Luxembourg railway station
Luxembourg railway station is the main railway station serving Luxembourg City, in southern Luxembourg. It is operated by the state-owned railway company. 80,000 passengers use this station every day. It is the hub of Luxembourg's domestic railway network, serving as a point of call on all but one of Luxembourg's railway lines, it functions as the country's international railway hub, with services to all the surrounding countries: Belgium and Germany. Since June 2007, the LGV Est has connected the station to the French TGV network; the station is located 2 kilometres south to the south of the River Pétrusse. The station gives its name to Gare, one of the Quarters of Luxembourg City; the original railway station was built from timber, was opened in 1859. The position of the new station on the south bank of the Pétrusse, away from the original built-up area of the city, was on account of Luxembourg's role as a German Confederation fortress; the first connection to the city proper came in 1861, with the construction of the Passerelle viaduct.
After the 1867 Treaty of London, the fortifications were demolished, leading to the expansion of the city around the station. The old wooden station was replaced by the modern building between 1907 and 1913, at the height of an economic boom, fuelled by iron from the Red Lands; the new station was designed by a trio of German architects in the Moselle Baroque Revival style that dominates Luxembourg's major public buildings. The station lies at the end of the Avenue de la Liberté, one of the city's major thoroughfares, its imposing clock tower can be seen from a considerable distance. In 2006, the Ministry of Transport began a six-year renovation project on Luxembourg station that totaled €95 million; the improvements included new ticketing and sales facilities inside the main hall, expanding platforms, new lifts, a new passenger subway, upgraded overhead electrical wiring, installation of two platform escalators, a new entrance porch, a redesigned forecourt, a glass passenger hall, a four-storey car park.
As of December 2017 the station is served by the following services: High speed services Paris - Metz - Thionville - Luxembourg Intercity services Luxembourg - Arlon - Namur - Brussels Intercity services Luxembourg - Ettelbruck - Kautenbach - Troisvierges - Gouvy - Liege - Liers Intercity services Luxembourg - Wasserbillig - Trier - Koblenz - Köln - Düsseldorf Regional services Luxembourg - Wasserbillig - Trier - Koblenz Regional services Luxembourg - Ettelbruck - Diekirch Regional services Luxembourg - Bettembourg - Esch - Petange - Rodange Regional services Luxembourg - Bettembourg - Dudelange - Volmerange-les-Mines Regional services Luxembourg - Thionville - Metz - Nancy Local services Luxembourg - Ettelbruck - Kautenbach - Wiltz Local services Luxembourg - Ettelbruck Local services Luxembourg - Wasserbillig Local services Luxembourg - Kleinbettingen Local services Luxembourg - Bettembourg - Esch - Belval - Petange - Rotange Local services Luxembourg - Petange - Rotange - Athus - LongwyLuxembourg station has some voltage-switchable tracks for Line 50 to Arlon, electrified with the Belgian voltage of 3 kV DC.
These are due to disappear in 2018 History of rail transport in Luxembourg Luxembourg railway network CFL Gare de Luxembourg official webpage Luxembourg Central Station at Structurae Rail.lu page on Luxembourg station
Communes of Luxembourg
Luxembourg's 102 Communes conform to LAU Level 2 and are the country's lowest administrative divisions. Communes rank below cantons in Luxembourg's hierarchy of administrative subdivisions. Communes are re-arranged, being merged or divided as demanded by demographic change over time. Unlike the cantons, which have remained unchanged since their creation, the identity of the communes has not become ingrained within the geographical sensations of the average Luxembourger; the cantons are responsible for the ceremonial and statistical aspects of government, while the communes provide local government services. The municipal system was adopted when Luxembourg was annexed into the French département of Forêts in 1795. Despite ownership passing to the Netherlands, this system was maintained until it was introduced upon independence in 1843; the province of Luxembourg, which now constitutes part of Belgium, was part of Luxembourg prior to 1839 when it possessed a low degree of sovereignty. Due to Luxembourg's incorporation into the main country by its occupying powers, the modern municipal system in Luxembourg is less than two centuries old.
Luxembourg has three official languages: French and the national language Luxembourgish. Some government websites offer English versions The communes have no legislative control over matters relating to the national interest, which reside with the Chamber of Deputies. Below this level, they have wide-ranging powers; the communes provide public education, maintain the local road network and other infrastructure, ensure basic public health, provide most social security. Communes have discretionary powers for comprehensive health care within their borders, land-use planning, funds for cultural activities, provision of care to the elderly, providing a sufficient supply of water and electricity. There are 102 communes in the 12 cantons; the 12 communes with city status are Diekirch, Dudelange, Esch-sur-Alzette, Grevenmacher, Remich, Rumelange and Wiltz. Since the country's creation in 1839, eight communes have changed their name and thirty-nine communes have been merged, resulting in the 102 communes that exist today.
These defunct communes are listed in the table below. The municipal system was created during the French occupation to mirror the systems employed in the rest of the French Republic; these were overhauled in 1823, but the system itself was retained until independence, granted under the 1839 Treaty of London. The law regulating their creation and organisation dates to 24 February 1843, enshrined in the Luxembourgian constitution promulgated on 17 October 1868. Upon independence, there were 120 communes. A series of mergers and partitions between 1849 and 1891 increased this number to 130. Most of these were brought about by asymmetrical population growth, as population growth in the south caused the balance of population in the country to shift. For instance, some of the communes born in that era include Rumelange and Walferdange. In the pattern of Nordstad and Schieren were separated from Ettelbruck. Since the end of the First World War, during which Luxembourg was occupied by Germany, the number of communes has dropped steadily.
In 1920, Luxembourg City was expanded. Another wave of mergers took place in the 1970s when sparsely-populated areas in the north and west of the country were merged to form Lac de la Haute-Sûre, Wincrange. 2006 saw the creation of Kiischpelt and Tandel from four smaller communes, further reducing them to just 116. 2012 saw the creation of Käerjeng, Vallée de l'Ernz and Parc Hosingen from smaller communes, the merger of Clervaux, Esch-sur-Sûre and Schengen into adjacent ones. Eschweiler was merged into Wiltz in 2015. Following the mergers of Boevange-sur-Attert and Tuntange into the new commune of Helperknapp, the merger of Septfontaines and Hobschied into the new commune of Habscht, the merger of Rosport and Mompach into Rosport-Mompach in 2018, there are now only 102 communes. Category:Lists of communes of Luxembourg Statec. Recueil de statistiques par commune 2003. Luxembourg City: Statec. ISBN 2-87988-053-X. Archived from the original on 2007-06-10. Retrieved 2006-07-18. / "Archives of Mémorial A".
Service central de législation. Archived from the original on 2007-06-14. Retrieved 2006-07-18
Betzdorf is a commune and town in the canton of Grevenmacher, in eastern Luxembourg. As of 2017, the town of Betzdorf, which lies in the north-east of the commune, has a population of 254 inhabitants. Other settlements within the commune include the commune's administrative centre, Berg, as well as Mensdorf and Roodt-sur-Syre. Betzdorf Castle is the headquarters of SES, the world's largest satellite operator in terms of revenue and one of the four largest components of the Luxembourg Stock Exchange's main LuxX Index. Media related to Betzdorf at Wikimedia Commons
Luxembourg known as Luxembourg City, is the capital city of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the country's most populous commune. Standing at the confluence of the Alzette and Pétrusse rivers in southern Luxembourg, the city lies at the heart of Western Europe, situated 213 km by road from Brussels, 372 km from Paris, 209 km from Cologne; the city contains Luxembourg Castle, established by the Franks in the Early Middle Ages, around which a settlement developed. As of January 2019, Luxembourg City had a population of 119,214, more than three times the population of the country's second most populous commune. In 2011, Luxembourg was ranked as having the second highest per capita GDP in the world at $80,119, with the city having developed into a banking and administrative centre. In the 2011 Mercer worldwide survey of 221 cities, Luxembourg was placed first for personal safety while it was ranked 19th for quality of living. Luxembourg is one of the de facto capitals of the European Union, as it is the seat of several institutions and bodies of the European Union, including the European Court of Justice, the European Court of Auditors, the Secretariat of the European Parliament, the European Investment Bank, the European Investment Fund, the European Stability Mechanism.
In the Roman era, a fortified tower guarded the crossing of two Roman roads that met at the site of Luxembourg city. Through an exchange treaty with the abbey of Saint Maximin in Trier in 963, Siegfried I of the Ardennes, a close relative of King Louis II of France and Emperor Otto the Great, acquired the feudal lands of Luxembourg. Siegfried built his castle, named Lucilinburhuc, on the Bock Fiels, mentioned for the first time in the aforementioned exchange treaty. In 987, Archbishop Egbert of Trier consecrated five altars in the Church of the Redemption. At a Roman road intersection near the church, a marketplace appeared around which the city developed; the city, because of its location and natural geography, has through history been a place of strategic military significance. The first fortifications were built as early as the 10th century. By the end of the 12th century, as the city expanded westward around the new St. Nicholas Church, new walls were built that included an area of 5 hectares.
In about 1340, under the reign of John the Blind, new fortifications were built that stood until 1867. In 1443, the Burgundians under Philip the Good conquered Luxembourg. Luxembourg became part of the Burgundian, Spanish and Austrian empires and under those Habsburg administrations Luxembourg Castle was strengthened so that by the 16th century, Luxembourg itself was one of the strongest fortifications in Europe. Subsequently, the Burgundians, the Spanish, the French, the Spanish again, the Austrians, the French again, the Prussians conquered Luxembourg. In the 17th century, the first casemates were built; these were enlarged under French rule by Marshal Vauban, augmented again under Austrian rule in the 1730s and 1740s. During the French Revolutionary Wars, the city was occupied by France twice: once in 1792–3, after a seven-month siege. Luxembourg held out for so long under the French siege that French politician and military engineer Lazare Carnot called Luxembourg "the best fortress in the world, except Gibraltar", giving rise to the city's nickname: the'Gibraltar of the North'.
Nonetheless, the Austrian garrison surrendered, as a consequence, Luxembourg was annexed by the French Republic, becoming part of the département of Forêts, with Luxembourg City as its préfecture. Under the 1815 Treaty of Paris, which ended the Napoleonic Wars, Luxembourg City was placed under Prussian military control as a part of the German Confederation, although sovereignty passed to the House of Orange-Nassau, in personal union with the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. After the Luxembourg Crisis, the 1867 Treaty of London required Luxembourg to dismantle the fortifications in Luxembourg City, their demolition took sixteen years, cost 1.5 million gold francs, required the destruction of over 24 km of underground defences and 4 hectares of casemates, barracks, etc. Furthermore, the Prussian garrison was to be withdrawn. When, in 1890, Grand Duke William III died without any male heirs, the Grand Duchy passed out of Dutch hands, into an independent line under Grand Duke Adolphe. Thus, which had hitherto been independent in theory only, became a independent country, Luxembourg City regained some of the importance that it had lost in 1867 by becoming the capital of a independent state.
Despite Luxembourg's best efforts to remain neutral in the First World War, it was occupied by Germany on 2 August 1914. On 30 August, Helmuth von Moltke moved his headquarters to Luxembourg City, closer to his armies in France in preparation for a swift victory. However, the victory never came, Luxembourg would play host to the German high command for another four years. At the end of the occupation, Luxembourg City was the scene of an attempted communist revolution. In 1921, the city limits were expanded; the communes of Eich, Hamm and Rollingergrund were incorporated into Luxembourg C
Flaxweiler is a commune and small town in south-eastern Luxembourg. It is part of the canton of Grevenmacher; as of 2001, the town of Flaxweiler, which lies in the north-west of the commune, has a population of 338. Other towns within the commune include Beyren, Gostingen and Oberdonven; the Mayor of Flaxweiler is the chief executive of the administration of the Luxembourgish commune of Flaxweiler. The incumbent mayor is Théo Weirich. Media related to Flaxweiler at Wikimedia Commons Official website "Flaxweiler - Découvrir la commune". Commune of Flaxweiler. Retrieved 25 August 2012
Wormeldange is a commune and small town in eastern Luxembourg. It is part of the canton of Grevenmacher; as of 2005, the town of Wormeldange, which lies in the south of the commune, has a population of 742. Other towns within the commune include Ahn, Ehnen and Wormeldange-Haut. Media related to Wormeldange at Wikimedia Commons
Junglinster is a commune in central Luxembourg, which draws its name from its principal town, Junglinster. Other towns and villages located within the commune of Junglinster include Altlinster, Blumenthal, Eisenborn, Godbrange, Graulinster and Rodenbourg, it is one of six communes in the Luxembourg canton of Grevenmacher. As of 2018, the town of Junglinster has a population of 3,254, whilst the wider commune of Junglinster has a population of 7,621. Figures from the same year report that 64.11% of the population of the commune holds Luxembourgish nationality, with the five largest immigrant populations in the commune being those of Portuguese, German and British nationalities. The commune hosts two of the world's most powerful longwave transmitters, with the older transmitter based just north of the town of Junglingster since 1933, a more powerful longwave transmitter located in Beidweiller since 1972; these transmitters were utilised by Radio Luxembourg, which gained iconic status amongst audiences in Britain and Ireland in the 30's and again in the 60's and 70's, for popular programmes that circumnaviaged restrictive broadcasting laws in the UK.
This gave Junglingster an important role in the history of pirate radio. The transmitters are in still in use by RTL. Media related to Junglinster at Wikimedia Commons Commune of Junglinster official website