The Corinthian order is the last developed of the three principal classical orders of ancient Greek and Roman architecture. The other two are the Doric order which was the earliest, followed by the Ionic order, when classical architecture was revived during the Renaissance, two more orders were added to the canon, the Tuscan order and the Composite order. The Corinthian, with its offshoot the Composite, is the most ornate of the orders, characterized by slender fluted columns and elaborate capitals decorated with acanthus leaves and it was employed in southern Gaul at the Maison Carrée, Nîmes and at the comparable podium temple at Vienne. Other prime examples noted by Mark Wilson Jones are the order of the Basilica Ulpia and the arch at Ancona the column of Phocas. The Corinthian order is named for the Greek city-state of Corinth, according to the architectural historian Vitruvius, the column was created by the sculptor Callimachus, probably an Athenian, who drew acanthus leaves growing around a votive basket.
Its earliest use can be traced back to the Late Classical Period, the earliest Corinthian capital was found in Bassae, dated at 427 BC. In its proportions, the Corinthian column is similar to the Ionic column, though it is more slender, the abacus upon the capital has concave sides to conform to the outscrolling corners of the capital, and it may have a rosette at the center of each side. Corinthian columns were erected on the top level of the Roman Colosseum, holding up the least weight and their height to width ratio is about 10,1. One variant is the Tivoli Order, found at the Temple of Vesta, the Tivoli Orders Corintinan Capital has two rows of Acanthus and its abacus is decorated with oversize fleuron in the form of hibiscus flowers with pronounced spiral pistils. The column flutes have flat tops, the frieze exhibits fruit swag suspended between bucrania. Above each swag is a rosette, the cornice does not have modillions. Indo-Corinthian capitals are capitals crowning columns or pilasters, which can be found in the northwestern Indian subcontinent and these capitals are typically dated to the 1st centuries of our era, and constitute important elements of Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara.
The classical design was adapted, usually taking a more elongated form. Indo-Corinthian capitals incorporated figures of the Buddha or Bodhisattvas, usually as central figures surrounded, the Corinthian architrave is divided in two or three sections, which may be equal, or they may bear interesting proportional relationships, one with another. Above the plain, unadorned architrave lies the frieze, which may be carved with a continuous design or left plain. At the Capitol the proportions of architrave to frieze are exactly 1,1, above that, the profiles of the cornice moldings are like those of the Ionic order. If the cornice is deep, it may be supported by brackets or modillions. The Corinthian column is almost always fluted, if it is not, it is often worth pausing to unravel the reason why
Giacomo Leoni, known as James Leoni, was an Italian architect, born in Venice. He was a devotee of the work of Florentine Renaissance architect Leon Battista Alberti, Leoni thus served as a prominent exponent of Palladianism in English architecture, beginning in earnest around 1720. Also loosely referred to as Georgian, this style is rooted in Italian Renaissance architecture, having previously worked in Düsseldorf, Leoni arrived in England, where he was to make his name, in 1714, aged 28. His fresh, uncluttered designs, with just a hint of baroque flamboyance, Leonis early life is poorly documented. He is first recorded in Düsseldorf in 1708, and arrived in England sometime before 1715, the direct impact of Palladios text was upon building patrons, for these expensive volumes were out of the reach of most builders, who could consult them only briefly in a gentlemans library. On the frontispiece of his edition of Palladio, Leoni titled himself Architect to his most serene Highness the Elector Palatine, Leoni followed his Palladian volume with an English translation of Albertis De Re Aedificatoria, the first modern book on the theories and practice of architecture.
He made Palladian architecture less austere, and adapted his work to suit the location, the use of red brick as a building component had begun to replace dressed stone during the William and Mary era. Leoni would frequently build in both, depending on availability and what was indigenous to the area of the site, Leonis first commissions in England, though for high-profile clients the Duke of Kent and James, Earl Stanhope, first lord of the Treasury, remained unexecuted. His first built design in England was Queensberry House,7 Burlington Gardens, for John Bligh, Lord Clifton and this was to be an important architectural landmark, as the first London mansion to be built in a terrace with an antique temple front. Throughout this career in England, Leoni was to be responsible for the design of at least twelve large country houses and he is known to have designed church monuments and memorials. In the early 1720s, Leoni received one of his most important challenges and this he did so sympathetically that internally, large areas of the house remained completely unaltered, and the wood carvings by Grinling Gibbons were left intact.
In the central courtyard Leoni achieved the Palladian style by hiding the irregularities, the transformation at Lyme was a success. This squat tower, known as a hamper, is on the site of Leonis intended cupola, above the piano nobile were the more private room and less formal rooms for the family. Thus in no way could the portico be seen as a corps de logis and this has led some architectural commentators to describe the south front as more Baroque than Palladian in style. In 1730 Leoni was commissioned by the 2nd Lord Onslow to build what is probably his masterpiece, the result was a house of exuberant grandeur and at the same time endearing naivety. This coupling of grandeur and naivety was to become Leonis own style, as he mixed the Baroque, Clandon was built of a fiery red brick, with the west front dressed with stone pilasters and medallion ornamentation. The interiors contrasted with the exterior, the huge double-height marble hall is in muted stone colours, to provide a foil for the vibrant colours of the adjoining suite of state rooms.
The interiors were altered in the 18th century, but here the house was fortunate
Samuel Langhorne Clemens, better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, entrepreneur and lecturer. Among his novels are The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and its sequel, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Twain was raised in Hannibal, which provided the setting for Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn. He served an apprenticeship with a printer and worked as a typesetter and he became a riverboat pilot on the Mississippi River before heading west to join Orion in Nevada. He referred humorously to his lack of success at mining, turning to journalism for the Virginia City Territorial Enterprise, the short story brought international attention and was even translated into classic Greek. His wit and satire, in prose and in speech, earned praise from critics and peers, and he was a friend to presidents, artists and European royalty. He filed for bankruptcy in the wake of financial setbacks. He chose to pay all his creditors in full, even though he had no legal responsibility to do so. Twain was born shortly after an appearance of Halleys Comet, and he predicted that he would go out with it as well and he was lauded as the greatest American humorist of his age, and William Faulkner called him the father of American literature.
His parents met when his father moved to Missouri, and they were married in 1823, Twain was of Cornish and Scots-Irish descent. Only three of his siblings survived childhood, Orion and Pamela and his sister Margaret died when Twain was three, and his brother Benjamin died three years later. His brother Pleasant died at six months of age, slavery was legal in Missouri at the time, and it became a theme in these writings. His father was an attorney and judge, but he died of pneumonia in 1847, the next year, Twain left school after the fifth grade to become a printers apprentice. In 1851, he working as a typesetter, contributing articles and humorous sketches to the Hannibal Journal. He educated himself in libraries in the evenings, finding wider information than at a conventional school. Twain describes his boyhood in Life on the Mississippi, stating there was but one permanent ambition among his comrades. Pilot was the grandest position of all, the pilot, even in those days of trivial wages, had a princely salary – from a hundred and fifty to two hundred and fifty dollars a month, and no board to pay.
As Twain describes it, the pilots prestige exceeded that of the captain, bixby took Twain on as a cub pilot to teach him the river between New Orleans and St. Louis for $500, payable out of Twains first wages after graduating. It was more than two years before he received his pilots license, piloting gave him his pen name from mark twain, the leadsmans cry for a measured river depth of two fathoms, which was safe water for a steamboat
Isaac Ware was an English architect and translator of Italian Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio. Reportedly he was drawing on the pavement of Whitehall whereupon Burlington, recognising the talent and personality and his subsequent education included a Grand Tour of Europe and the study of architecture. He was apprenticed to Thomas Ripley,1 August 1721, and followed him in positions in the Office of Works, but his mentor in design was Lord Burlington. Although he held posts with the Office of Works between 1728 and his death, including Secretary, a position previously held by Nicholas Hawksmoor. At Wrotham the central block was flanked by winks ending in octagonal pavilions and he engaged in speculative building in the West End of London. Ware was dissatisfied with the first English language edition of Andrea Palladios I Quattro Libri dellArchitettura, translated by Giacomo Leoni), in 1738 Ware published his translation illustrated with his own careful engravings. Wares version of the Four Books of Architecture remained the best English translation into the century in the opinion of Howard Colvin.
Having thoroughly assimilated Palladian theory, wrote Colvin he looked beyond it, in 1756 he published A Complete Body of Architecture a wide-ranging work intended to supply the place of all other books. It was described by John Summerson as ably compiled, reflecting very fairly the solid, the following list is taken from Colvin, all were published at London. Designs of Inigo Jones and others,1731, the Plans and Sections of Houghton in Norfolk,1735. The Four Books iof Andrea Palladios Architecture 1738, two engravings of Rokeby Hall, Yorkshire. A Complete Body of Architecture, issued in parts 1756-57, second edition,1767, reissued in 1768. The Practice of Perspective, from the Original Italian of Lorenzo Sirigatti, with the figures engraved by Isaac Ware, a translation of Sirigattis, La Practica di Prospettiva. Architecture in Britain,1530 to 1830, a Complete Body of Architecture, Digital facsimile of the 1757 edition, ETH-Bibliothek. Isaac Ware architectural drawings, circa 1730-1766, held by the Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library, Columbia University
A portico is a porch leading to the entrance of a building, or extended as a colonnade, with a roof structure over a walkway, supported by columns or enclosed by walls. This idea was used in Ancient Greece and has influenced many cultures. Some noteworthy examples of porticos are the East Portico of the United States Capitol, the portico adorning the Pantheon in Rome, porticos are sometimes topped with pediments. Bologna, Italy, is famous for its porticos, in total, there are over 45 km of arcades, some 38 in the city center. The longest portico in the world, about 3.5 km, in Bologna, porticos stretch for 18 km. Palladio was a pioneer of using temple-fronts for secular buildings, in the UK, the temple-front applied to The Vyne, Hampshire was the first portico applied to an English country house. A pronaos is the area of the portico of a Greek or Roman temple. Roman temples commonly had an open pronaos, usually with only columns and no walls, the word pronaos is Greek for before a temple. In Latin, a pronaos is referred to as an anticum or prodomus, the different variants of porticos are named by the number of columns they have.
The style suffix comes from the Greek στῦλος, the tetrastyle has four columns, it was commonly employed by the Greeks and the Etruscans for small structures such as public buildings and amphiprostyles. Roman provincial capitals manifested tetrastyle construction, such as the Capitoline Temple in Volubilis, the North Portico of the White House is perhaps the most notable four-columned portico in the United States. Hexastyle buildings had six columns and were the standard façade in canonical Greek Doric architecture between the archaic period 600–550 BC up to the Age of Pericles 450–430 BC. With the colonization by the Greeks of Southern Italy, hexastyle was adopted by the Etruscans, Roman taste favoured narrow pseudoperipteral and amphiprostyle buildings with tall columns, raised on podiums for the added pomp and grandeur conferred by considerable height. The Maison Carrée at Nîmes, France, is the best-preserved Roman hexastyle temple surviving from antiquity, octastyle buildings had eight columns, they were considerably rarer than the hexastyle ones in the classical Greek architectural canon.
The best-known octastyle buildings surviving from antiquity are the Parthenon in Athens, built during the Age of Pericles, and the Pantheon in Rome. The destroyed Temple of Divus Augustus in Rome, the centre of the Augustan cult, is shown on Roman coins of the 2nd century AD as having built in octastyle. The decastyle has ten columns, as in the temple of Apollo Didymaeus at Miletus, the temple of Venus and Rome, built by Hadrian in Rome about 130 A. D. was decastyle, the only known example in Roman architecture. Classical architecture List of classical architecture terms Hypostyle Loggia Stoa Greek architecture, Encyclopædia Britannica,1968 Stierlin, From Mycenae to the Parthenon, TASCHEN,2004, Editor-in-chief Angelika Taschen, Cologne, ISBN 3-8228-1225-0 Stierlin, Henri
White tie, called full evening dress, is the most formal evening dress code in Western high fashion. For men, it consists of a black tailcoat worn over a white starched shirt, marcella waistcoat, high-waisted black trousers and patent leather shoes complete the outfit, although decorations can be worn and a top hat and white scarf are acceptable as accessories. Women wear full evening or ball gown and, jewellery, tiaras. By the 1840s the minimalist black and white combination had become the standard evening wear for upper class men, despite the emergence of the dinner jacket as a less formal and more comfortable alternative in the 1880s, full evening dress remained the staple. From the 1920s onward black tie slowly replaced white tie as the default evening wear for important events, the Vienna Opera Ball and the Nobel Prize ceremony are white tie events, and some European universities retain it as the dress code for doctoral conferment ceremonies. Over this is worn a black single-breasted barathea wool or ultrafine herringbone tailcoat with silk peak lapels, the trousers have double-braiding down the outside of both legs, while the correct shoes are patent leather or highly polished black dress shoes.
Although a white scarf remains popular in winter, the white gloves, top hats, canes. Women wear an evening dress, with the option of jewellery, a tiara, a pashmina, coat or wrap. The waistcoat should not be visible below the front of the tailcoat, as one style writer for GQ magazine summarises The simple rule of thumb is that you should only ever see black and white not black and black again. Decorations may be worn and, unlike Debretts, Cambridge Universitys Varsity student newspaper suggests a top hat, opera cloak and silver-topped cane are acceptable accessories. As the 18th century drew to a close, high society began adopting more austere clothing which drew inspiration from the dark hues and simpler designs adopted by country gentlemen. From around 1815, a garment called the frock coat became increasingly popular and was eventually established, along with the morning coat. The dress coat, became reserved for wear in the evening, the dandy Beau Brummell adopted a minimalistic approach to evening wear—a white waistcoat, dark blue tailcoat, black pantaloons and striped stockings.
Although Brummell felt black an ugly colour for evening dress coats, it was adopted by other dandies, like Charles Baudelaire, over the course of the 19th century, the monotone colour scheme became a codified standard for evening events after 6pm in upper class circles. The styles evolved and evening dress consisted of a dress coat and trousers, white or black waistcoat. Despite its growing popularity, the dinner jacket remained the reserve of family dinners, by the turn of the 20th century, full evening dress consisted of a black tailcoat made of heavy fabric weighing 16-18 oz per yard. According to The Delineator, the years after World War I saw white tie almost abandoned, White tie was worn with slim-cut trousers in the early 1920s, by 1926, wide-lapelled tailcoats and double-breasted waistcoats were in vogue. White tie is worn in the early 21st century
Pieter Claesz was a Dutch Golden Age painter of still lifes. He was born in Berchem, near Antwerp, where he became a member of the Guild of St. Luke in 1620 and he moved to Haarlem in 1620, where his son, the landscape painter Nicolaes Pieterszoon Berchem was born. He and Willem Claeszoon Heda, who worked in Haarlem, were the most important exponents of the ontbijt or dinner piece. They painted with subdued, virtually monochromatic palettes, the handling of light. Claesz generally chose objects of a homely kind than Heda, although his work became more colourful. Claeszs still lifes often suggest allegorical purpose, with skulls serving as reminders of human mortality, the two men founded a distinguished tradition of still life painting in Haarlem. Pieter Claesz was influenced by the artist movement Vanitas, Claesz had, in addition to his son, the pupils Evert van Aelst, Floris van Dyck, Christian Berentz, Floris van Schooten, and Jan Jansz Treck
Suffragettes were members of womens organizations in the late-19th and early-20th centuries which advocated the extension of the franchise, or the right to vote in public elections, to women. It particularly refers to militants in the United Kingdom such as members of the Womens Social and Political Union, suffragist is a more general term for members of the suffrage movement. The term suffragette is particularly associated with activists in the British WSPU, led by Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst, Women in South Australia achieved the same right and became the first to obtain the right to stand for parliament in 1895. Women in Britain over the age of 30, meeting certain property qualifications, were given the right to vote in 1918, opinion amongst historians today is divided as to whether the militant tactics of the suffragettes helped or hindered their cause. British suffragettes were mostly women from upper and middle-class backgrounds, frustrated by their social, mill introduced the idea of womens suffrage on the platform he presented to the British electorate in 1865.
He was subsequently joined by men and women fighting for the same cause. The term suffragette was first used as a term of derision by the journalist Charles E, hands in the London Daily Mail to describe activists in the movement for womens suffrage, in particular members of the Womens Social and Political Union. But the women he intended to ridicule embraced the term saying suffraGETtes implied not only that they wanted the vote, the National Union of Womens Suffrage Societies, founded in 1897, was formed from local suffrage societies. The union was led by Millicent Fawcett, who believed in constitutional campaigning, issuing leaflets, organising meetings and presenting petitions, in 1903 Emmeline Pankhurst founded a new organisation, the Womens Social and Political Union. She thought the movement would have to become radical and militant if it was going to be effective, the Daily Mail gave them the name Suffragettes. Some radical techniques used by the suffragettes, especially hunger strikes, were learned from Russian exiles from tsarism who had escaped to England, many suffragists at the time, and most historians since, have argued that the actions of the militant suffragettes damaged their cause.
Opponents at the time saw evidence that women were too emotional, from 1909, the Pank-A-Squith board game was sold by the WSPU to raise awareness of their campaign and raise money. The name is derived from Pankhurst the surname of the leaders of the WSPU, and Asquith, the surname of the Prime Minister at the time and a largely hated figure by the movement. The Peoples History Museum in Manchester has a Pank-A-Squith board game on display in the main galleries, one suffragette, Emily Davison, died under the Kings horse Anmer at the Epsom Derby of 4 June 1913. It is debated whether she was trying to pin a Votes for Women banner on the Kings horse or not, many of her fellow suffragettes were imprisoned and refused food as a scare tactic against the government. The Liberal government of the day led by Asquith responded with the Cat, another prominent British Suffragette, Sophia Duleep Singh was almost forgotten for 70 years. In the early-20th century until the First World War, approximately one thousand suffragettes were imprisoned in Britain, most early incarcerations were for public order offences and failure to pay outstanding fines.
The first suffragettes to be imprisoned were Christabel Pankhurst and Annie Kenney in October 1905 and this cause was taken up by the Womens Social and Political Union, a large organisation in Britain, that lobbied for womens suffrage led by militant suffragette Emmeline Pankhurst
William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield
William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield, PC, SL was a British barrister and judge noted for his reform of English law. Born to Scottish nobility, he was educated in Perth, Scotland and he was accepted into Christ Church, Oxford, in May 1723, and graduated four years later. Returning to London from Oxford, he was called to the Bar by Lincolns Inn on 23 November 1730 and he became involved in politics in 1742, beginning with his election as a Member of Parliament for Boroughbridge, and appointment as Solicitor General. With the promotion of Sir Dudley Ryder to Lord Chief Justice in 1754, he became Attorney General, the most powerful British jurist of the century, his decisions reflected the Age of Enlightenment and moved England on the path to abolishing slavery and the slave trade. He advanced commercial law in ways that establish the nation as the world leader in industry, finance. He modernised both English law and the English courts system, he sped up the system for submitting motions and reformed the way judgments were given to reduce time and expense for the parties.
For his work in Carter v Boehm and Pillans v Van Mierop, he has been called the founder of English commercial law. Murray was born on 2 March 1705, at Scone Palace in Perthshire, the son of the 5th Viscount of Stormont and his wife, Margaret, née Scott. Both his parents were supporters of the Jacobite cause. The Jacobite sympathies of Murrays family were glossed over by contemporaries and this was incorrect, as Murray was educated at Perth Grammar School, where he was taught Latin, English grammar, and essay writing skills. He said that this gave him an advantage at university, as those students educated in England had been taught Greek and Latin. The distance from Perth to London was around 400 miles, Murray flourished at Westminster and was made a Kings Scholar on 21 May 1719. After an examination in May 1723, Murray was accepted into Christ Church and his older brother James was a barrister in Scotland, and his family decided that a career as a barrister was best for Murray. The Scottish Bar at the time was overcrowded, which made it difficult for a young barrister to build a reputation, yet qualifying for the English Bar was extremely expensive.
Thanks to the patronage of Thomas Foley, 1st Baron Foley, who gave Murray £200 a year to live on, Murray could afford to study at the bar, and became a member of Lincolns Inn on 23 April 1724. After George I died on 11 June 1727, Murray entered and his actions were seen as a show of support for the House of Hanover and the political status quo, something odd considering the strong Jacobite sympathies of his family. He probably did this because, having no income, he wished to secure patronage to help him advance politically. Another entrant was William Pitt, who was a constant rival to Murray until Pitts death in 1778
Lord Mayor of London
The Lord Mayor of London is the City of Londons mayor and leader of the City of London Corporation. This office differs from the Mayor of London, which is an elected position. However, the legal and commonly used title remains Lord Mayor of London, the Lord Mayor is elected at Common Hall each year on Michaelmas, and takes office on the Friday before the second Saturday in November, at The Silent Ceremony. One of the worlds oldest continuously elected civic offices, the Lord Mayors main role nowadays is to represent and promote the businesses and residents in the City of London. As leader of the Corporation of the City of London, the Lord Mayor serves as the key spokesman for the local authority, all Lord Mayors of London are apolitical. The Lord Mayor of London typically delivers dozens of speeches and addresses per year, many incumbents of the office make overseas visits while Lord Mayor of London. Currently serving is the 689th Lord Mayor Dr Andrew Parmley Of the 69 cities in the United Kingdom, the City of London is among the 30 that have Lord Mayors.
The Lord Mayor is entitled to the style The Right Honourable, the same privilege extends only to the Lord Mayors of York and Belfast, the latter prefix applies only to Privy Counsellors. A woman who holds the office is known as a Lord Mayor. The wife of a male Lord Mayor is styled as Lady Mayoress, a female Lord Mayor or an unmarried male Lord Mayor may appoint a female consort, usually a fellow member of the corporation, to the role of Lady Mayoress. In speech, a Lord Mayor is referred to as My Lord Mayor, and it was once customary for Lord Mayors to be appointed knights upon taking office and baronets upon retirement, unless they already held such a title. This custom was followed with a few inconsistencies from the 16th until the 19th centuries, from 1964 onwards, the regular creation of hereditary titles such as baronetcies was phased out, so subsequent Lord Mayors were offered knighthoods. Furthermore, foreign Heads of State visiting the City of London on a UK State Visit, for example, in 2001, Sir David Howard was created a Grand Cordon of the Order of Independence of Jordan by King Abdullah II.
Recently Lord Mayors have been appointed at the beginning of their term of office Knights or Dames of St John, as a mark of respect, by HM The Queen, Sovereign Head of the Order of St John. The office of Lord Mayor was instituted in 1189, the first holder of the office being Henry Fitz-Ailwin de Londonestone. The Mayor of the City of London has been elected by the City, rather than appointed by the Sovereign, the title Lord Mayor came to be used after 1354, when it was granted to Thomas Legge by King Edward III. Lord Mayors are elected for terms, by custom, they do not now serve more than one consecutive term. Almost 700 people have served as Lord Mayor, Dame Mary Donaldson, elected in 1983, and Dame Fiona Woolf, elected in 2013, are the only women to have held the office
Church of England
The Church of England is the state church of England. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the most senior cleric, although the monarch is the supreme governor, the Church of England is the mother church of the international Anglican Communion. It dates its establishment as a church to the 6th-century Gregorian mission to Kent led by Augustine of Canterbury. The English church renounced papal authority when Henry VIII sought to secure an annulment from Catherine of Aragon in the 1530s, the English Reformation accelerated under Edward VIs regents before a brief restoration of papal authority under Queen Mary I and King Philip. This is expressed in its emphasis on the teachings of the early Church Fathers, as formalised in the Apostles, Nicene, in the earlier phase of the English Reformation there were both Catholic martyrs and radical Protestant martyrs. The phases saw the Penal Laws punish Roman Catholic and nonconforming Protestants, in the 17th century and religious disputes raised the Puritan and Presbyterian faction to control of the church, but this ended with the Restoration.
Papal recognition of George III in 1766 led to religious tolerance. Since the English Reformation, the Church of England has used a liturgy in English, the church contains several doctrinal strands, the main three known as Anglo-Catholic and Broad Church. Tensions between theological conservatives and progressives find expression in debates over the ordination of women and homosexuality, the church includes both liberal and conservative clergy and members. The governing structure of the church is based on dioceses, each presided over by a bishop, within each diocese are local parishes. The General Synod of the Church of England is the body for the church and comprises bishops, other clergy. Its measures must be approved by both Houses of Parliament, according to tradition, Christianity arrived in Britain in the 1st or 2nd century, during which time southern Britain became part of the Roman Empire. The earliest historical evidence of Christianity among the native Britons is found in the writings of such early Christian Fathers as Tertullian, three Romano-British bishops, including Restitutus, are known to have been present at the Council of Arles in 314.
Others attended the Council of Sardica in 347 and that of Ariminum in 360, Britain was the home of Pelagius, who opposed Augustine of Hippos doctrine of original sin. Consequently, in 597, Pope Gregory I sent the prior of the Abbey of St Andrews from Rome to evangelise the Angles and this event is known as the Gregorian mission and is the date the Church of England generally marks as the beginning of its formal history. A archbishop, the Greek Theodore of Tarsus, contributed to the organisation of Christianity in England, the Church of England has been in continuous existence since the days of St Augustine, with the Archbishop of Canterbury as its episcopal head. Despite the various disruptions of the Reformation and the English Civil War, while some Celtic Christian practices were changed at the Synod of Whitby, the Christian Church in the British Isles was under papal authority from earliest times. The Synod of Whitby established the Roman date for Easter and the Roman style of monastic tonsure in Britain and this meeting of the ecclesiastics with Roman customs with local bishops was summoned in 664 at Saint Hildas double monastery of Streonshalh, called Whitby Abbey
George Dance the Elder
George Dance the Elder was an English architect of the 18th century. He was the City of London surveyor and architect from 1735 until his death, originally a mason, George Dance was appointed Clerk of the City works to the City of London. In 1734, shortly before taking up the post, he had won a commission from the City, for the Mansion House. He was one of three others being James Gibbs and Giacomo Leoni—who had been invited to submit designs. His building has a portico, and an Egyptian Hall. He designed the churches of St Leonards, Shoreditch, St Botolphs Aldgate and St Matthews, further afield, Dance designed the Town Hall of Coleraine in Northern Ireland. Sir John Summerson included Dance in a list of London architects who he felt debased Palladianism and he had five sons, three of whom enjoyed fame in their own right. Eldest son James Dance became an actor and playwright connected with Drury Lane theatre, third son Nathaniel Dance-Holland was a notable painter. Fifth son George Dance the Younger succeeded him as city architect and his grandson by James Dance was Nathaniel Dance, commodore of the fleets of the East India Company, and victor of the Battle of Pulo Aura.
Dance is buried in the churchyard of St Lukes Old Street, Architecture in Britain,1530 to 1830. A Guide to the Architecture of London, George Dance the Elder at Find a Grave