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Mansabdar

The Mansabdar Bengali: মনসবদার, romanized: Monshobdaar was a military unit within the administrative system of the Mughal Empire introduced by Akbar. The word mansab is of Arabic origin meaning position; the system, determined the rank of a government official and other military generals. Every civil and military officer was given a'mansab' and different which could be increased by ten were used for ranking officers, it determined the salaries and allowances of officers. The term manasabadar means a person who has a ranking of a government can give power. In Mansabdari system founded by Akbar, The Mansabdars were Military Commanders, High Civil and Military officers, Provincial Governors, it was a system whereby nobles were granted the rights to hold a jagir, or revenue assignments for services rendered by them, with the direct control of these nobles in the hands of the king. Abu'l Faz'l has mentioned 66 grades of mansabdars but in practice there were not more than 33 mansabs. During the early reign of Akbar, the lowest grade was ten and the highest was 5,000.

Higher mansabs were given to Rajput rulers who accepted the suzerainty of the emperor. The system was common to both the military and the civil department and is believed to have originated in Mongolia, it was prevalent during the reign of Humayun as well. Akbar made it more efficient. The'mansab' of a noble implied the following: Salary of the officer Status of the officer Number of soldiers and elephants etc. maintained by an officer. Two grades delineated the mansabdars; those mansabdars whose rank was one thousand or below were called the Amir, while those above 1,000 were called the Amiral Kabir. Some great Amirs whose ranks were above 5,000 were given the title of Amir-al Umara. During years of his reign, Akbar introduced the rank of ‘Zat’ and ‘Sawar’ in the Mansabdari system. Different views have been expressed regarding these terms. According to Blochmann, every mansabdar had to maintain as many soldiers as were indicated by his rank of Zat’ while the rank of ‘sawar’ indicated the number of horsemen among them.

Irvin expressed the view that Zat indicated the actual number of cavalry under a mansabdar besides other soldiers while sawar was an additional honour. According to R. P. Tripathi, the rank of sawar was given to mansabdars to fix up their additional allowances. A mansabdar was paid rupees two per horse. Therefore, if a mansabdar received the rank of 500 sawar he was given rupees one thousand additional allowance. Abdul Aziz is of the opinion that while the rank of zat fixed the number of other soldiers under a mansabdar, the rank of sawar fixed the number of his horsemen. A. L. Srivastava has opined that while the rank of zat indicated the total number of soldiers under a mansabdar, the rank of sawar indicated the number of horsemen under him. During the reign of Akbar, the mansabdars were asked to keep as many horsemen as were indicated by numbers of their ranks of sawar. But, the practice was not be maintained by other Mughal emperors. No. of Sawar = the No. of Zat. => 1st Class Mansabdar No. of Sawar > 1/2 the No. of Zat => 2nd Class Mansabdar No. of Sawar < 1/2 the No. of Zat => 3rd Class Mansabdar Mansabdars were graded on the number of armed cavalrymen, or sowars, which each had to maintain for service in the imperial army.

Thus, all mansabdars had a zat, or personal ranking, a sowar, or a troop ranking. All servants of the empire, whether in the civil or military departments, were graded in this system. There were thirty-three grades of mansabdars ranging from'commanders of 10' to'commanders of 10,000'. Till the middle of Akbar's reign, the highest rank an ordinary officer could hold was that of a commander of 5,000; the more exalted grades between commanders of 7,000 and 10,000 were reserved for the royal princes. During the period following Akbar's reign, the grades were increased up to 20,000 and 20-25 rupees per horse was paid to a mansabdar. Additionally, there was no distinction between the military departments. Both civil and military officers held mansabs and were liable to be transferred from one branch of the administration to another; each mansabdar was expected to maintain prescribed number of horses and equipment, according to his rank and dignity. These rules, though strictly enforced, were slackened.

During Aurangzeb's reign the number of mansabdars was around 700 or more 1. The king himself appointed the mansabdars, he could lower it or remove it. 2. A mansabdar could be asked to perform any military service. 3. There were 33 categories of the mansabdars; the lowest mansabdar commanded the highest 10,000 soldiers. Only the princes of the royal family and most important Rajput rulers were given a mansab of 10,000. 4. A mansabdar was paid his salary in cash. 5. The salary due to the soldiers was added to the personal salary of the mansabdar. At times, for paying salaries to soldiers, a jagir was given to him, but the revenue was realised by necessary adjustments made. 6. The mansabdari system was not hereditary. 7. In addition to meeting his personal expenses, the mansabdar had to maintain out of his salary a stipulated quota of horses, camels and carts. A mansabdar holding a rank of 5,000 had to maintain 340 horses, 100 elephants, 400 camels, 100 mules and 160 carts. 8. Handsome salaries were paid to a mansabdar.

A mansabdar with a rank of 5,000 got a salary of 30,000 rupees per month, one of 3,000 could get 17,000 rupees, while a mansabdar of 1,000 got 8,200 rupees. 9. The horses were classified into the elephants into five. 10. For

George Harrison Dunbar

George Harrison Dunbar was an Ontario political figure. He represented Ottawa South in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario as a Conservative and Progressive Conservative member from 1937 to 1959, he was born in Richmond, Ontario in 1878, the son of Thomas Dunbar, was educated in Kemptville. In 1892, he married a Miss Coxford, he served as a captain during World War I. He died in a Toronto hospital on February 28, 1966; the George Dunbar Bridge which crosses the Rideau River near Carleton University in Ottawa was named in his honour. Dunbar was controller for the city of Ottawa, he placed third. He served in the provincial cabinet as Minister of Municipal Affairs from 1943 to 1955 and Minister of Reform Institutions from 1946 to 1948. Canadian Parliamentary Guide, 1947, PG Normandin Ontario Legislative Assembly parliamentary history

68th Airlift Squadron

The 68th Airlift Squadron is a United States Air Force Reserve squadron, assigned to the 433d Operations Group, stationed at Kelly Field Annex, Joint Base San Antonio, Texas. The squadron operates Lockheed C-5M Super Galaxy aircraft providing global airlift; the 68th flew troop carrier missions in New Guinea and the western Pacific from 1943 to 1945 and participated in the airborne assault at Aparri, Luzon, 23 June 1945. The squadron was activated in the reserve in 1947 and conducted flying training until it was mobilized in 1950, it served on active duty until 1952, moving to Germany in 1951. Between 1955 and 1985, the squadron trained for and flew tactical airlift missions at home and abroad taking part in joint exercises, humanitarian airlift operations, firefighting missions. In 1985, it converted to strategic airlift missions; the 68th took part in Operation Just Cause in 1989-1990, flying medical supplies and field rations to Panama. The squadron took part in the defense of Saudi Arabia and liberation of Kuwait in 1990 and 1991, airlifting men and materiel destined for southwestern Asia.

Constituted as the 68th Troop Carrier Squadron on 22 January 1943Activated on 9 February 1943 Inactivated on 15 January 1946Activated in the reserve on 3 August 1947Redesignated 68th Troop Carrier Squadron, Medium on 27 June 1949 Ordered into active service on 15 October 1950 Inactivated on 14 July 1952Activated in the reserve on 18 May 1955Redesignated 68th Tactical Airlift Squadron on 1 July 1967 Redesignated 68th Military Airlift Squadron on 1 April 1985 Redesignated 68th Airlift Squadron on 1 February 1992 433d Troop Carrier Group, 9 February 1943 – 15 January 1946 433d Troop Carrier Group, 3 August 1947 – 14 Jul 1952 433d Troop Carrier Group, 18 May 1955 433d Troop Carrier Wing, 14 April 1959 922d Troop Carrier Group, 17 January 1963 921st Tactical Airlift Group, 30 June 1974 433d Tactical Airlift Wing, 1 November 1974 433d Operations Group, 1 August – present This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/.

Maurer, Maurer, ed.. Air Force Combat Units of World War II. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-02-1. LCCN 61060979. Retrieved 17 December 2016. Maurer, Maurer, ed.. Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, World War II. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-405-12194-6. LCCN 70605402. OCLC 72556. Retrieved 17 December 2016. Ravenstein, Charles A.. Air Force Combat Wings, Lineage & Honors Histories 1947-1977. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-12-9. Retrieved 17 December 2016

North Pearsall, Texas

North Pearsall is a census-designated place in Frio County, United States. The population was 614 at the 2010 census. North Pearsall is located in central Frio County at 28°55′9″N 99°5′34″W, it is bordered to the south by the city of the county seat. Interstate 35 forms the western edge of the CDP, with access from Exit 104. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 1.5 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 561 people, 162 households, 139 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 420.3 people per square mile. There were 176 housing units at an average density of 131.9/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 72.55% White, 1.25% Native American, 24.42% from other races, 1.78% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 82.00% of the population. There were 162 households out of which 58.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 68.5% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 13.6% were non-families.

10.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.46 and the average family size was 3.73. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 37.4% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 30.3% from 25 to 44, 18.9% from 45 to 64, 3.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 27 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.7 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $32,917, the median income for a family was $35,000. Males had a median income of $26,667 versus $17,167 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $11,602. About 8.3% of families and 8.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.7% of those under age 18 and 11.3% of those age 65 or over. North Pearsall is served by the Pearsall Independent School District

Jack McLean (rugby)

John "Jack" Kenneth McLean was a New Zealand rugby union and professional rugby league footballer who played in the 1940s and 1950s. He played two rugby union tests for New Zealand before switching codes and playing rugby league for Bradford Northern, as a wing, i.e. number 2 or 5. Jack McLean was born in Thames, New Zealand, he died aged 81 in Thames, New Zealand. A wing three-quarter, McLean represented Auckland and King Country at a provincial level, was a member of the New Zealand national side, the All Blacks, from 1947 to 1949, he played five matches for the All Blacks including two internationals, both of which were against Australia. McLean was a member of the Bradford Northern's table topping side and championship finalists of 1952, a Yorkshire Cup winner in 1954, he scored 63 tries in 46 games in the 1951–52 season, is the top try scorer of all time with Bradford Northern. McLean played left wing, i.e. number 5, in Bradford Northern's 6-13 defeat by Wigan in the Championship Final during the 1951–52 season at Leeds Road, Huddersfield on Saturday 10 May 1952.

Search for "McLean" at rugbyleagueproject.org J McLean Statistics at rugbyleagueproject.org The Millennium Masters – Backs Team Of The Century King Country All Blacks – John McLean Photograph "Jack McLean - Jack McLean, a Kiwi wingman, was one of the greatest wingmen to play for Bradford. He scored 261 tries in 221 games including an incredible 63 tries in the 1951/52 season. - 01/01/1952" at rlhp.co.uk Photograph "Jack McLean scores - Jack McLean scores against Halifax at Thrum Hall in the Championship Semi final of 1953. Halifax went on to win a tight affair by 18-16. - 02/05/1953" at rlhp.co.uk Photograph "Bill Seddon races away - Bill Seddon, Northern's Kiwi centre, races away in this game against Featherstone with Jack McLean in support. - 05/11/1955" at rlhp.co.uk Photograph "Joe Phillips makes a break - Joe Phillips, the attacking Kiwi full back, who played for Bradford Northern between 1950 and 1956 amassing a massive 1,463 points including 661 goals. He once score 14 goals in a single game against Batley in 1952.

- 01/01/1955" at rlhp.co.uk Photograph "Bradford Northern after winning the Yorkshire Cup - Trevor Foster with the Cup Winning side. Trevor holds the cup and is flanked by Ken Traill and Bob Jenkins - 31/10/1953" at rlhp.co.uk

Appledore railway station

Appledore railway station is a Grade II listed station east of Appledore in Kent, England. It is on the Marshlink line, train services are provided by Southern; the station was designed by William Tress. It became a junction station in 1881 when a branch line opened to New Romney. Despite a recommendation in the report that Appledore should close, it has remained open into the 21st century. According to National Rail, this station's official name is Appledore, despite the other Appledore station in Devon having closed in 1917. On official documents and railway company websites, the station is referred to as Appledore, although signs at the station list'Appledore'; the station is located two miles from Appledore village and 8 1⁄2 miles south of Ashford International, on the B2080, a local road. Owing to its distance from the village, it is in the Parish of Kenardington, not Appledore. Appledore is just north of a junction of a freight branch line running to Dungeness nuclear power station via Lydd.

Appledore is the start of the single track section of the Marshlink line, which runs through to Ore near Hastings with a passing loop at Rye. Along with several other stations on the line, the platforms are staggered; when British Rail introduced widespread provision of enamel totem station signs Appledore was one of few that had some wooden ones fitted. The station was first proposed by the South Eastern Railway in June 1848 as a stop on the Ashford to Hastings line; that September, hop planters near Appledore petitioned the early construction of the line to help with harvest. The station was designed, along with others along the line, by William Tress; the main building was built in an Italianate style with red brick with a Welsh slate roof. It opened, along with the rest of the line on 13 February 1851. A pub, the Man of Kent Railway Tavern was built in 1853 on the opposite side of the road, it was rebuilt adjacent to the station in the late 19th century. A waiting room was built in 1894, followed by a goods shed in 1896 and a station master's house the following year.

In 1881, Appledore was upgraded to become a junction station to cater for a branch line to Lydd, with new signals installed. The branch line opened on 7 December, was further extended to New Romney in 1884; the station platforms were widened in June 1887 to accommodate longer trains. A line was proposed from Appledore to Tenterden, but this was never built; the SER subsequently merged with the London and Dover Railway to form the South Eastern and Chatham Railway. It became part of the Southern Railway during the Grouping of 1923; the station passed on to the Southern Region of British Railways on nationalisation in 1948. The goods shed was closed in 1963. Appledore ceased to be a junction station for passengers when the branch line to Lydd and New Romney closed in 1967. However, it continued to be used for goods traffic to Dungeness; when Sectorisation was introduced in the 1980s, the station was served by Network SouthEast until the Privatisation of British Railways. In 2001, the station building and goods shed.

The main building is in good condition and has been unaltered since its original 1851 construction. On 14 March 1980, an empty stock train comprising five Hastings Unit vehicles derailed due to excessive speed through a set of points; the driver was killed. A motor coach was withdrawn from service due to extensive damage. On 31 July 1989, 2H diesel-electric multiple unit 205 101 collided with a van on the level crossing. Trains run once an hour during the day in each direction, north to Ashford and south to Hastings and beyond to/from Eastbourne via Bexhill; the rolling stock is Southern diesel Class 171 Turbostars, used on the non-electrified Marshlink route. APTIS was once provided here until the booking office closed in the early 1990s leaving no ticketing facilities. In 2016 Southern installed a new self-service ticket machine; the office buildings on the Ashford-bound platform are unused. Citations Sources Train times and station information for Appledore railway station from National Rail Appledore at Disused Stations - history about the station and lines