A stalagmite is a type of rock formation that rises from the floor of a cave due to the accumulation of material deposited on the floor from ceiling drippings. Stalagmites may be composed of amberat, minerals, peat, sand, the corresponding formation hanging down from the ceiling of a cave is a stalactite. Mnemonics have been developed for which word refers to type of formation, one is that stalactite has a C for ceiling. The most common stalagmites are speleothems, which form in limestone caves. This stalagmite formation occurs only under certain pH conditions within the underground cavern and they form through deposition of calcium carbonate and other minerals, which is precipitated from mineralized water solutions. Limestone is the form of calcium carbonate rock, which is dissolved by water that contains carbon dioxide. If stalactites – the ceiling formations – grow long enough to connect with stalagmites on the floor and dirt from human contact can stain the formation and change its color permanently.
Another type of stalagmite is formed in lava tubes while lava is still active inside, the mechanism of formation is similar to that of limestone stalagmites. A key difference with lava stalagmites is that once the lava has ceased flowing and this means if the stalagmite were to be broken it would never grow back. Stalagmites in lava tubes are rarer than their stalactite counterparts because during formation the dripping material falls onto still-moving lava floors that absorb or carry the material away, the generic term lavacicle has been applied to lava stalactites and stalagmites indiscriminately, and evolved from the word icicle. A common stalagmite found seasonally or year round in many caves is the ice stalagmite, commonly referred to as icicles, water seepage from the surface will penetrate into a cave and if temperatures are below freezing temperature, the water will collect on the floor into stalagmites. Deposition may directly from the freezing of water vapor. Similar to lava stalagmites, ice stalagmites form very quickly within hours or days, unlike lava stalagmites however, they may grow back as long as water and temperatures are suitable.
Ice stalagmites are more common than their stalactite counterparts because warmer air rises to the ceilings of caves, ice stalactites may form corresponding stalagmites below them, and given time, may grow together to form an ice column. Stalactites and stalagmites can form on concrete ceilings and floors, calcium carbonate deposition as a stalagmite occurs when the solution carries the calcium laden leachate solution to the ground under the concrete structure. Carbon dioxide is absorbed into the alkaline solution, which facilitates the chemical reactions to deposit calcium carbonate as a stalagmite. These stalagmites rarely grow taller than a few centimetres, secondary deposits, which create stalagmites, flowstone etc, outside the natural cave environment, are referred to as “calthemites”. These concrete derived secondary deposits can’t be referred to as “speleothems” due to the definition of the word, the largest known stalagmite in the world exceeds 70 metres in height and is located in Sơn Đoòng Cave, Vietnam
Ksar Akil is an archeological site 10 km northeast of Beirut in Lebanon. It is located about 800 m west of Antelias spring on the bank of the northern tributary of the Wadi Antelias. It is a rock shelter below a steep limestone cliff. It was first noticed by Godefroy Zumoffen in 1900 and first studied by A. E. Day in 1926 first systematically excavated by J. G. Doherty, S. J. and J. F. Ewing, S. J. in 1937-1938 and again in 1947-1948, later by Jacques Tixier in 1969-1975 before research was interrupted by the Lebanese Civil War. Excavations showed occupational deposits reaching down to a depth of 23.6 m with one of the longest sequences of Paleolithic flint industries ever found in the Middle East, the first level of 8 m contained Upper Levalloiso-Mousterian remains with long and triangular Lithic flakes. The level above this showed industries accounting for all six stages of the Upper Paleolithic. An Emireh point was found at the first stage of level, at around 15.2 m below datum with a complete skeleton of an eight-year-old Homo sapiens was discovered at 11.6 m.
A fragment of a Neanderthal maxilla was discovered in material from level XXVI or XXV, Studies by Hooijer showed Capra and Dama were dominant in the fauna along with Stephanorhinus in Levalloiso-Mousterian levels. It is assumed to be one of the earliest known sites containing Upper Paleolithic technologies including Aurignacian cultural objects and this indicates that the inhabitants were among the first in Western Eurasia to use personal ornaments. Results from radiocarbon dating indicate that the humans may have lived at the site approximately 45,000 years ago or earlier. The presence of ornaments at Ksar Akil is suggestive of modern human behavior. The findings of ornaments at the site are contemporaneous with ornaments found at Late Stone Age sites such as Enkapune ya muto, braidwood, R. Wright, H. E. and Ewing, J. F. Ksar Akil, its Archaeological Sequence and Geological Setting. Journal of Near-Eastern Studies, Volume 10,1951, Ewing, J. Preliminary Note on the Excavations at the Paleolithic Site of Ksar Akil, Republic of Lebanon, vol.
Human types and Prehistoric Cultures at Ksar Akil, Selected papers, University of Pennsylvania Press,1956. A Probably Neanderthaloid from Ksar Akil, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Volume 21, Number 2,1963. Upper Pleistocene Stratigraphy and Early Man in the Levant, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, a Transitional Industry from the Base of the Upper Paleolithic in Palestine and Syria. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, Volume 81,1952, the Relations between Southwest Asia and Europe in the Later Paleolithic Age, Journal of World History, Volume 1,1953
Weizmann Institute of Science
The Weizmann Institute of Science is a public research university in Rehovot, south of Tel Aviv established in 1934,14 years before the State of Israel. It differs from other Israeli universities in that it offers graduate and postgraduate degrees in the natural. It is a research center, with around 2,500 scientists, postdoctoral fellows, Ph. D. and M. Sc. students, and scientific, technical. Three Nobel laureates and three Turing Award laureates have been associated with the Weizmann Institute of Science, founded in 1934 by Chaim Weizmann and his first team, among them Benjamin M. Bloch, as the Daniel Sieff Research Institute. Weizmann had offered the post of director to Nobel Prize laureate Fritz Haber, before he became President of the State of Israel in February 1949, Weizmann pursued his research in organic chemistry at its laboratories. The institute was renamed the Weizmann Institute of Science in his honor on November 2,1949, the symbol of the Weizmann Institute of Science is the multibranched Ficus tree.
Undergraduates and recent graduates must apply to M. Sc. programs, full fellowships are given to all students and outside employment is not allowed. In addition to its programs, the Weizmann Institute runs programs for youth, including science clubs, camps. The Bessie F. Lawrence International Summer Science Institute accepts high-school graduates from all over the world for a four-week, the Clore Garden of Science, which opened in 1999, is the world’s first completely interactive outdoor science museum. In 2015, the Weizmann Institute made the Academic Ranking of World Universities at a place between 101 and 150 and the U. S. News Best Global Universities list in 126th place. However, it made neither the QS World University Rankings nor the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, travel time will be about 25 minutes from Tel Aviv HaHagana. To the main gate, it will be an additional 5-minute walk, from Ben Gurion Airport, take any Tel Aviv bound train from Ben Gurion Airport Railway Station, located at the lower level of Terminal 3 to Tel Aviv HaHagana Railway Station.
Change to a bound for Rehovot or Ashkelon via Lod. Total travel time will be about 50 minutes, depending on train connection/transfer
The fallow deer is a ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. Some taxonomers include the rarer Persian fallow deer as a subspecies, the male fallow deer is known as a buck, the female is a doe, and the young a fawn. Adult bucks are 140–160 cm long, 85–95 cm in height, and typically 60–100 kg in weight, does are 130–150 cm long, 75–85 cm in shoulder height. The largest bucks may measure 190 cm long and weigh 150 kg, Fawns are born in spring around 30 cm and weigh around 4.5 kg. Their lifespan is around 12–16 years, much variation occurs in the coat colour of the species, with four main variants, menil and leucistic – a genuine colour variety, not albinistic. The white is the lightest coloured, almost white and menil are darker, Chestnut coat with white mottles, it is most pronounced in summer with a much darker, unspotted coat in the winter. The light-coloured area around the tail is edged with black, the tail is light with a black stripe. Menil, Spots are more distinct than common in summer and no black is seen around the patch or on the tail.
In winter, spots are still clear on a brown coat. Melanistic, All-year the coat is black shading to greyish brown, no light-coloured tail patch or spots are seen. Leucistic, Fawns are cream-coloured, adults become pure white, especially in winter, dark eyes and nose are seen, with no spots. Most herds consist of the common coat variation, yet animals of the menil coat variation are not rare, the melanistic variation is generally rarer, and white is very much rarer still, although wild New Zealand herds often have a high melanistic percentage. Only bucks have antlers, which are broad and shovel-shaped from three years, in the first two years, the antler is a single spike. They are grazing animals, their habitat is mixed woodland. Agile and fast in case of danger, fallow deer can run at a speed of 30 mph over short distances. Fallow deer can make jumps up to 1.75 m high, the fallow deer is a Eurasian deer that was a native to most of Europe during the last interglacial. The fallow deer was introduced to the Victoria Island in the Province of Neuquén by billionaire Aaron Anchorena and he freed wildlife of European and Asian origin, making them common inhabitants of the island and competing for land and food with the native huemul and pudu deer.
The fallow deer was spread across central Europe by the Romans, until recently, the Normans were thought to have introduced them to Great Britain for hunting in the royal forests
The Aurignacian culture is an archaeological culture of the Upper Palaeolithic. It is the earliest modern human culture in Europe, and is associated with the immigration of anatomically modern humans from the Near East and it first appeared in Eastern Europe around 43,000 BP, and in Western Europe between 40,000 and 36,000 years BP. It was replaced by the Gravettian culture around 28,000 to 26,000 years ago, the name originates from the type site of Aurignac, Haute-Garonne, which is a town in the south-west of France near Toulouse or Andorra. The oldest undisputed example of figurative art, the Venus of Hohle Fels. It was discovered in September 2008 in a cave at Schelklingen in Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany, the Bacho Kiro site is one of the earliest known Aurignacian burials. The Aurignacian tool industry is characterized by worked bone or antler points with grooves cut in the bottom. Their flint tools include blades and bladelets struck from prepared cores rather than using crude flakes.
)The people of this culture produced some of the earliest known cave art, such as the animal engravings at Trois Freres. They made pendants and ivory beads, as well as three-dimensional figurines, perforated rods, thought to be spear throwers or shaft wrenches, are found at their sites. The sophistication and self-awareness demonstrated in the work led archaeologists to consider the makers of Aurignacian artifacts the first modern humans in Europe, human remains and Late Aurignacian artifacts found in juxtaposition support this inference. Although finds of human remains in direct association with Proto-Aurignacian technologies are scarce in Europe. At least three robust, but typically anatomically-modern individuals from the Peștera cu Oase cave in Romania, were dated directly from the bones to ca, although not associated directly with archaeological material, these finds are within the chronological and geographical range of the Early Aurignacian in southeastern Europe. On genetic evidence it has argued that both Aurignacian and the Dabba culture of North Africa came from an earlier big game hunting Aurignacian culture of the Levant.
Many 35, 000-year-old animal figurines were discovered in the Vogelherd Cave in Germany, one of the horses, amongst six tiny mammoth and horse ivory figures found previously at Vogelherd, was sculpted as skillfully as any piece found throughout the Upper Paleolithic. The production of ivory beads for body ornamentation was important during the Aurignacian, there is a notable absence of painted caves, which begin to appear within the Solutrean. Typical statuettes consist of women that are called Venus figurines and they emphasize the hips and other body parts associated with fertility. Feet and arms are lacking or minimized, one of the most ancient figurines was discovered in 2008 in the Hohle Fels cave in Germany. The figurine has been dated to 35,000 years ago, the oldest undisputed musical instrument was the Hohle Fels Flute discovered in the Hohle Fels cave in Germanys Swabian Alb in 2008. The flute is made from a wing bone perforated with five finger holes
A speleothem, commonly known as a cave formation, is a secondary mineral deposit formed in a cave. Speleothems typically form in limestone or dolostone solutional caves, the term speleothem as first introduced by Moore, is derived from the Greek words spēlaion cave + théma deposit. The definition of speleothem in most publications, specifically excludes secondary mineral deposits in mines, the cave environment has influenced the minerals deposition. More than 250 cave mineral deposits exist, the vast majority of speleothems are calcareous, composed of calcium carbonate in the form of calcite or aragonite, or calcium sulfate in the form of gypsum. Calcareous speleothems form via carbonate dissolution reactions, calthemites which occur on concrete structures, are created by completely different chemistry to speleothems. Speleothems take various forms, depending on whether the water drips, condenses, many speleothems are named for their resemblance to man-made or natural objects. Speleogens are formations within caves that are created by the removal of bedrock, although sometimes similar in appearance to speleothems in caves formed by dissolution, these are formed by the cooling of residual lava within the lava tube.
Speleothems formed from salt and other minerals are known, most cave chemistry revolves around calcium carbonate, the primary mineral in limestone and dolomite. It is a slightly soluble mineral whose solubility increases with the introduction of carbon dioxide and it is paradoxical in that its solubility decreases as the temperature increases, unlike the vast majority of dissolved solids. This decrease is due to interactions with the carbon dioxide, whose solubility is diminished by elevated temperatures, as the dioxide is released. Most other solution caves that are not composed of limestone or dolostone are composed of gypsum, samples can be taken from speleothems to be used like ice cores as a proxy record of past climate changes. A particular strength of speleothems in this regard is their ability to be accurately dated over much of the late Quaternary period using the uranium-thorium dating technique. These can provide clues to past precipitation and vegetation changes over the last ~500,000 years, the radiation centers must be stable on geologic time, i. e. to have a very large lifetime, to make dating possible.
Many other artifacts, such as, e. g. surface defects induced by the grinding of the sample can preclude a correct dating, only a few percents of the samples tested are in fact suitable for dating. This makes the often disappointing for the experimentalists. ESR dating can be tricky and must be applied with discernment and it can never be used alone, One date only is No date, or in other words, multiple lines of evidence and multiple lines of reasoning are necessary in absolute dating. However, good samples might be if all the selection criteria are met. The occurrence of calthemites is often associated with degradation, but could be linked to leaching of lime
The aurochs, ure, is an extinct type of large wild cattle that inhabited Europe and North Africa. It is the ancestor of domestic cattle, the species survived in Europe until the last recorded aurochs died in the Jaktorów Forest, Poland in 1627. Other species of wild bovines were domesticated, namely the water buffalo, gaur. In modern cattle, numerous breeds share characteristics of the aurochs, such as a colour in the bulls with a light eel stripe along the back. The aurochs was variously classified as Bos primigenius, Bos taurus, or, in old sources, the words aurochs and wisent have all been used synonymously in English. However, the extinct aurochs/urus is a separate species from the still-extant wisent. The two were confused, and some 16th-century illustrations of aurochs and wisents have hybrid features. The word urus is a Latin word, but was borrowed into Latin from Germanic, in German, OHG ūr was compounded with ohso ox, giving ūrohso, which became early modern Aurochs. The word aurochs was borrowed from early modern German, replacing archaic urochs, the word is invariable in number in English, though sometimes back-formed singular auroch and innovated plural aurochses occur.
The use in English of the plural form aurochsen is nonstandard and it is directly parallel to the German plural Ochsen and recreates by analogy the same distinction as English ox and oxen. During the Pliocene, the colder climate caused an extension of open grassland, Bos acutifrons is an extinct species of cattle that has been suggested as an ancestor for the aurochs. The oldest aurochs remains have been dated to about 2 million years ago, the Indian subspecies was the first to appear. During the Pleistocene, the species migrated west into the Middle East and they reached Europe about 270,000 years ago. The South Asian domestic cattle, or zebu, descended from Indian aurochs at the edge of the Thar Desert, domestic yak and banteng do not descend from aurochs. The first complete mitochondrial genome DNA sequence analysis of Bos primigenius from an archaeologically verified, three wild subspecies of aurochs are recognized. Only the Eurasian subspecies survived until recent times, the Eurasian aurochs once ranged across the steppes and taigas of Europe and Central Asia, and East Asia.
It is noted as part of the Pleistocene megafauna, and declined in numbers along with other species by the end of Pleistocene. The Eurasian aurochs were domesticated into modern taurine cattle breeds around the sixth millennium BC in the Middle East, Aurochs were still widespread in Europe during the time of the Roman Empire, when they were widely popular as a battle beast in Roman arenas
University of Haifa
The University of Haifa is a public research university on the top of Mount Carmel in Haifa, Israel. The university was founded in 1963 by the mayor of its host city, Abba Hushi, the University of Haifa was founded in 1963 by Haifa mayor Abba Hushi, to operate under the academic auspices of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Haifa University is located on Mount Carmel, in 1972, the University of Haifa declared its independence and became the sixth academic institution in Israel and the fourth university. About 18,100 undergraduate and graduate study in the university a wide variety of topics, specializing in social sciences, law. The University is broadly divided into six Faculties, Social Sciences, Law and Science Education, Social Welfare and Health Studies, and Education. There is the Graduate School of Management, The Leon H. Charney School of Marine Sciences, the University hosts a large IBM research center on its campus. In its first year 472 students attended the University, the academic staff included 180 instructors,50 of them Haifa residents.
In 1967, the University of Haifa awarded diplomas to its first 75 graduates, the first home of the University of Haifa was in Erdstein House in the Hadar HaCarmel section of Haifa, but it soon became too crowded. The University moved to Merkaz HaCarmel, and was housed in the building now serves the Municipal High School No.5. In 1966, the University moved to the top of Mount Carmel, the Universitys first building, the Multi-Purpose Building, was constructed in 1966. It contained classrooms, laboratories, a library with 110,000 books, brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer planned the campus to include all the Universitys facilities in one complex. More recently, additional buildings have been built nearby, Niemeyer did not complete the detailed design phase, instead Shlomo Gilad received the commission for the overall planning of the campus. Gilad retreated from Niemeyers design, but retained the character of the main building, the Eshkol Building was the highest building in the city of Haifa until 2002.
The Leon H. Charney School of Marine Sciences is a division of the University of Haifa that primarily focuses on the study of the Mediterranean Sea and it is home to the Caesarea Center, its own diving facility that supports the Israeli Antiques Authority in Caesaria. Camelia Suleiman and academic Arnon Sofer Yuval Steinitz philosopher, the current finance minister of Israel
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. The country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israels economy and technology center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, in 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Mandatory Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency for Palestine, next year, the Jewish Agency declared the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel, to be known as the State of Israel. Israel has since fought several wars with neighboring Arab states, in the course of which it has occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and it extended its laws to the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israels occupation of the Palestinian territories is the worlds longest military occupation in modern times, efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in peace.
However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have successfully been signed, the population of Israel, as defined by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, was estimated in 2017 to be 8,671,100 people. It is the worlds only Jewish-majority state, with 74. 8% being designated as Jewish, the countrys second largest group of citizens are Arabs, at 20. 8%. The great majority of Israeli Arabs are Sunni Muslims, including significant numbers of semi-settled Negev Bedouins, other minorities include Arameans, Assyrians, Black Hebrew Israelites, Circassians and Samaritans. Israel hosts a significant population of foreign workers and asylum seekers from Africa and Asia, including illegal migrants from Sudan, Eritrea. In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a Jewish, Israel is a representative democracy with a parliamentary system, proportional representation and universal suffrage. The prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature, Israel is a developed country and an OECD member, with the 35th-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2016.
The country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentage of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. The country has the highest standard of living in the Middle East and the third highest in Asia, in the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term Israeli to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have historically used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel. The name Israel in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, jacobs twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites, known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. The earliest known artifact to mention the word Israel as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Islam
The Levallois technique is a name given by archaeologists to a distinctive type of stone knapping developed by precursors to modern humans during the Palaeolithic period. It is named after finds of flint tools in the Levallois-Perret suburb of Paris. The technique was more sophisticated than earlier methods of lithic reduction, a striking platform is formed at one end and the cores edges are trimmed by flaking off pieces around the outline of the intended lithic flake. This creates a shape on the side of the core, known as a tortoise core as the various scars. When the striking platform is finally hit, a lithic flake separates from the core with a distinctive plano-convex profile. Scientists consider the Levallois complex to be a Mode 3 technology and this is one level superior to the Acheulean complex of the Lower Paleolithic. The technique is first found in the Lower Palaeolithic but is most commonly associated with the Neanderthal Mousterian industries of the Middle Palaeolithic, in the Levant, Levallois methods were in use in the Upper Palaeolithic and later.
In East Africa, Levallois methods were used in the Middle Stone Age, while Levallois cores do display some variability in their planform, their flake production surfaces show remarkable uniformity. This would seem to indicate some sort of teaching process was occurring. The distinctive forms of the flakes were originally thought to indicate a wide ranging Levallois culture resulting from the expansion of archaic Homo sapiens out of Africa, the wide geographical and temporal spread of the technique has rendered this interpretation obsolete. Aside from technique, the commonality in Levallois complexes is the attention given to maximizing core efficiency. A recent article by Lycett and Eren statistically shows the efficiency of the Levallois technique which at times has been called into question and Eren created 75 Levallois flakes from 25 Texas Chert nodules. They counted the 3957 flakes and separated them into four stages in order to show efficiency, the experiment shows that the Levallois core is an economic optimal strategy of raw material usage, which mean it can generate longest cutting edge per weight unit of raw material.
There is disagreement when it comes to defining Levallois technology, archeologists question which attributes and dimensions are specifically associated with Levallois, and argue that there are other techniques with similar cosmetic and functional aspects. Due to these disagreements, there is now a more set of criteria that outlines Levallois technology from a geometric standpoint. Egypt, Within the banks of the Nile River, excavations have located within the 30-, 15-, within the 30-foot terrace, the implements were originally thought to be early Mousterian, but were reclassified. The 15- and 10-foot terraces again were classified first as Egyptian Mousterian, Large Levallois flakes struck from boulder cores have been found at the Kapthurin Formation site in western Kenya, near Lake Bogoria and Lake Baringo. The earliest examples come from the Leaky Handaxe Area and the Factory Site, both examples feature large flakes, approximately 10–20 cm in diameter, and have been dated between 284 and 509 thousand years ago
The skull is a bony structure that forms the head of the skeleton in most vertebrates. It supports the structures of the face and provides a cavity for the brain. The skull is composed of two parts, the cranium and the mandible, in the human these two parts are the neurocranium and the viscerocranium or facial skeleton that includes the mandible as its largest bone. The skull forms the anterior most portion of the skeleton and is a product of cephalisation—housing the brain, and several sensory structures such as the eyes, nose, in the human these sensory structures are part of the facial skeleton. In some animals such as horned ungulates, the skull has a function by providing the mount for the horns. The English word skull is probably derived from Old Norse skulle, while the Latin word cranium comes from the Greek root κρανίον, the skull is made up of a number of fused flat bones, and contains many foramina and processes, and several cavities or sinuses. For details and the constituent bones, see neurocranium and viscerocranium, the human skull is the bony structure that forms the head in the human skeleton.
It supports the structures of the face and forms a cavity for the brain, like the skulls of other vertebrates, it protects the brain from injury. The skull consists of two parts, of different embryological origin—the neurocranium and the facial skeleton, the neurocranium forms the protective cranial cavity that surrounds and houses the brain and brainstem. The facial skeleton is formed by the supporting the face. Except for the mandible, all of the bones of the skull are joined together by sutures—synarthrodial joints formed by bony ossification, sometimes there can be extra bone pieces within the suture known as wormian bones or sutural bones. The human skull is considered to consist of twenty-two bones—eight cranial bones. In the neurocranium these are the bone, two temporal bones, two parietal bones, the sphenoid and frontal bones. The bones of the skeleton are the vomer, two nasal conchae, two nasal bones, two maxilla, the mandible, two palatine bones, two zygomatic bones, and two lacrimal bones.
Some of these bones—the occipital, frontal, in the neurocranium, and the nasal, the skull contains sinus cavities and numerous foramina. The sinuses are lined with respiratory epithelium and their known functions are the lessening of the weight of the skull, the aiding of resonance to the voice and the warming and moistening of the air drawn through the nasal cavity. The foramina are openings in the skull, the largest of these is the foramen magnum that allows the passage of the spinal cord as well as nerves and blood vessels. The many processes of the include the mastoid process and the zygomatic process
Tel Aviv University
Tel Aviv University is a public research university in the neighborhood of Ramat Aviv in Tel Aviv, Israel. With over 30,000 students, the University is the largest in the country, initially operated by the Tel Aviv municipality, the university was granted autonomy in 1963. The Ramat Aviv campus, covering an area of 170-acre, was established that same year, the university maintains academic supervision over the Center for Technological Design in Holon, the New Academic College of Tel Aviv-Yaffo and the Afeka College of Engineering in Tel Aviv. The Wise Observatory is located in Mitzpe Ramon, all TAU International programs are conducted in English. Programs include Semester or Year Abroad, Degree Programs, and Specialized Programs, students in the Undergraduate or Semester Abroad Programs are given the option of housing at the Einstein Dorms, just outside the university. Undergraduate programs, B. S. in Electrical and Electronics Engineering via the International Engineering School International B.
A, the Center for World University Rankings ranked Tel Aviv University 81st in the world and third in Israel in its 2016 CWUR World University Rankings. They have ranked it as 56 in 2012, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings for 2012 placed Tel Aviv University among the worlds top 90 universities. The ratings reflect a measure of esteem that combines data on the institutions reputation for research. This achievement positioned TAU on the level as Brown University in Rhode Island. In 2013 QS World University Rankings ranked Tel Aviv University 196th in the world, in 2016 QS World University Rankings ranked Tel Aviv University 22nd in the world for citations per faculty, which is the indicator that measures a universitys research impact. This makes Tel Aviv University the leading university in Israel in terms of research, in 2016 it was ranked as 51-75 in Engineering. Tel Aviv University offers special programs of Jewish studies to teachers and students from the United States, Brazil, Argentina, in Germany, Tel Aviv University cooperates with the Goethe-University in Frankfurt/Main.
Both cities are linked by a partnership agreement. Tel Aviv University International American Friends of Tel Aviv University