and the retreat of the forests. The disappearance of the forests and the deer and other hunted game meant that the inhabitants of Provence had to survive on rabbits and wild sheep. In about 6000 BC, the Castelnovian people, living around Châteauneuf-les-Martigues, were among the first people in Europe to domesticate wild sheep, to cease moving from place to place. Once they settled in one place they were able to develop new industries. Inspired by pottery from the eastern Mediterranean, in about 6000 BC they created the first pottery made in France. Around 6000 BC, a wave of new settlers from the east, the Chasséens, arrived in Provence, they were farmers and warriors, displaced the earlier pastoral people from their lands.
They were followed about 2500 BC by another wave of people farmers, known as the Courronniens, who arrived by sea and settled along the coast of what is now the Bouches-du-Rhône. Traces of these early civilisations can be found in many parts of Provence. A Neolithic site dating to about 6,000 BC was discovered in Marseille near the Saint-Charles railway station, and a dolmen from the Bronze Age can be found near Draguignan. Between the 10th and 4th century BC, the Ligures were found in Provence from Massilia as far as modern Liguria, they were of uncertain origin. Strabo distinctly states they were not of a different race from the Gauls, they did not have their own alphabet, but their language remains in place names in Provence ending in the suffixes -asc, -osc. -inc, -ates, -auni. The ancient geographer Posidonios wrote of them: "Their country is dry; the soil is so rocky. The men compensate for the lack of wheat by hunting... They climb the mountains like goats." They were warlike. Traces of the Ligures remain today in the dolmens and other megaliths found in eastern Provence, in the primitive stone shelters called'Bories' found in the Luberon and Comtat, in the rock carvings in the Valley of Marvels near Mont Bégo in the Alpes-Maritimes, at an altitude of 2,000 meters.
Between the 8th and 5th centuries BC, tribes of Celtic peoples coming from Central Europe began moving into Provence. They had weapons made of iron, which allowed them to defeat the local tribes, who were still armed with bronze weapons. One tribe, called the Segobriga, settled near modern-day Marseille; the Caturiges and Cavares settled to the west of the Durance river. Celts and Ligurians spread throughout the area and the Celto-Ligures shared the territory of Provence, each tribe in its own alpine valley or settlement along a river, each with its own king and dynasty, they built hilltop forts and settlements given the Latin name oppida. Today the traces 165 oppida are found in the Var, as many as 285 in the Alp
Hunting and Gathering (film)
Hunting and Gathering is a 2007 French romantic film based on the writer Anna Gavalda's 2004 novel Hunting and Gathering. It was directed by Claude Berri, who wrote the screenplay, stars Audrey Tautou, Guillaume Canet, Laurent Stocker, Françoise Bertin and Alain Sachs, it premiered on 21 March 2007. The film opens showing the day-to-day life of an elderly lady named Paulette. Paulette lives alone, dedicated to her animals, in particular her cats, her garden, her worst fear is of dying far from her garden. However, when she takes a fall she is sent to hospital who advise that she recovers in a nursing-home, much to her dismay. Meanwhile, Camille, an artist and cleaning lady, lives a lonely and anorexic life in a small attic in Paris. One day she meets the shy postcard salesman Philibert, in temporary custody of a grand apartment in her building; this belonged to his deceased aristocratic forebear, is filled with heirlooms. Philibert has arranged his life to have as little contact with the outer world as possible.
Instead he lets his lodger, Franck - who works as a low-ranked cook in a big restaurant - take care of his shopping and other such things. Philibert and Franck are complete opposites. Franck is busy, he works long hours at the restaurant, habitually spends his only day off going to visit his grandmother Paulette, who raised him. Camille reaches out to Philibert on impulse, they hit it off, but in apparent denial of her sexual potency, Camille has her hair cropped, "manière de petit garçon". Philibert's sexual orientation at this time in the movie is not delineated. Camille becomes bedridden with the flu. Although Philibert has had only the one social contact with her, having no reason to know how unwell she is, he feels protective towards, worried about her, he enters her attic despite not getting any reply, finds her in a weakened state, carries her down to his apartment. When she recovers, he assumes; this development is unwelcome to Franck, permanently stressed-out by his work and destresses by drinking, playing angry punk rock, entertaining women.
The only outlet for his humanity is his concern towards his grandmother. Many heated arguments pass between Camille and Franck, the latter annoyed at her presence and the former finding him rude and disrespectful; this reaches a crisis when, whilst drunkenly directing an erotic dance by his latest nana, he refuses to turn down the music. Camille throws his boom-box out of the window, she rectifies the situation by buying him a replacement stereo. Franck attempts to explain his behaviour, but acknowledges he is difficult, that he finds her presence an irritant; the turning point comes. Franck tells her that he refuses to give it back, he says it is he who should leave, asking that she stay with Philibert, decidedly happier and more eager to interact with others when she is around. He says he will leave unless she stays. Meanwhile, Philibert has joined a comedy club with encouragement from a woman to whom he has taken a strong liking. People laugh at his stutter, however he takes classes and discovers that it disappears when he performs.
Philibert gives a show for the public, demonstrating considerable comic talent, at the start of which he proposes to his girlfriend on stage. After a few months in respite care, Paulette is eager to return home, however she is too fragile to live alone. Camille, who has become close with the old woman, convinces Franck to let her live at Philibert's apartment, where she will quit her unsatisfactory job in order look after Paulette. Hesitant, Franck agrees and his grandmother moves in. Around the same time Franck and Camille, whose relationship turned a corner after the incident with the stereo, enter a period of flirting. However, when this evolves into a sexual relationship, Camille sets the rule of not falling in love. Franck is visibly upset and withdraws from Camille, as he has fallen in love with her. Paulette returns to her home for a week, with Camille resident to help out; however immediately she passes away as she wanted, in her beloved home. At the same time, Philibert's apartment is sold by his great-aunt and the trio break up.
Camille, realising she is in love with Franck, tries to contact him, in spite of his remaining withdrawn. After she waits for him outside his restaurant, they go out for a drink where Franck reveals he is moving to England at the end of the week. Camille suggests that he should stay in France, buy a restaurant where they had eaten for her birthday, so he could be his own boss. Franck, sick of her tiptoeing around the central issue, asks her why she doesn't just ask him to stay to which Camille replies that she's afraid; that week, Camille arrives just in time to say goodbye to Franck. She is able to beg him to stay, but he replies that he has left in his mind. Heartbroken, Camille walks out of the train station, he tells her he's worried that she is walking all alone and lost. He pretends to be passing through customs, but in reality, unbeknownst to Camille, he has instead followed her, she denies his concerns and pretends to be OK. He calls her bluff; the two kiss passionately. The film ends with Franck wo
Daniel Auteuil is a French actor and director who has appeared in a wide range of film genres, including period dramas, romantic comedies, crime thrillers. In 1996, he won the Best Actor Award at the Cannes Film Festival together with Belgian actor Pascal Duquenne, he is the winner of two César Award for Best Actor, one in 1987 as Ugolin Soubeyran in Jean de Florette and Manon des Sources and another one for his role in Girl on the Bridge. For his role in Jean de Florette, he won the BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role. Auteuil is considered one of France's most respected actors. Daniel Auteuil was born on 24 January 1950 in the son of opera singers, he grew up in Nancy, France. He began his acting career in musical comedy and made his film debut in 1972. Auteuil's starring role in the historical drama film Jean de Florette and its sequel Manon des Sources brought him international recognition. Auteuil has since become one of the best-known, most popular actors in France. Through his appearances in films including the swashbuckler Le bossu, the comedy The Closet, the romantic comedy After You... the thriller Caché and the comedy My Best Friend, he has since gained greater international recognition.
In 2013, Auteuil was selected as a member of the main competition jury at the 2013 Cannes Film Festival. Auteuil has two daughters: Aurore Auteuil with his former partner, Anne Jousset, Nelly from a ten-year relationship with actress Emmanuelle Béart, his co-star in the films A Heart in Winter and Manon des Sources, he married a Corsican sculptor, on 22 July 2006 in Porto-Vecchio, Corsica. Daniel Auteuil on IMDb Daniel Auteuil at AllMovie
Marcel Pagnol was a French novelist and filmmaker. Regarded as an auteur, in 1946, he became the first filmmaker elected to the Académie française. Although his work is less fashionable than it once was, Pagnol is still regarded as one of France's greatest 20th-century writers and is notable for the fact that he excelled in every medium—memoir, novel and film. Marcel Pagnol was born on 28 February 1895 in Aubagne, Bouches-du-Rhône département, in southern France near Marseille, the eldest son of schoolteacher Joseph PagnolA and seamstress Augustine Lansot. B Marcel Pagnol grew up in Marseille with his younger brothers Paul and René, younger sister Germaine. In July 1904, the family rented the Bastide Neuve, – a house in the sleepy Provençal village of La Treille – for the summer holidays, the first of many spent in the hilly countryside between Aubagne and Marseille. About the same time, Augustine's health, which had never been robust, began to noticeably decline and on 16 June 1910 she succumbed to a chest infection and died, aged 36.
Joseph remarried in 1912. In 1913, at the age of 18, Marcel passed his baccalaureate in philosophy and started studying literature at the University in Aix-en-Provence; when World War I broke out, he was called up into the infantry at Nice but in January 1915 he was discharged because of his poor constitution. On 2 March 1916, he married Simone Colin in November graduated in English, he became an English teacher, teaching at a lycée in Marseille. In 1922, he moved to Paris, where he taught English until 1927, when he decided instead to devote his life to playwriting. During this time, he belonged to a group of young writers, in collaboration with one of whom, Paul Nivoix, he wrote the play, Merchants of Glory, produced in 1924; this was followed, by Topaze, a satire based on ambition. Exiled in Paris, he returned nostalgically to his Provençal roots, taking this as his setting for his play Marius, which became the first of his works to be adapted into a film in 1931. Separated from Simone Collin since 1926, he formed a relationship with the young English dancer Kitty Murphy.
Their son Jacques Pagnol was born on 24 September 1930. In 1929, on a visit to London, Pagnol attended a screening of one of the first talking films and he was so impressed that he decided to devote his efforts to cinema, he suggested adapting his play Marius for cinema. This was directed by Alexander Korda and released on 10 October 1931, it became one of the first successful French-language talking films. In 1932 Pagnol founded his own film production studios in the countryside near Marseille. Over the next decade Pagnol produced his own films, taking many different roles in the production – financier, script writer, studio head, foreign-language script translator – and employing the greatest French actors of the period. On 4 April 1946, Pagnol was elected to the Académie française, taking his seat in March 1947, the first filmmaker to receive this honour. In his films, Pagnol transfers his playwriting talents onto the big screen, his editing style is somberly reserved. As a pictorial naturalist, Pagnol relies on film as art to convey a deeper meaning rather than as a tool to tell a story.
Pagnol took great care in the type of actors he employed, hiring local actors to appear in his films to highlight their unique accents and culture. Like his plays, Pagnol's films emphasize musicality; the themes of many of Pagnol's films revolve around the acute observation of social rituals. Using interchangeable symbols and recurring character roles, such as proud fathers and rebellious children, Pagnol illuminates the provincial life of the lower class. Notably, Pagnol frequently compares women and land, showing both can be barren or fertile. Above all, Pagnol uses all this to illustrate the importance of their renewal. In 1945, Pagnol remarried, they had Frédéric and Estelle. Estelle died at the age of two. Pagnol was so devastated that he returned to live in Paris, he went back to writing plays, but after his next piece was badly received he decided to change his job once more and began writing a series of autobiographical novels – Souvenirs d'enfance – based on his childhood experiences. In 1957, the first two novels in the series, La Gloire de mon père and Le château de ma mère were published to instant acclaim.
The third Le Temps des secrets was published in 1959, though the fourth Le Temps des Amours was to remain unfinished and was not published until 1977, after his death. In the meantime, Pagnol turned to a second series, L'Eau des Collines – Jean de Florette and Manon des Sources – which focused on the machinations of Provençal peasant life at the beginning of the twentieth century and were published in 1962. Pagnol adapted his own film Manon des Sources, with his wife Jacqueline in the title role, into two novels, Jean de Florette and Manon des Sources, collectively titled L'Eau des Collines. Marcel Pagnol died in Paris on 18 April 1974, he is buried in Marseille at the cemetery La Treille, along with his mother, father and wife. His boyhood friend, David Magnan, died at the Second Battle of the Marne in July 1918, is buried nearby. Pagnol was known for his translations of Shakespeare and Virgil: 1944: Le
Squatting is the action of occupying an abandoned or unoccupied area of land or a building residential, that the squatter does not own, rent or otherwise have lawful permission to use. Author Robert Neuwirth suggested in 2004. Yet, according to Kesia Reeve, "squatting is absent from policy and academic debate and is conceptualised, as a problem, as a symptom, or as a social or housing movement."Squatting can be related to political movements, such as anarchist, autonomist, or socialist. It can be a means to conserve buildings or to provide affordable housing. In many of the world's poorer countries, there are extensive slums or shanty towns built on the edges of major cities and consisting entirely of self-constructed housing built without the landowner's permission. While these settlements may, in time, grow to become both legalised and indistinguishable from normal residential neighbourhoods, they start off as squats with minimal basic infrastructure. Thus, there is no sewerage system, drinking water must be bought from vendors or carried from a nearby tap, if there is electricity, it is stolen from a passing cable.
During the Great Recession and increased housing foreclosures in the late 2000s, squatting became far more prevalent in Western, developed nations. Besides being residences, some squats are used as social centres or host give-away shops, pirate radio stations or cafés. In Spanish-speaking countries, squatters receive several names, such as okupas in Spain, Chile or Argentina, or paracaidistas in Mexico. Dutch sociologist Hans Pruijt separates types of squatters into five distinct categories: Deprivation-based – i.e. homeless people squatting for housing need An alternative housing strategy – e.g. people unprepared to wait on municipal lists to be housed take direct action Entrepreneurial – e.g. people breaking into buildings to service the need of a community for cheap bars, clubs etc. Conservational – i.e. preserving monuments because the authorities have let them decay Political – e.g. activists squatting buildings as protests or to make social centres In many countries, squatting is in itself a crime.
Property law and the state have traditionally favored the property owner. However, in many cases where squatters had de facto ownership, laws have been changed to legitimize their status. Squatters claim rights over the spaces they have squatted by virtue of occupation, rather than ownership. Anarchist Colin Ward comments: "Squatting is the oldest mode of tenure in the world, we are all descended from squatters; this is as true of the Queen with her 176,000 acres as it is of the 54 percent of householders in Britain who are owner-occupiers. They are all the ultimate recipients of stolen land, for to regard our planet as a commodity offends every conceivable principle of natural rights."Others have a different view. UK police official Sue Williams, for example, has stated that "Squatting is linked to Anti-Social Behaviour and can cause a great deal of nuisance and distress to local residents. In some cases there may be criminal activities involved." The public attitude toward squatting varies, depending on legal aspects, socioeconomic conditions, the type of housing occupied by squatters.
In particular, while squatting of municipal buildings may be treated leniently, squatting of private property leads to strong negative reaction on the part of the public and authorities. Squatting, when done in a positive and progressive manner, can be viewed as a way to reduce crime and vandalism to vacant properties, depending on the squatter's ability and willingness to conform to certain socioeconomic norms of the community in which they reside. Moreover, squatters can contribute to the maintenance or upgrading of sites that would otherwise be left unattended, the neglect of which would create abandoned and decaying neighborhoods within certain sections of moderately to urbanized cities or boroughs, one such example being New York City's Lower Manhattan from the 1970s to the post-9/11 era of the New Millennium. Adverse possession is a method of acquiring title to property through possession for a statutory period under certain conditions. Countries where this principle exists include the United States, based on common law.
However, some non-common law jurisdictions have laws similar to adverse possession. For example, Louisiana has a legal doctrine called acquisitive prescription, derived from French law. There are large squatter communities such as Kibera in Nairobi. An estimated 1,000 people live in the Grande Hotel Beira in Mozambique; the Zabbaleen settlement and the City of the Dead are both well-known squatter communities in Cairo. In South Africa, squatters tend to live in informal settlements or squatter camps on the outskirts of the larger cities but not always near townships. In the mid-1990s, an estimated 7.7 million South Africans lived in informal settlements: a fifth of the country's population. The number has grown in the post-apartheid era. Many buildings in the inner city of Johannesburg have been occupied by squatters. Property owners or government authorities can evict squatters after following certain legal procedures including requesting a court order. In Durban, the city council ro
Germinal (1993 film)
Germinal is a 1993 French epic film based on the novel by Émile Zola. It was directed by Claude Berri, stars Gérard Depardieu, Miou-Miou and Renaud. At the time it was the most expensive movie produced in France; the film had 6,161,776 admissions in France making it the 4th most attended film of the year. It won the César Award for Best Cinematography and Best Costume Design, was nominated for Best Film, Best Actress, Best Supporting Actor, Best Supporting Actress, Best director, Best Writing, Best Sound, Best Editing, Best Music and Best Production Design; the film was selected as the French entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 66th Academy Awards, but was not accepted as a nominee. The film, set in the nineteenth century follows the plot of the novel, a realistic story of a coalminers' strike in northern France in the 1860s. Miou-Miou as Maheude Renaud as Étienne Lantier Gérard Depardieu as Toussaint Maheu Jean Carmet as Vincent Maheu dit Bonnemort Judith Henry as Catherine Maheu Jean-Roger Milo as Chaval Laurent Terzieff as Souvarine Bernard Fresson as Victor Deneulin Jean-Pierre Bisson as Rasseneur Jacques Dacqmine as Philippe Hennebeau Anny Duperey as Madame Hennebeau Gérard Croce as Maigrat James Ard as the Priest Frédéric van den Driessche as Paul Négrel Annick Alane as Madame Grégoire Pierre Lafont as Léon Grégoire Yolande Moreau as La Levaque The movie was well received by the critics.
Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reports that 90% of 10 critics gave the film a positive review, for an average rating of 6.9/10. List of submissions to the 66th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film List of French submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film Germinal Germinal on IMDb