Newsday is an American daily newspaper that serves Nassau and Suffolk counties and the New York City borough of Queens on Long Island, although it is sold throughout the New York metropolitan area. As of 2009, its weekday circulation of 377,500 was the 11th-highest in the United States, the highest among suburban newspapers. In 2012, Newsday expanded to include Westchester county news on its website; as of January 2014, Newsday's total average circulation was 437,000 on weekdays, 434,000 on Saturdays and 495,000 on Sundays. The newspaper's headquarters is in New York, in Suffolk County. Founded by Alicia Patterson and her husband, Harry Guggenheim, the publication was first produced on September 3, 1940 from Hempstead. For many years until a major redesign in the 1970s, Newsday copied the Daily News format of short stories and lots of pictures. After Patterson's death in 1963, Guggenheim became editor. In 1967, Guggenheim turned over the publisher position to Bill Moyers and continued as president and editor-in-chief.
But Guggenheim was disappointed by the liberal drift of the newspaper under Moyers, criticizing what he called the "left-wing" coverage of Vietnam War protests. The two split over the 1968 presidential election, with Guggenheim signing an editorial supporting Richard Nixon, when Moyers supported Hubert Humphrey. Guggenheim sold his majority share to the then-conservative Times-Mirror Company over the attempt of newspaper employees to block the sale though Moyers offered $10 million more than the Times-Mirror purchase price. Guggenheim, who died a year disinherited Moyers from his will. After the competing Long Island Press ceased publication in 1977, Newsday launched a separate Queens edition, followed by a New York City edition dubbed New York Newsday. In June 2000, Times Mirror merged with the Tribune Company, partnering Newsday with the New York City television station WPIX owned by Tribune. With the Times Mirror-Tribune merger, the newspaper founded by Alicia Patterson was now owned by the company, founded by her great-grandfather, Joseph Medill — which owns the Chicago Tribune and, until 1991 owned her father's Daily News.
Chicago, real estate magnate Samuel Zell purchased Tribune in 2007. News Corporation, headed by CEO Rupert Murdoch, attempted to purchase Newsday for US$580 million in April 2008; this was soon followed by a $680 million bid from Cablevision. In May 2008, News Corporation withdrew its bid, on May 12, 2008, Newsday reported that Cablevision would purchase the paper for $650 million; the sale was completed July 29, 2008. Altice, a Netherlands-based multinational telecoms company, bought Cablevision, including Newsday and News 12 in 2016. However, Altice sold a majority stake in Newsday back to Cablevision's former owner Charles Dolan and his son Patrick, making Patrick the CEO of Newsday``. Altice disposed of its remaining stake in Newsday at the end of July 2018, combined with Charles Dolan's transfer of shares to son Patrick, makes Patrick the sole owner of Newsday. Despite having a tabloid format, Newsday is not known for being sensationalistic, as are other local daily tabloids, such as the New York Daily News and the New York Post.
In 2004, the alternative weekly newspaper Long Island Press wrote that Newsday has used its clout to influence local politics in Nassau and Suffolk Counties. Bill Moyers served as publisher. During the tenure of publisher Robert M. Johnson in the 1980s, Newsday made a major push into New York City; the paper's roster of columnists and critics has included Cathy Young, Jimmy Breslin, Barbara Garson, Normand Poirier, Murray Kempton, Gail Collins, Pete Hamill, Sydney Schanberg, Robert Reno, Jim Dwyer, sportswriter Mike Lupica, music critic Tim Page, television critic Marvin Kitman. The paper featured both advice columnists Ann Landers and Dear Abby for several years. From 1985 to 2005, Michael Mandelbaum wrote a regular foreign affairs analysis column for Newsday. Noted writer and biographer Robert Caro was an investigative reporter, its features section has included, among others, television reporters Verne Gay and Diane Werts, TV/film feature writer Frank Lovece, film critic Rafer Guzman. Newsday carries the syndicated columnist Froma Harrop.
Pulitzer Prize winner Walt Handelsman's editorial political cartoons animation are a nationally syndicated feature of Newsday. In the 1980s, a new design director, Robert Eisner, guided the transition into digital design and color printing. Newsday created and sponsored a "Long Island at the Crossroads" advisory board in 1978, to recommend regional goals, supervise local government, liaison with state and Federal officials, it lasted a decade. On March 21, 2011, Newsday redesigned its front page, scrapping the nameplate and font used since the 1960s in favor of a sans-serif wordmark. In 2008, Newsday was ranked 10th in terms of newspaper circulation in the United States. A circulation scandal in 2004 revealed that the paper's daily and Sunday circulation had been inflated by 16.9% and 14.5% in the auditing period September 30, 2002 to September 30, 2003. The Audit Bureau of Circulation adjusted average weekday circulation to 481,816 from 579,599.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783. The American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies won independence from Great Britain, becoming the United States of America, they defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War in alliance with others. Members of American colonial society argued the position of "no taxation without representation", starting with the Stamp Act Congress in 1765, they rejected the authority of the British Parliament to tax them because they lacked members in that governing body. Protests escalated to the Boston Massacre in 1770 and the burning of the Gaspee in Rhode Island in 1772, followed by the Boston Tea Party in December 1773, during which Patriots destroyed a consignment of taxed tea; the British responded by closing Boston Harbor followed with a series of legislative acts which rescinded Massachusetts Bay Colony's rights of self-government and caused the other colonies to rally behind Massachusetts. In late 1774, the Patriots set up their own alternative government to better coordinate their resistance efforts against Great Britain.
Tensions erupted into battle between Patriot militia and British regulars when the king's army attempted to capture and destroy Colonial military supplies at Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775. The conflict developed into a global war, during which the Patriots fought the British and Loyalists in what became known as the American Revolutionary War; each of the thirteen colonies formed a Provincial Congress that assumed power from the old colonial governments and suppressed Loyalism, from there they built a Continental Army under the leadership of General George Washington. The Continental Congress determined King George's rule to be tyrannical and infringing the colonists' rights as Englishmen, they declared the colonies free and independent states on July 2, 1776; the Patriot leadership professed the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism to reject monarchy and aristocracy, they proclaimed that all men are created equal. The Continental Army forced the redcoats out of Boston in March 1776, but that summer the British captured and held New York City and its strategic harbor for the duration of the war.
The Royal Navy blockaded ports and captured other cities for brief periods, but they failed to defeat Washington's forces. The Patriots unsuccessfully attempted to invade Canada during the winter of 1775–76, but captured a British army at the Battle of Saratoga in October 1777. France now entered the war as an ally of the United States with a large army and navy that threatened Britain itself; the war turned to the American South where the British under the leadership of Charles Cornwallis captured an army at Charleston, South Carolina in early 1780 but failed to enlist enough volunteers from Loyalist civilians to take effective control of the territory. A combined American–French force captured a second British army at Yorktown in the fall of 1781 ending the war; the Treaty of Paris was signed September 3, 1783, formally ending the conflict and confirming the new nation's complete separation from the British Empire. The United States took possession of nearly all the territory east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes, with the British retaining control of Canada and Spain taking Florida.
Among the significant results of the revolution was the creation of the United States Constitution, establishing a strong federal national government that included an executive, a national judiciary, a bicameral Congress that represented states in the Senate and the population in the House of Representatives. The Revolution resulted in the migration of around 60,000 Loyalists to other British territories British North America; as early as 1651, the English government had sought to regulate trade in the American colonies. On October 9, the Navigation Acts were passed pursuant to a mercantilist policy intended to ensure that trade enriched only Great Britain, barring trade with foreign nations; some argue that the economic impact was minimal on the colonists, but the political friction which the acts triggered was more serious, as the merchants most directly affected were most politically active. King Philip's War ended in 1678, much of it was fought without significant assistance from England.
This contributed to the development of a unique identity from that of the British people. In the 1680s, King Charles II determined to bring the New England colonies under a more centralized administration in order to regulate trade more effectively, his efforts were fiercely opposed by the colonists, resulting in the abrogation of their colonial charter by the Crown. Charles' successor James II finalized these efforts in 1686, establishing the Dominion of New England. Dominion rule triggered bitter resentment throughout New England. New Englanders were encouraged, however, by a change of government in England that saw James II abdicate, a populist uprising overthrew Dominion rule on April 18, 1689. Colonial governments reasserted their control in the wake of the revolt, successive governments made no more attempts to restore the Dominion. Subsequent English governments continued in their efforts to tax certain goods, passing acts regulating the trade of wool and molasses; the Molasses Act of 1733 in particular was egregious to the colonists, as a significant part of colonial trade relied on the product.
The taxes damaged the N
Patriot (American Revolution)
Patriots were those colonists of the Thirteen Colonies who rejected British rule during the American Revolution and declared the United States of America as an independent nation in July 1776. Their decision was based on the political philosophy of republicanism as expressed by spokesmen such as Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Thomas Paine, they were opposed by the Loyalists. Patriots represented the spectrum of social and ethnic backgrounds, they included lawyers such as John Adams, students such as Alexander Hamilton, planters such as Thomas Jefferson and George Mason, merchants such as Alexander McDougall and John Hancock, farmers such as Daniel Shays and Joseph Plumb Martin. They included slaves and freemen such as Crispus Attucks, the first martyr of the American Revolution; the critics of British rule called themselves "Whigs" after 1768, identifying with members of the British Whig party who favored similar colonial policies. In Britain at the time, the word "patriot" had a negative connotation and was used as a negative epithet for "a factious disturber of the government", according to Samuel Johnson.
Prior to the Revolution, colonists who supported British authority called themselves Tories or royalists, identifying with the political philosophy of traditionalist conservatism dominant in Great Britain. During the Revolution, these persons became known as Loyalists. Afterward, many emigrated north to the remaining British territories in Canada. There they called themselves the United Empire Loyalists. Many Patriots were active before 1775 in groups such as the Sons of Liberty, the most prominent leaders are referred to today by Americans as the Founding Fathers, they represented a cross-section of the population of the Thirteen Colonies and came from many different backgrounds. According to Robert Calhoon, between 40 and 45 percent of the white population in the Thirteen Colonies supported the Patriots' cause, between 15 and 20 percent supported the Loyalists, the remainder were neutral or kept a low profile; the great majority of the Loyalists remained in America, while the minority went to Canada, Florida, or the West Indies.
Historians have explored the motivations that pulled men to the other. Yale historian Leonard Woods Labaree used the published and unpublished writings and letters of leading men on each side, searching for how personality shaped their choice, he finds eight characteristics. Loyalists were older, better established, more to resist innovation than the Patriots. Loyalists felt that the Crown was the legitimate government and resistance to it was morally wrong, while the Patriots felt that morality was on their side because the British government had violated the constitutional rights of Englishmen. Men who were alienated by physical attacks on Royal officials took the Loyalist position, while those who were offended by heavy-handed British rule became Patriots. Merchants in the port cities with long-standing financial attachments to the British Empire were to remain loyal to the system, while few Patriots were so enmeshed in the system; some Loyalists, according to Labaree, were "procrastinators" who believed that independence was bound to come some day, but wanted to "postpone the moment", while the Patriots wanted to "seize the moment".
Loyalists were afraid of anarchy or tyranny that might come from mob rule. Labaree argues that Loyalists were pessimists who lacked the Patriots' confidence that independence lay ahead; the Patriots rejected taxes imposed by legislatures. "No taxation without representation" was their slogan, referring to the lack of representation in the British Parliament. The British countered that there was "virtual representation" in the sense that all members of Parliament represented the interests of all the citizens of the British Empire; some Patriots declared that they were loyal to the king, but they insisted that they should be free to run their own affairs. In fact, they had been running their own affairs since the period of "salutary neglect" before the French and Indian War; some radical Patriots tarred and feathered tax collectors and customs officers, making those positions dangerous. Most of the individuals listed below served the American Revolution in multiple capacities. Thomas Jefferson John Adams John Hancock John Jay John Dickinson Benjamin Franklin Richard Henry Lee Jonathan Shipley William Paca James Madison Alexander Hamilton Samuel Adams Alexander Hamilton William Molineux Timothy Matlack Thomas Paine Paul Revere Patrick Henry Samuel Prescott Molly Pitcher Roger Sherman Philip Mazzei Elkanah Watson James Otis Jr. Nathanael Greene Nathan Hale Francis Marion Andrew Pickens Daniel Morgan James Mitchell Varnum Joseph Bradley Varnum George Washington John Paul Jones Thomas Sumter Francis Vigo Elijah Isaacs Charles Lee Daniel Shays Anthony Wayne Crispus Attucks Peter Salem Jack Sisson James Armistead Lafayette 1st Rhode Island Regiment William Flora Saul Matthews Prince Whipple Salem Poor Ellis, Joseph J..
Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation, Pulitzer Prize Kann, Mark E..
Smith Estate (Ridge, New York)
Smith Estate known as Longwood Estate - Smith House, is a historic estate located at Ridge in Suffolk County, New York. It is maintained by the Town of Brookhaven; the Longwood Estate is part of a huge parcel of land purchased by William "Tangier" Smith in the 17th century, which he called Manor St. George; the estate consists of a large, late 18th century main house, caretaker's cottage, a farm complex, the Smith family cemetery, a small frame schoolhouse moved to the property in 1977. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1981. Bygone Long Island ---- Historical ---- The Longwood Estate aka St George's Manor
Middle Island, New York
Middle Island is a hamlet and census-designated place in Suffolk County, New York, United States. The population was 10,483 at the 2010 census, it is situated between the hamlets of Coram and Ridge, to the west and east and Rocky Point and Yaphank to the north and south. The name derives from the fact that it lies halfway between the eastern and western ends of Long Island as well as halfway between the northern and southern boundaries. Middle Island is a community in the Town of Brookhaven served by the Longwood Central School District, which at 58 square miles is the largest school district on Long Island; the Longwood Public Library is located in Middle Island. Parks within Middle Island include Cathedral Pines County Park and the adjacent Prosser Pines County Park. Middle Island is surrounded by three public golf courses. Middle Island Country Club and Spring Lake Golf Club are both within Middle Island. Middle Island is located at 40°53′6″N 72°56′36″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 8.3 square miles, of which 8.2 square miles is land and 0.077 square miles, or 0.71%, is water.
Middle Island has many lakes such as Spring Lake, Artist Lake, Pine Lake. Middle Island contains the headwaters of the Carmans River, which began at Pfeiffer's Pond on the northeast corner of NY 25 and Old Middle Island Road, but now begins within Cathedral Pines County Park; the European-American history of Middle Island goes back at least to 1766, when the first Presbyterian church was built. Rev. David Rose, a doctor and a pastor of the South Haven church, covered his immense parish on horseback, he filled his saddle bags with medicines to minister to his frontier congregation. In 1766 the parish opened a cemetery just across from the church; the first schoolhouse was built in 1813 east of the church. In 1837, a new church was built just to the rear of the older one, it served the community for 200 years until the new Christian Education building was built at the Longwood Estate in 1966. Middle Island gained an influx of Estonian refugees during the 1940s and 1950s around the Pine Lake area.
For over 100 years, Pfeiffer's Store was a center of activity for Middle Island and surrounding communities. A nearby lake, known as Corwin's Pond, was renamed "Artist Lake" after painter Alonzo Chappel settled there in 1869; as of the 2000 census, there were 9,702 people, 3,720 households, 2,548 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 1,175.9 per square mile. There were 3,900 housing units at an average density of 472.7/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 85.45% White, 7.58% African American, 0.25% Native American, 2.44% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.92% from other races, 2.31% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.87% of the population. Of the 3,720 households, 31.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.0% were married couples living together, 13.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.5% were non-families. 23.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.01. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 22.5% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 32.6% from 25 to 44, 22.9% from 45 to 64, 13.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.9 males. Middle Island has a lively nightlife with a diverse choice of food, they have food such as Italian, Greek and Mexican dishes. Many of theses restaurants have joint bars where there's plenty of places to go to for the night life; the median income for a household in the CDP was $50,818, the median income for a family was $58,171. Males had a median income of $41,618 versus $30,516 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $23,129. About 4.3% of families and 6.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.9% of those under age 18 and 6.6% of those age 65 or over. Middle Island History Cathedral Pines County Park
William Floyd House
William Floyd House known as Nicholl Floyd House and Old Mastic House, was a home of William Floyd, a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence, in Mastic Beach, New York. It was his home from 1734 until 1803; this home is distinct from Gen. William Floyd House, his home in Westernville, New York, on the National Register and, designated a National Historic Landmark; the two William Floyd houses are believed to be the only surviving homes in New York of signers of the Declaration of Independence. The Mastic home is "reputed to be the best preserved and oldest manor house" in its part of Long Island, it is located about 0.29 miles south of Wavecrest Drive in Mastic Beach. The home was built by Nicholl Floyd, William Floyd's father, was given to William's son named Nicholl Floyd; the house was visited by others. The house is owned by the National Park Service as part of Fire Island National Seashore, although it's not on Fire Island itself. Media related to William Floyd Estate at Wikimedia Commons National Park Service: William Floyd Estate Historic American Buildings Survey No.
NY-5427, "General William Floyd House, Washington Avenue & Wavecrest Drive, Mastic Beach, Suffolk County, NY", 15 photos, 11 measured drawings, 14 data pages
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area, it separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Europe and Africa to the east, the Americas to the west; as one component of the interconnected global ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, the Southern Ocean in the south. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean and the South Atlantic Ocean at about 8°N. Scientific explorations of the Atlantic include the Challenger expedition, the German Meteor expedition, Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the United States Navy Hydrographic Office; the oldest known mentions of an "Atlantic" sea come from Stesichorus around mid-sixth century BC: Atlantikoi pelágei and in The Histories of Herodotus around 450 BC: Atlantis thalassa where the name refers to "the sea beyond the pillars of Heracles", said to be part of the sea that surrounds all land.
Thus, on one hand, the name refers to Atlas, the Titan in Greek mythology, who supported the heavens and who appeared as a frontispiece in Medieval maps and lent his name to modern atlases. On the other hand, to early Greek sailors and in Ancient Greek mythological literature such as the Iliad and the Odyssey, this all-encompassing ocean was instead known as Oceanus, the gigantic river that encircled the world. In contrast, the term "Atlantic" referred to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast; the Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of millions of years ago. The term "Aethiopian Ocean", derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century. During the Age of Discovery, the Atlantic was known to English cartographers as the Great Western Ocean; the term The Pond is used by British and American speakers in context to the Atlantic Ocean, as a form of meiosis, or sarcastic understatement.
The term dates to as early as 1640, first appearing in print in pamphlet released during the reign of Charles I, reproduced in 1869 in Nehemiah Wallington's Historical Notices of Events Occurring Chiefly in The Reign of Charles I, where "great Pond" is used in reference to the Atlantic Ocean by Francis Windebank, Charles I's Secretary of State. The International Hydrographic Organization defined the limits of the oceans and seas in 1953, but some of these definitions have been revised since and some are not used by various authorities and countries, see for example the CIA World Factbook. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies; the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea. To the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe: the Strait of Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean; the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border.
In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean. The Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays and seas; these include the Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea all of the Scotia Sea, other tributary water bodies. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific. Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23.5% of the global ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23.3% of the total volume of the earth's oceans. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3; the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench, is 8,486 m.
The bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S; the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2,000 m along most of its length, but is interrupted by larger transform faults at two places: the Romanche Trench near the Equator and the Gibbs Fracture Zone at 53°N; the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the othe