Orona atoll known as Hull Island, is one of the Phoenix Islands in the Republic of Kiribati. It measures 8.8 km by 4 km, like Kanton, is a narrow ribbon of land surrounding a sizable lagoon with depths of 15–20 metres. Numerous passages connect the lagoon to the surrounding ocean, only a couple of which will admit a small boat. Total land area is 3.9 km2, the maximum elevation is nine metres. Kiribati declared the Phoenix Islands Protected Area in 2006, with the park being expanded in 2008; the 164,200-square-mile marine reserve contains eight coral atolls including Orano. Although occupied at various times during the past, including as late as 2004, Orona is uninhabited today. Like Manra, Orona is covered with towering 12 -- 18 metres above the surface; the remainder of the atoll is covered with scrub forest and grasses, with a maximum height of 6–12 metres. Feral cats exist on the island, together with rats and dogs. Ducks and chickens were raised by the former inhabitants. Orona boasts three species of lizards and hermit crabs, together with fifty species of insects.
Turtles are known to use the island as a nesting area. Unlike Manra, whose lagoon is too salty for marine life, Orona's lagoon teems with fish and giant clams. A survey of Orona carried out in 2006 did not detect rats. However, Polynesian rats were located on the island in 2009, as well as more than 20 cats. Like Manra, Orona contains evidence of prehistoric Polynesian inhabitation. An ancient stone marae stands on the eastern tip of the island, together with ruins of shelters and other platforms. No one is certain who discovered Orona or when, but history shows that it was named "Hull Island" in honor of Commodore Isaac Hull, USN by Commander Charles Wilkes of the USS Vincennes when he visited the island on 26 August 1840 in the United States Exploring Expedition, it continued to be known by this name until the Republic of Kiribati was granted independence in 1979, when its name was changed to the I-Kiribati Orona. Unlike Manra, Orona does not seem to have been worked for guano, was not claimed by American guano diggers.
The British flag was raised there on 11 July 1889, the island became part of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands colony. Orona was leased in 1916 to a Captain Allen of the "Samoan Shipping and Trading Company", became a copra plantation. Allen's lease was bought out by the British government in 1938, it was one of the islands involved in the Phoenix Islands Settlement Scheme, the final colonial expansion of the British Empire. Residents were evacuated in 1963, due to the declining copra market. Photos of the abandoned settlement, circa 1967, may be seen here. Hull Island Post Office opened on 1 January 1939 and closed around January 1964. After being abandoned, the island was reoccupied by American authorities in 1970 and administered from the Canton and Enderbury Islands Condominium. British and American claims to the island ended in 1979 with the independence of Kiribati from Great Britain and the signing of the Treaty of Tarawa in which the US reatains the right to re-establish a military base. Administration was transferred to Kiribati authority in 1981.
The island was reoccupied between 2001 and 2004 by trepangers from the Gilbert Islands supported by a patrol boat of the Kiribati Navy. Orona, together with the other Phoenix Islands, was proclaimed in 2008 to be part of the Phoenix Islands Protected Area, the world's largest marine protected area. List of Guano Island claims "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 23, 2010. Retrieved March 14, 2009. CS1 maint: Archived copy as title CS1 maint: Unfit url Jane Resture page, with links to 1967 photos US-Kiribati Treaty of Friendship
Maiana is an atoll in Kiribati and is one of the Central Gilbert Islands. Maiana is 44 kilometres south of the capital island of South Tarawa and has a population of 2,027 as of 2010; the northern and eastern sides of the atoll are a single island, whilst the western edge consists of submerged reefs and many uninhabited islets, all surrounding a lagoon. The atoll is 14 kilometres long and is narrow, with an average width of less than 1 kilometre and a total land area of 16.72 square kilometres. Most of the 2,027 people who live on Maiana live on the main island; the population of Maiana is stable and has been around 2,000 people since 1985. Many parts of Maiana suffer from coastal erosion, with the villages of Tekaranga and Tematantongo being affected. Drought is another serious concern as the island's limited freshwater supply comes from the shallow freshwater lens, which becomes salty close to the coast during drought periods. Like all of the atolls of Kiribati, Maiana is at serious risk from sea level rise, as small changes in sea level can cause accelerated erosion and threaten infrastructure and water supplies.
Maiana is administered by an Island Council based in Tebangetua village. The Maiana constituency elects two representatives to the national House of Assembly in the capital of South Tarawa. At present, the MPs for Maiana are Teiwaki Areieta. Dr. Tong is the current President of Kiribati. Apart from that, the local people of Maiana have their ruling system that survive from the past. Unimwane Ruling System. All villages from Tebikerai to Bubutei have their unimwane represent their villages to the Unimwane Council Body; this body called Tebau-ni-Maiana. Among all Te Unimwane, they will choose the most aging one as their Baatua, they execute rules of the Island. This rules and regulations based on the culture and religious belief of Maiana. For example, Uriam Kauongo was a Baatu. There are different stories told as to the other islands in the Gilberts. An important legend in the culture of Maiana is that spirits who lived in a tree in Samoa migrated northward carrying branches from the tree, Te Kaintikuaba, which translates as the tree of life.
It was these spirits, together with Nareau the Wise. The island was surveyed in 1841 by the US Exploring Expedition. Maiana Post Office opened around 1925. On 13 July 2009, the vessel Uean Te Raoi II, owned by the Catholic Parish of Maiana and travelling from Bwairiki in Tarawa and foundered off Maiana with the loss of 35 lives. Exhibit: The Alfred Agate Collection: The United States Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842 from the Navy Art Gallery
Makin is the name of a chain of islands located in the Pacific Ocean island nation of Kiribati. Makin is the northernmost of the Gilbert Islands, with a population of 1,798. Makin is located six km northeast of the northeastern corner of Butaritari atoll reef and 6.9 km from the Butaritari islet of Namoka. It is a linear reef feature, 12.3 km long north-south, with five islets, the two larger ones being inhabited. The third largest, southernmost islet, Onne, is inhabitable; this string of islands is the northernmost feature of the Gilbert Islands, the third most northerly in the island nation of Kiribati. Makin is not a true atoll, but since the largest and northernmost of the islets called Makin, has a nearly landlocked lagoon, 0.3 km² in size and connected to the open sea in the east only through a 15 metre wide channel, it might be considered a degenerate atoll. Kiebu, the second largest islet, has an smaller landlocked lagoon on its eastern side, with about 80 m in diameter and at distance of 60 m to the open sea.
Since neighboring Butaritari was called Makin Atoll by the U. S. military, the feature used to be called Makin Meang or Little Makin to distinguish it from the larger atoll. Now that Butaritari has become the preferred name for that larger atoll, speakers tend to drop the qualifier for Makin; the Gilbert islands are sometimes regarded as the southern continuation of the Marshall Islands, which are NNW of it. The closest island of the Marshall Islands, Nadikdik Atoll, is 290 km NNW of Makin. Makin has a land area of 6.7 km² and a population of 1,798. Makin island consists of five small islets. Of these, only Makin and Kiebu islands are permanently inhabited; the total population of Makin is 1,798. The climate is similar to neighboring Butaritari atoll, with lush vegetation and high rainfall. Typical annual rainfall is about 4 m, compared with about 2 m on Tarawa Atoll and 1 m in the far south of Kiribati. Rainfall on Makin is enhanced during an El Niño. Higher sea levels are resulting in saltwater intrusion to coastal erosion.
At Kiebu islet, one communal bwabwai pit is located close to a saltwater pond. When it rains the pond overflows causing damage to the bwabwai plants. More the increasing incidence of unusually high tides has caused the intrusion of saltwater into the communal pit, resulting in salt contamination and damage of food crops; the construction of causeways have resulted to reduced flushing of the lagoon that has resulted in low levels of oxygen in the lagoon, which has caused damage to fish stocks in the lagoon and causes other biological problems. The erosion and accretion that are occurring along the shoreline is identified as being linked to aggregate mining, land reclamation and the construction of causeways, thought to change the currents along the shoreline. Makin, like other Kiribati islands, has a subsistence economy. Most houses are made from local materials, most households rely on fish and fruit as the mainstay of their diet, though imported rice and tobacco are seen as necessities. Makin is a high producer of copra, but has few other economic activities apart from a limited number of Government and Island Council jobs.
Many families receive remittances from relatives working on South Tarawa or overseas. There are different stories told as to the other islands in the Gilberts. An important legend in the culture of Makin is that spirits who lived in a tree in Samoa migrated northward carrying branches from the tree, Te Kaintikuaba, which translates as the tree of life, it was these spirits, together with Nareau the Wise. Nakaa Beach is located at the northern tip of Makin Atoll is an important site in the traditional mythology of the island group, being the departing point for the spirits of the dead heading to the underworld. Nakaa is the legendary guardian of the gateway to the place of the dead. In 1606 Pedro Fernandes de Queirós sighted Butaritari and Makin, which he named the Buen Viaje Islands. Traditionally and Makin were ruled by a chief or Uea who lived on Butaritari Island; this chief had all the powers and authority to make and impose decision for Butaritari and Makin, a system different from the southern Gilbert Islands where power was wielded collectively by the unimwane or old men.
The last Uea was Nauraura Nakoriri, in power both before and after the Gilberts became a British Protectorate in 1892. The island was surveyed in 1841 by the US Exploring Expedition. Little Makin Post Office opened around 1925. Japanese forces occupied the island in December 1941, days after the attack on Pearl Harbor, in order to protect their south-eastern flank from allied counterattacks, isolate Australia, under the codename Operation FS. On 17–18 August 1942, in order to divert Japanese attention from the Solomon Islands and New Guinea areas, the United States launched a raid on the island, known as the raid on Makin; the United States invaded and captured the island after the Battle of Makin, which lasted from November 20, 1943, to November 24, 1943, as well as neighbouring Tarawa island, during the Gilbert Islands campaign. Makin Airport, located northeast of Makin Village, between the lagoon and the sea, has ICAO code NGMN and IATA code MTK, it is served by two weekly Air Kiribati flights to Butaritari and to Bonriki International Airport in Tarawa.
There are no tourist fac
Hermit crabs are decapod crustaceans of the superfamily Paguroidea. Most of the 1,110 species possess an asymmetrical abdomen, concealed in a scavenged mollusc shell carried around by the hermit crab. Most species have long, spirally curved abdomens, which are soft, unlike the hard, calcified abdomens seen in related crustaceans; the vulnerable abdomen is protected from predators by a salvaged empty seashell carried by the hermit crab, into which its whole body can retract. Most hermit crabs use the shells of sea snails; the tip of the hermit crab's abdomen is adapted to clasp onto the columella of the snail shell. Most hermit crabs are nocturnal. Hermit crabs can be divided into two groups: The first group is the marine hermit crabs; these crabs spend most of their life underwater as aquatic animals, live in varying depths of saltwater from shallow reefs and shorelines to deep sea bottoms and leave for land. As pets, several marine species of hermit crabs are common in the marine aquarium trade.
They are kept in reef fish tanks. They breathe through gills but they don't have to carry around their water to do so. Most can survive out of water as long as their gills are damp. However, this ability is not as developed. A few species do not use a "mobile home" and inhabit immobile structures left by polychaete worms, vermetid gastropods and sponges; the second group, the land hermit crabs, spend most of their life on land as terrestrial species in tropical areas, though they require access to both freshwater and saltwater to keep their gills damp or wet to survive and to reproduce. They belong to the family Coenobitidae. Of the 15 terrestrial species of genus Coenobita in the world, the following are kept as pets: Caribbean hermit crab, Australian land hermit crab, the Ecuadorian hermit crab. Other species, such as Coenobita brevimanus, Coenobita rugosus, Coenobita perlatus or Coenobita cavipes, are less common but growing in availability and popularity as pets; as hermit crabs grow, they require larger shells.
Since suitable intact gastropod shells are sometimes a limited resource, vigorous competition occurs among hermit crabs for shells. The availability of empty shells at any given place depends on the relative abundance of gastropods and hermit crabs, matched for size. An important issue is the population of organisms that prey upon gastropods and leave the shells intact. Hermit crabs kept together may kill a competitor to gain access to the shell they favour. However, if the crabs vary in size, the occurrence of fights over empty shells will decrease or remain nonexistent. Hermit crabs with too-small shells cannot grow as fast as those with well-fitting shells, are more to be eaten if they cannot retract into the shell; as the hermit crab grows in size, it must abandon the previous one. Several hermit crab species, both terrestrial and marine, have been observed forming a vacancy chain to exchange shells; when an individual crab finds a new empty shell it will leave its own shell and inspect the vacant shell for size.
If the shell is found to be too large, the crab goes back to its own shell and waits by the vacant shell for up to 8 hours. As new crabs arrive they inspect the shell and, if it is too big, wait with the others, forming a group of up to 20 individuals, holding onto each other in a line from the largest to the smallest crab; as soon as a crab arrives, the right size for the vacant shell and claims it, leaving its old shell vacant all the crabs in the queue swiftly exchange shells in sequence, each one moving up to the next size. Hermit crabs "gang up" on one of their species with what they perceive to be a better shell, pry its shell away from it before competing for it until one takes it over. For some larger marine species, supporting one or more sea anemones on the shell can scare away predators; the sea anemone benefits. Other close symbiotic relationships are known from encrusting bryozoans and hermit crabs forming bryoliths. Hermit crab species range in size and shape, from species with a carapace only a few millimetres long to Coenobita brevimanus, which can live 12–70 years and can approach the size of a coconut.
The shell-less hermit crab Birgus latro is the world's largest terrestrial invertebrate. The young develop with the first two occurring inside the egg. Most hermit crab larvae hatch at the zoea. In this larval stage, the crab has several long spines, a long, narrow abdomen, large fringed antennae. Several zoeal moults are followed by the megalopa. Hermit crabs are seen as a "throwaway pet" that would live only a few months, but species such as Coenobita clypeatus have a 23-year lifespan if properly treated, some have lived longer than 32 years. Hermit crabs are more related to squat lobsters and porcelain crabs than they are to true crabs. However, the relationship of king crabs to the rest of Paguroidea is a contentious topic. Many studies based on physical characteristics, genetic information, combined data, support the longstanding hypothesis that the king crabs in the family Lithodidae are derived hermit crabs and should be classified as a family within Paguroidea. Other researchers have challenged this, asserting that the Lithodidae sh
Caroline Island or Caroline Atoll, is the easternmost of the uninhabited coral atolls which comprise the southern Line Islands in the central Pacific Ocean. First sighted by Europeans in 1606, claimed by the United Kingdom in 1868, part of the Republic of Kiribati since the island nation's independence in 1979, Caroline Island has remained untouched and is considered one of the world's most pristine tropical islands, despite guano mining, copra harvesting, human habitation in the 19th and 20th centuries, it is home to one of the world's largest populations of the coconut crab and is an important breeding site for seabirds, most notably the sooty tern. The atoll is designated as a wildlife sanctuary. In 2014 the Kiribati government established a 12-nautical-mile fishing exclusion zone around each of the southern Line Islands; the atoll is best known for being the first place on Earth to receive sunlight each day during much of the year, for its role in the millennium celebrations. A 1995 realignment of the International Date Line made Caroline Island one of the first points of land on Earth to reach January 1, 2000 on the calendar.
Caroline Atoll lies near the southeastern end of the Line Islands, a string of atolls extending across the equator some 1,500 km south of the Hawaiian Islands in the central Pacific. The crescent-shaped atoll consists of 39 separate islets surrounding a narrow lagoon, 8.7 by 1.2 km2 in size, or with an area of 6.3 km2. The total atoll area, including dry land and reef flat, measures 13 by 2.5 km, or 24 km2. The islets rise to a height of only 6 meters above sea level; the islets, like those of all atolls, share a common geologic origin and consist of sand deposits and limestone rock set atop a coral reef. According to the path of the International Date Line, Caroline Island is the easternmost point of land on Earth. Three large islets make up the bulk of Caroline's land area: Nake Islet at the north; the remaining assembly of small islets, most of which were named during the 1988 ecological survey, conducted by Angela and Cameron Kepler, fall into four major groupings: the South Nake Islets, the Central Leeward Islets, the Southern Leeward Islets, the Windward Islets.
Caroline's islets are ephemeral— over the course of a century of observation, several of the smallest islets have been documented to appear or disappear following major storms, while the shapes of larger ones have changed. The central lagoon 6 by 0.5 km, is shallow – at most 5–7 m in depth – and is crossed by narrow coral heads and patch reefs. Reef flats extend about 500 m from shore— although some sources report them to extend more than a kilometer from land— and make boat landings perilous except at high tide. There are anchorages, or deep water openings into the central lagoon. Most landings are made at a small break in the reef at the northeast corner of the South Islet. Densities of giant clams reach up to four per square foot in parts of the lagoon; the most common species is the “small giant clam” Tridacna maxima and largest clam species, Tridacna gigas is found in the lagoon. The lagoon is a nursery habitat for many fish species including important and exploited species such as the Blacktip reef shark and the endangered Napoleon wrasse.
There is no standing fresh water on Caroline Island, although the Nake and South Islets harbor underground freshwater aquifers, wells have been built to tap drinking water for temporary settlements. Soils on Caroline are poor, dominated by coral gravel and sand, with significant organic content present only within stable, forested island centers. Guano deposits make. Like the rest of Kiribati, Caroline Island enjoys a tropical maritime climate, hot and humid. Meteorological records are sparse, but temperatures range between 28 and 32 degrees Celsius year round. Caroline lies within a region of variable precipitation, but is estimated to receive an average of 1,500 mm of rain annually. Tides are on the order of 0.5 m and trade winds from the northeast, mean that corner of the island experiences the roughest seas. Caroline Island is among the most remote islands on earth–230 km from the closest land at Flint Island, 1,500 km from the nearest permanent settlement on Kiritimati, 4,200 km from the Kiribati capital of Tarawa, 5,100 km from the nearest continental land in North America.
Despite more than three centuries of occasional human impact on Caroline, it is considered to be one of few remaining near-pristine tropical islands, has been rated as one of the most unspoiled Pacific atolls. Its undisturbed state has led to Caroline being considered for designation as a World Heritage Site and as a Biosphere Reserve. Ecolo
Tabiteuea Drummond's Island, is an atoll in the Gilbert Islands, farther south of the Tarawa Atoll. The atoll consists of two main islands: Eanikai in the north, Nuguti in the south, several smaller islets in between along the eastern rim of the atoll; the atoll has a total land area of 38 km2, while the lagoon measures 365 km2. The population numbered 4,899 in 2005, The islanders have customary fishing practices related to the lagoon and the open ocean. While most atolls of the Gilbert Islands correspond to local government areas governed by island councils, like the main atoll Tarawa, is divided into two: Tabiteuea North has a land area of 26 km2 and a population of 3,600 as of 2005, distributed among twelve villages Tabiteuea South has a land area of 12 km2 and a population of 1,299, distributed among six villages. "Tabiteuea" is Gilbertese for "no chief allowed". In the late 1800s, the two islands were the site of a religious war when the populace of Tabiteuea North converted to Christianity and, led by a Hawaiian pastor called Kapu who had assembled a "hymn-singing army on a crusade", invaded and conquered Tabiteuea South, which had maintained traditional religious practice.
The Battle of Drummond's Island occurred during the United States Exploring Expedition in April 1841 at Tabiteuea known as Drummond's Island. After one sailor from sloop USS Peacock, was captured by the islanders, the US party decided on exacting redress for the incident. Twelve islanders were killed in the fighting and others were wounded. During the US Civil War, the Confederate States Navy steamer CSS Shenandoah visited the island on March 23, 1865 in search of United States whalers, but the whalers had fled the area. Captain James Waddell described the islanders as "of copper colour, short of statue, athletic in form and docile" and were "without a stitch of clothing". Tabiteuea Post Office opened around 1911 and was renamed Tabiteuea North around 1972. Tabiteuea South Post Office opened on 13 September 1965. There is a government high school, Tabiteuea North Senior Secondary School known as Teabike College. Located in Eita, it serves the entire island. There is a government junior high school, Takoronga School in Terikiai, serving all of Tab North.
The elementary schools on Tab North are all government schools. They include: Aiwa: Nukantewaa School, which serves Bangai Buota: Taunibong School, which serves Tanaeang Eita: Temwamwang School, which serves a portion of Eita as well as Utiroa. Kabuna: Kabuna School Tekaman: Burannikoraoi School, which serves Tekabwibwi Terikiai: Takoronga School, which serves a section of Eita. Exhibit: The Alfred Agate Collection: The United States Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842 from the Navy Art Gallery
Kanton Island, alternatively known as "Mary Island", "Mary Balcout's Island" or "Swallow Island", is the largest, as of 2007, the sole inhabited island of the Phoenix Islands, in the Republic of Kiribati. It is an atoll located in the South Pacific Ocean halfway between Hawaii and Fiji at 2°50′S 171°40′W; the island is a narrow ribbon of land around a lagoon. Kanton's closest neighbor is the uninhabited island of 63 km to the south; the capital of Kiribati, South Tarawa, lies 1,765 km to the west. As of 2005, the population was 41, down from 61 in 2000. In May 2010 the population was 24, with 14 adults and 10 children; the island's sole village is called Tebaronga. Kiribati declared the Phoenix Islands Protected Area in 2006, with the park being expanded in 2008; the 425,300 square-kilometer marine reserve contains eight coral atolls including Kanton. The first recorded sighting by Europeans was in September 1595 by the second Spanish expedition of Álvaro de Mendaña. More it was sighted by Lorenzo Barreto while in command of one of the smaller vessels on a local voyage round the called Santa Cruz, today's Nendo Island.
Visits were again reported on 5 August 1824, by two London whaling ships: Phoenix, Capt. John Palmer; the atoll was named "Mary Ballcout's Island" after the Mary Boulcott, the wife of W. Hill and the sister of T. E. Boulcott, who as Hill, Boulcott & Co. were part-owners of Mary. Kanton got its permanent name from the New Bedford whaler Canton, which ran aground on the atoll on 4 March 1854, while under the command of Capt. Andrew Wing; the crew managed to escape on whaleboats and after an open-water voyage of 49 days, reached Tinian Island in the Marianas, without the loss of a man. Three of the survivors, including Capt. Wing and Thomas E. Braley settled in Acushnet, Massachusetts. Kanton has been described as being shaped like a large pork chop. From its northwest to southeast points is a distance of 14.5 km, while the land rim varies in width from 50–600 m and 1.5–7 m in elevation. The southeast corner of the island is known as "Pyramid Point." The sole entrances to the lagoon are on the west side, with the main channel exhibiting currents of 6–8 knots.
The lagoon itself is filled with marine life, holding 153 different species of fish, including tuna, sharks and eels. An unpaved road runs around the island. Canton Island Airport lies at the northwest corner of the island, but it lacks any commercial scheduled service; the World Port Index number of Kanton Island is 56025. Much of Kanton's land surface is bare coral, sparsely covered with low bunch grass. According to Edwin H. Bryan's American Polynesia and the Hawaiian Chain, Kanton possessed in 1941 a total of twelve native species of vegetation, including low herbs and bunch grass, a thick stand of Scaevola shrubs on the island's south side, some Suriana maritima shrubs near the lagoon entrance and kou trees, coconut palms. In 1937, the New Zealand eclipse expedition reported 23 bird species on Kanton, together with Polynesian Rats, hermit crabs and turtles. Two species of spiders were found on the island. There is no freshwater on Kanton, a problem for settlers. Rainwater is caught in cisterns.
Rainfall is sparse, averaging 8.71–35.97 in between 1938 and 1953, though reports suggest a wetter climate in recent years. The British laid claim to Kanton Island during the 1850s; the official British claim was formally reasserted on 6 August 1936, an order in council issued in March 1937 including Kanton and other Phoenix Islands in the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony, with the British making several visits to the island culminating in the placement of two radio operators on Kanton on 31 August 1937. On 8 June 1937, Kanton was the site of a total solar eclipse and the island was occupied by American and New Zealand scientists, members of an expedition organized by the National Geographic Society, led by the astronomer Samuel Alfred Mitchell. During this time, the American party claimed the island for the United States, erecting a small monument with two American flags. According to one account, the British warship HMS Wellington fired a shot across the bow of the USS Avocet, when the latter refused to cede the choicest anchorage spot to the British vessel.
The American ship responded in kind, following which both captains agreed to "cease fire" until instructions could be received from their respective governments. Washington and London ordered no further escalation, both parties observed the solar eclipse together, "though a bit cool."In response to the British reoccupation of Kanton in August 1937, seven Americans from the American Equatorial Islands Colonization Project landed on the island on 7 March 1938. Although the British ambassador to the United States requested removal of markers claiming U. S. sovereignty, President Franklin Roosevelt formally placed the island under control of the U. S. Interior department on 3 March 1938. Both parties continued to press their competing claims until 6 April 1939, when the U. S. and Britain agreed to hold Kanton under joint control for the next fifty years as the Canton and Enderbury Islands condominium. The U. S./U. K. Tenure proved cordial and cooperative thereafter, with each party enjoying t