The Upper Paleolithic is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age. Broadly, it dates to between 50,000 and 10,000 years ago, according to some theories coinciding with the appearance of behavioral modernity and before the advent of agriculture. Anatomically modern humans are believed to have emerged out of Africa around 200,000 years ago, although these lifestyles changed little from that of archaic humans of the Middle Paleolithic, until about 50,000 years ago, when there was a marked increase in the diversity of artefacts; this period coincides with the expansion of modern humans from Africa throughout Asia and Eurasia, which contributed to the extinction of the Neanderthals. The Upper Paleolithic has the earliest known evidence of organized settlements, in the form of campsites, some with storage pits. Artistic work blossomed, with cave painting, petroglyphs and engravings on bone or ivory; the first evidence of human fishing is found, from artefacts in places such as Blombos cave in South Africa.
More complex social groupings emerged, supported by more varied and reliable food sources and specialized tool types. This contributed to increasing group identification or ethnicity; the peopling of Australia most took place before c. 60 ka. Europe was peopled after c. 45 ka. Anatomically modern humans are known to have expanded northward into Siberia as far as the 58th parallel by about 45 ka; the Upper Paleolithic is divided during about 25 to 15 ka. The peopling of the Americas occurred during this time, with East and Central Asia populations reaching the Bering land bridge after about 35 ka, expanding into the Americas by about 15 ka. In Western Eurasia, the Paleolithic eases into the so-called Epipaleolithic or Mesolithic from the end of the LGM, beginning 15 ka; the Holocene glacial retreat begins 11.7 ka, falling well into the Old World Epipaleolithic, marking the beginning of the earliest forms of farming in the Fertile Crescent. Both Homo erectus and Neanderthals used the same crude stone tools.
Archaeologist Richard G. Klein, who has worked extensively on ancient stone tools, describes the stone tool kit of archaic hominids as impossible to categorize, it was as if the Neanderthals made stone tools, were not much concerned about their final forms. He argues that everywhere, whether Asia, Africa or Europe, before 50,000 years ago all the stone tools are much alike and unsophisticated. Firstly among the artefacts of Africa, archeologists found they could differentiate and classify those of less than 50,000 years into many different categories, such as projectile points, engraving tools, knife blades, drilling and piercing tools; these new stone-tool types have been described as being distinctly differentiated from each other. The invaders referred to as the Cro-Magnons, left many sophisticated stone tools and engraved pieces on bone and antler, cave paintings and Venus figurines; the Neanderthals continued to use Mousterian stone tool technology and Chatelperronian technology. These tools disappeared from the archeological record at around the same time the Neanderthals themselves disappeared from the fossil record, about 40,000 cal BP.
Settlements were located in narrow valley bottoms associated with hunting of passing herds of animals. Some of them may have been occupied year round, though more they appear to have been used seasonally. Hunting was important, caribou/wild reindeer "may well be the species of single greatest importance in the entire anthropological literature on hunting."Technological advances included significant developments in flint tool manufacturing, with industries based on fine blades rather than simpler and shorter flakes. Burins and racloirs were used to work bone and hides. Advanced darts and harpoons appear in this period, along with the fish hook, the oil lamp and the eyed needle; the changes in human behavior have been attributed to changes in climate, encompassing a number of global temperature drops. These led to a worsening of the bitter cold of the last glacial period; such changes may have reduced the supply of usable timber and forced people to look at other materials. In addition, flint may not have functioned as a tool.
Some scholars argue that the appearance of complex or abstract language made these behavior changes possible. The complexity of the new human capabilities hints that humans were less capable of planning or foresight before 40,000 years, while the emergence of cooperative and coherent communication marked a new era of cultural development; the climate of the period in Europe saw dramatic changes, included the Last Glacial Maximum, the coldest phase of the last glacial period, which lasted from about 26.5 to 19 kya, being coldest at the end, before a rapid warming. During the Maximum, most of Northern Europe was covered by an ice-sheet, forcing human populations into the areas known as Last Glacial Maximum refugia, including modern Italy and the Balkans, parts of the Iberian Peninsula and areas around the Black Sea; this period saw cultures such as the Solutrean in Spain. Human life may have continued on top of the ice sheet, but we know next to nothing about it, little about the human life that preceded the European glaciers.
In the early part of the period, up to a
A sagittal plane, or longitudinal plane, is an anatomical plane which divides the body into right and left parts. The plane may be in the center of the body and split it into two halves or away from the midline and split it into unequal parts. Examples of sagittal planes include: The terms median plane or mid-sagittal plane are sometimes used to describe the sagittal plane running through the midline; this plane cuts the body into halves, passing through midline structures such as the navel and spine. It is one of the planes which, combined with the Umbilical plane, defines the four quadrants of the human abdomen; the term parasagittal is used to describe any plane parallel or adjacent to the sagittal plane. Specific named parasagittal planes include: The midclavicular line crosses through the clavicle. Lateral sternal and parasternal planes; the term sagittal is derived from the Latin word sagitta, meaning "arrow". An image of an arrow piercing a body and passing from front to back on a parabolic trajectory would be one way to demonstrate the derivation of the term.
Another explanation would be the notching of the sagittal suture posteriorly by the lambdoidal suture —similar to feathers on an arrow. Sagittal axis or anterior-posterior axis is the axis perpendicular to the coronal plane, i.e. the one formed by the intersection of the sagittal and the transversal planes Coronal axis, medial-lateral axis, or frontal axis is the axis perpendicular to the sagittal plane, i.e. the one formed by the intersection of the coronal and the transversal planes. Extension and flexion are the movements of limbs within the sagittal plane. Abduction and adduction are terms for movements of limbs within the coronal plane. Anatomical terms of location Coronal plane Transverse plane
National Museum of Natural History
The National Museum of Natural History is a natural history museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution, located on the National Mall in Washington, D. C. United States, it is open 364 days a year. In 2016, with 7.1 million visitors, it was the fourth most visited museum in the world and the most visited natural-history museum in the world. Opened in 1910, the museum on the National Mall was one of the first Smithsonian buildings constructed to hold the national collections and research facilities; the main building has an overall area of 1,500,000 square feet with 325,000 square feet of exhibition and public space and houses over 1,000 employees. The museum's collections contain over 126 million specimens of plants, fossils, rocks, human remains, human cultural artifacts, it is home to about 185 professional natural-history scientists—the largest group of scientists dedicated to the study of natural and cultural history in the world. The United States National Museum was founded in 1846 as part of the Smithsonian Institution.
The museum was housed in the Smithsonian Institution Building, better known today as the Smithsonian Castle. A formal exhibit hall opened in 1858; the growing collection led to the construction of the National Museum Building. Covering a then-enormous 2.25 acres, it was built in just 15 months at a cost of $310,000. It opened in March 1881. Congress authorized construction of a new building on June 28, 1902. On January 29, 1903, a special committee composed of members of Congress and representatives from the Smithsonian's board of regents published a report asking Congress to fund a much larger structure than planned; the regents began considering sites for the new building in March, by April 12 settled on a site on the north side of B Street NW between 9th and 12th Streets. The D. C. architectural firm of Hornblower & Marshall was chosen to design the structure. Testing of the soil for the foundations was set for July 1903, with construction expected to take three years; the Natural History Building opened its doors to the public on March 17, 1910, in order to provide the Smithsonian Institution with more space for collections and research.
The building was not completed until June 1911. The structure cost $3.5 million dollars. The Neoclassical style building was the first structure constructed on the north side of the National Mall as part of the 1901 McMillan Commission plan. In addition to the Smithsonian's natural history collection, it housed the American history and cultural collections. Between 1981 and 2003, the National Museum of Natural History had 11 acting directors. There were six directors alone between 1990 and 2002. Turnover was high as the museum's directors were disenchanted by low levels of funding and the Smithsonian's inability to define the museum's mission. Robert W. Fri was named the museum's director in 1996. One of the largest donations in Smithsonian history was made during Fri's tenure. Kenneth E. Behring donated $20 million in 1997 to modernize the museum. Fri resigned in 2001 after disagreeing with Smithsonian leadership over the reorganization of the museum's scientific research programs. J. Dennis O'Connor, Provost of the Smithsonian Institution was named acting director of the museum on July 25, 2001.
Eight months O'Conner resigned to become the vice president of research and dean of the graduate school at the University of Maryland. Douglas Erwin, a paleontologist at the National Museum of Natural History, was appointed interim director in June 2002. In January 2003, the Smithsonian announced that Cristián Samper, a Colombian with an M. Sc. and Ph. D. from Harvard University, would become the museum's permanent director on March 31, 2003. Samper founded the Alexander von Humboldt Biological Resources Research Institute and ran the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute after 2001. Smithsonian officials said. Under Samper's direction, the museum opened the $100 million Behring Hall of Mammals in November 2003, received $60 million in 2004 for the Sant Hall of Oceans, received a $1 million gift from Tiffany & Co. for the purchase of precious gems for the National Gem Collection. On March 25, 2007, Lawrence M. Small, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution and the organization's highest-ranking appointed official, resigned abruptly after public reports of lavish spending.
On March 27, 2007 Samper was appointed Acting Secretary of the Smithsonian. Paul G. Risser, former chancellor of the University of Oklahoma, was named Acting Director of the Museum of Natural History on March 29. Samper's tenure at the museum was not without controversy. In May 2007, Robert Sullivan, the former associate director in charge of exhibitions at the National Museum of Natural History, charged that Samper and Smithsonian Undersecretary for Science David Evans ordered "last minute" changes in the exhibit "Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely" to tone down the role of human beings in the discussion of global warming, to make global warming seem more uncertain than depicted. Samper denied that he knew of any scientific objections to the changes, said that no political pressure had been applied to the Smithsonian to make the changes. In November 2007, The Washington Post reported that an interagency group of scientists from the Department of the Interior, NASA, Nati
Gibbon–human last common ancestor
The gibbon–human last common ancestor is the last common ancestor shared by the families Hominidae and Hylobatidae. In other words, GHLCA is ancestor of the Orangutan–human last common ancestor on one hand and gibbons on the other. Due to complex hybrid speciation, it is not possible to give a precise estimate on the age of this ancestral population, it is estimated to have lived 15.9 to 17.6 million years ago during the early Miocene. The species, which has not been identified, was smaller than thought and about the size of a gibbon; the family of Hylobatidae has four gibbon genera containing 20 different species. Each genus has a different number of chromosomes. Despite extensive genomic analysis the ordering of the genera is not clear; the extinct Bunopithecus sericus was a gibbon-like ape. Whole genome molecular dating analyses indicate that the gibbon lineage diverged from that of great apes around 16.8 million years ago. Adaptive divergence associated with chromosomal rearrangements led to rapid radiation of the four genera 5-7 Mya.
Each genus comprises a distinct, well-delineated lineage, but the sequence and timing of divergences among these genera has been hard to resolve with whole genome data, due to radiative speciations and extensive incomplete lineage sorting. The various speciations resulted in short internal branches in the species phylogeny. An analysis based on morphology suggests that the four genera are ordered as A coalescent-based species tree analysis of genome-scale datasets suggests a phylogeny for the four genera ordered as. Family Hylobatidae: gibbons Physical features are not enough to work out the relationships of the gibbon genera; the family is divided into four genera based on their diploid chromosome number: Hylobates, Hoolock and Symphalangus. There is an extinct fifth genus named Bunopithecus, either a gibbon or gibbon-like ape. An extinct sixth genus, was identified in 2018 based on a partial skull found in China. Genus Bunopithecus Bunopithecus sericus Genus Junzi Junzi imperialis Because fossils are so scarce it is not clear what GHLCA looked like.
It is unknown whether GHLCA had a broad, flat rib cage like their descendants. But it is that he was a small animal and only weighed 12 kilograms; this contradicts previous theories that they were the size of chimpanzees and that apes moved to hanging and swinging from trees in order to get off the ground because they were too big. There might have been an arms race in brachiating to reach the best food; the Hominidae which came were smaller than their ancestors, contrary to normal evolution where animals get larger over their evolutionary development. Chimpanzee–human last common ancestor Gorilla–human last common ancestor Orangutan–human last common ancestor History of hominoid taxonomy List of human evolution fossils
Manot Cave is a cave in Western Galilee, discovered in 2008. It is notable for the discovery of a skull that belongs to a modern human, estimated to be 54,700 years old; the partial skull was discovered at the beginning of the cave's exploration in 2008. Its significance was realised after detailed scientific analysis, was first published in an online edition of Nature on 28 January 2015; this age implies that the specimen is the oldest known human outside Africa, is evidence that modern humans lived side-by-side with Neanderthals. The cave is noted for its "impressive archaeological record of flint and bone artefacts". Geologically, it is an "active stalactite cave". Manot Cave is situated in Western Galilee, about 10 km north of HaYonim Cave and 50 km northeast of Mt. Carmel Cave, it was discovered accidentally during a construction work in 2008 when a bulldozer struck open its roof. Experts from the Cave Research Unit of Hebrew University of Jerusalem made the initial survey. Important finds were stone tools, charcoal pieces, human remains.
The tools consisted of a Levallois point, bladelets, overpassed blades, Aurignacian tools such as nosed and carinated endscrapers. There were remains of "fallow deer, red deer, mountain gazelle, aurochs and bear"; the major find was an complete human skull. The finds were reported to the Israel Antiquities Authority. Ofer Marder and H. Khalaily found that it was a rich archaeological site. Recognising its importance, the IAA granted a full-scale excavation in 2010. For three weeks the site was excavated by a collaboration of archaeologists from Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Tel Aviv University, Geological Survey of Israel, Zinman Institute of Archaeology of University of Haifa, Kimmel Center for Archaeological Sciences of Weizmann Institute of Science, the Department of Archaeology of Boston University; the Manot Cave consists between 10m and 25m wide. Two lower chambers are connected to it from south, it is possible that the main entrances were at both the western ends. The cave has active stalagmite formations.
Archaeological remains indicate that the most recent artifacts belong to the Early Palaeolithic period. This further indicates that the cave had been sealed for at least 15,000 years; the blockage was due to rock falls and active stalagmites at the main entrances. Archaeologists have offered the following chronology for the cave, based on radiocarbon dating: an Early Ahmarian phase, a Levantine Aurignacian phase, a post-Levantine Aurignacian phase; the most important find in the cave is a partial skullcap of a modern human, referred to by archaeologists as Manot 1. The specimen is estimated to be 54,700 years old. If correct, the find. Not only is it from the oldest known modern human found outside Africa, but it is the first physical evidence that supports the Out of Africa theory, which states that modern humans left Africa around 70,000 years ago; this estimate had been supported only by genetic evidence. In addition, it shows that modern humans lived together with another human species, the Neanderthals, in the Levant.
This could support the notion that these two species had interbred, as evidenced by genome sequencing. Kebara Cave Ksar Akil
Human evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans, beginning with the evolutionary history of primates—in particular genus Homo—and leading to the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of the hominid family, the great apes. This process involved the gradual development of traits such as human bipedalism and language, as well as interbreeding with other hominins, which indicate that human evolution was not linear but a web; the study of human evolution involves several scientific disciplines, including physical anthropology, archaeology, neurobiology, linguistics, evolutionary psychology and genetics. Genetic studies show that primates diverged from other mammals about 85 million years ago, in the Late Cretaceous period, the earliest fossils appear in the Paleocene, around 55 million years ago. Within the Hominoidea superfamily, the Hominidae family diverged from the Hylobatidae family some 15–20 million years ago. Human evolution from its first separation from the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees is characterized by a number of morphological, developmental and behavioral changes.
The most significant of these adaptations are bipedalism, increased brain size, lengthened ontogeny, decreased sexual dimorphism. The relationship between these changes is the subject of ongoing debate. Other significant morphological changes included the evolution of a power and precision grip, a change first occurring in H. erectus. Bipedalism is the basic adaptation of the hominid and is considered the main cause behind a suite of skeletal changes shared by all bipedal hominids; the earliest hominin, of primitive bipedalism, is considered to be either Sahelanthropus or Orrorin, both of which arose some 6 to 7 million years ago. The non-bipedal knuckle-walkers, the gorilla and chimpanzee, diverged from the hominin line over a period covering the same time, so either of Sahelanthropus or Orrorin may be our last shared ancestor. Ardipithecus, a full biped, arose 5.6 million years ago. The early bipeds evolved into the australopithecines and still into the genus Homo. There are several theories of the adaptation value of bipedalism.
It is possible that bipedalism was favored because it freed the hands for reaching and carrying food, saved energy during locomotion, enabled long distance running and hunting, provided an enhanced field of vision, helped avoid hyperthermia by reducing the surface area exposed to direct sun. A new study provides support for the hypothesis that walking on two legs, or bipedalism, evolved because it used less energy than quadrupedal knuckle-walking. However, recent studies suggest that bipedality without the ability to use fire would not have allowed global dispersal; this change in gait saw a lengthening of the legs proportionately when compared to the length of the arms, which were shortened through the removal of the need for brachiation. Another change is the shape of the big toe. Recent studies suggest that Australopithecines still lived part of the time in trees as a result of maintaining a grasping big toe; this was progressively lost in Habilines. Anatomically, the evolution of bipedalism has been accompanied by a large number of skeletal changes, not just to the legs and pelvis, but to the vertebral column and ankles, skull.
The femur evolved into a more angular position to move the center of gravity toward the geometric center of the body. The knee and ankle joints became robust to better support increased weight. To support the increased weight on each vertebra in the upright position, the human vertebral column became S-shaped and the lumbar vertebrae became shorter and wider. In the feet the big toe moved into alignment with the other toes to help in forward locomotion; the arms and forearms shortened relative to the legs making it easier to run. The foramen magnum migrated under more anterior; the most significant changes occurred in the pelvic region, where the long downward facing iliac blade was shortened and widened as a requirement for keeping the center of gravity stable while walking. A drawback is that the birth canal of bipedal apes is smaller than in knuckle-walking apes, though there has been a widening of it in comparison to that of australopithecine and modern humans, permitting the passage of newborns due to the increase in cranial size but this is limited to the upper portion, since further increase can hinder normal bipedal movement.
The shortening of the pelvis and smaller birth canal evolved as a requirement for bipedalism and had significant effects on the process of human birth, much more difficult in modern humans than in other primates. During human birth, because of the variation in size of the pelvic region, the fetal head must be in a transverse position during entry into the birth canal and rotate about 90 degrees upon exit; the smaller birth canal became a limiting factor to brain size increases in early humans and prompted a shorter gestation period leading to the relative immaturity of human
The fallow deer is a ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. This common species is native to Europe, but has been introduced to Antigua & Barbuda, South Africa, Fernando Pó, São Tomé, Mauritius, Mayotte, Réunion, Comoro Islands, Algeria, Cyprus, Cape Verde, Australia, New Zealand, the United States, the Falkland Islands, Peru; some taxonomers include the rarer Persian fallow deer as a subspecies, while others treat it as an different species. The male fallow deer is known as a buck, the female is a doe, the young a fawn. Adult bucks are 140–160 cm long, 85–95 cm in shoulder height, 60–100 kg in weight; the largest bucks may weigh 150 kg. Fawns weigh around 4.5 kg. Their lifespan is around 12–16 years. Much variation occurs in the coat colour of the species, with four main variants: common, menil and leucistic – a genuine colour variety, not albinistic; the white is the lightest coloured white. Common: Chestnut coat with white mottles, it is most pronounced in summer with a much darker, unspotted coat in the winter.
The light-coloured area around the tail is edged with black. The tail is light with a black stripe. Menil: Spots are more distinct than common in summer and no black is seen around the rump patch or on the tail. In winter, spots are still clear on a darker brown coat. Melanistic: All-year the coat is black shading to greyish brown. No light-coloured tail patch or spots are seen. Leucistic: Fawns are cream-coloured. Dark eyes and nose are seen; the coat has no spots. Most herds consist of the common coat variation, yet animals of the menil coat variation are not rare; the melanistic variation is rarer, white is much rarer still, although wild New Zealand herds have a high melanistic percentage. Only bucks have antlers, which are shovel-shaped from three years. In the first two years, the antler is a single spike, they are grazing animals. During the rut, bucks spread out and females move between them. Agile and fast in case of danger, fallow deer can run at a maximum speed of 30 mph over short distances.
Being less muscular than other cervids such as roe deer, they are not as fast. Fallow deer can make jumps up to 1.75 m high and up to 5 m in length. The fallow deer is a Eurasian deer, a native to most of Europe during the last interglacial. In the Holocene, the distribution was restricted to the Middle East and also parts of the Mediterranean region, while further southeast in western Asia was the home of the Persian fallow deer, bigger and has larger antlers. In the Levant, fallow deer were an important source of meat in the Palaeolithic Kebaran-culture, as is shown by animal bones from sites in northern Israel, but the numbers decreased in the following epi-Palaeolithic Natufian culture because of increased aridity and the decrease of wooded areas; the fallow deer was introduced to Victoria Island in the Province of Neuquén by billionaire Aaron Anchorena, who intended to increase hunting opportunities. He freed wildlife of European and Asian origin, making them common inhabitants of the island and competing for land and food with the native South Andean deer and Pudú deer.
The fallow deer was spread across central Europe by the Romans. Until the Normans were thought to have introduced them to Great Britain for hunting in the royal forests. However, recent finds at Fishbourne Roman Palace show that fallow deer were introduced into southern England in the first century AD. Whether these escaped to form a feral colony, or whether they died out and were reintroduced by the Normans is not known. Fallow deer are now widespread on the UK mainland and are present in most of England and Wales below a line drawn from the Wash to the Mersey. Populations in the New Forest and the Forest of Dean are long-standing, many of the other populations originated from park escapees, they are not quite so widespread in the northern parts of England, but are present in most lowland areas and in parts of Scotland, principally in Strathtay and around Loch Lomond. According to the British Deer Society distribution survey 2007, they have increased in range since the previous survey in 2000, although the increase in range is not as spectacular as for some of the other deer species.
In Ireland, a long-established herd of about 450 is in Dublin. A significant number of the fallow in the Forest of Dean and in Epping Forest are of the black variety. One interesting population known as "long-haired fallow deer" inhabit Mortimer Forest on the England/Wales border, a significant part of the population has long hair with distinct ear tufts and longer body hair; the Rhodian population of fallow deer are smaller on average than those of central and northern Europe, though they are coloured. In 2005, the Rhodian fallow deer was found to be genetically distinct from all other populations and to be of urgent conservation concern. At the entrance to the harbour of Rhodes city, statue