A coronation crown is a crown used by a monarch when being crowned. In some monarchies, monarchs have or had a number of crowns for different occasions, such as a coronation crown for the moment of coronation and a state crown for general usage in state ceremonial. State crown Imperial crown Royal crown Consort crown Circlet Imperial Crown of Russia by Jérémie Pauzié
A prince is a male ruler ranked below a king and above a duke or member of a monarch's or former monarch's family. Prince is a title of nobility hereditary, in some European states; the feminine equivalent is a princess. The English word derives, via the French word prince, from the Latin noun princeps, from primus and capio, meaning "the chief, most distinguished, prince"; the Latin word prīnceps, became the usual title of the informal leader of the Roman senate some centuries before the transition to empire, the princeps senatus. Emperor Augustus established the formal position of monarch on the basis of principate, not dominion, he tasked his grandsons as summer rulers of the city when most of the government were on holiday in the country or attending religious rituals, for that task, granted them the title of princeps. The title has generic and substantive meanings: generically, prince refers to a member of a family that ruled by hereditary right, the title referring either to sovereigns or to cadets of a sovereign's family.
The term may be broadly used of persons in various continents or eras. In Europe, it is the title borne by dynastic cadets in monarchies, borne by courtesy by members of reigning dynasties. as a substantive title, a prince was a monarch of the lowest rank in post-Napoleonic Europe, e.g. Princes of Andorra, Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, Monaco and Pyrmont, etc. substantively, the title was granted by popes and secular monarchs to specific individuals and to the heads of some high-ranking European families who, never exercised dynastic sovereignty and whose cadets are not entitled to share the princely title, viz the Princes de Beauvau-Craon, von Bismarck, von Dohna-Schlobitten, von Eulenburg, de Faucigny-Lucinge, von Lichnowsky, von Pless, Ruffo di Calabria, von Sagan, van Ursel, etc. generically, cadets of some non-sovereign families whose head bears the non-dynastic title of prince were sometimes authorized to use the princely title, e.g. von Carolath-Beuthen, de Broglie, Demidoff di San Donato, Lieven, de Merode, Radziwill, von Wrede, etc. substantively, the heirs apparent in some monarchies use a specific princely title associated with a territory within the monarch's realm, e.g. the Princes of Asturias, Grão Pará, Viana, etc. substantively, it became the fashion from the 17th century for the heirs apparent of the leading ducal families to assume a princely title, associated with a seigneurie in the family's possession.
These titles were borne by courtesy and preserved by tradition, not law, e.g. the princes de Bidache, Tonnay-Charente, Poix, Léon, The original, but now less common use of the word, originated in the application of the Latin word princeps, from late Roman law, the classical system of government that gave way to the European feudal society. In this sense, a prince is a ruler of a territory, sovereign, or quasi-sovereign, i.e. exercising substantial prerogatives associated with monarchs of independent nations, such as the immediate states within the historical boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire. In medieval and Early Modern Europe, there were as many as two hundred such territories in Italy and Gaelic Ireland. In this sense, "prince" is used of all rulers, regardless of actual title or precise rank; this is the Renaissance use of the term found in Il Principe. As a title, by the end of the medieval era, prince was borne by rulers of territories that were either smaller than or exercised fewer of the rights of sovereignty than did emperors and kings.
A lord of a quite small territory might come to be referred to as a prince before the 13th century, either from translations of a native title into the Latin princeps, or when the lord's territory was allodial. The lord of an allodium owned his lands and exercised prerogatives over the subjects in his territory owing no feudal homage or duty as a vassal to a liege lord, nor being subject to any higher jurisdiction. Most small territories designated as principalities during feudal eras were allodial, e.g. the Princedom of Dombes. Lords who exercised lawful authority over territories and people within a feudal hierarchy were sometimes regarded as princes in the general sense if they held the rank of count or higher; this is attested in some surviving styles for e.g. British earls and dukes are still addressed by the Crown on ceremonial occasions as high and noble princes. In parts of the Holy Roman Empire in which primogeniture did not prevail, all legitimate agnates had an equal right to the family's hereditary titles.
While this meant that offices, such as emperor and elector could only be occupied by one dynast at a time, holders of such other titles as duke, landgrave, count palatine, prince could only differentiate themselves by adding the name of their appanage to the family's original title. Not only did this tend to proliferate unwieldy titles, but as agnatic primogeniture became the norm in the Holy Roman Empire by the end of the 18th century, another me
Crown Jewels are the objects of metalwork and jewellery in the regalia of a current or former monarchy. They are used for the coronation of a monarch and a few other ceremonial occasions. A monarch may be shown wearing them in portraits, as they symbolize the power and continuity of the monarchy. Additions to them may be made, but since medieval times the existing items are passed down unchanged as they symbolize the continuity of the monarchy. Typical items in Europe include crowns, orbs, ceremonial maces, all in gold or silver-gilt and decorated with precious and semi-precious gemstones, in styles which go back to the Middle Ages and are very conservative to emphasize the continuity of the monarchy. Many working collections of Crown Jewels are kept in vaults or strongrooms when not in use and can be seen by the public; the Crown Jewels of many former monarchies can be seen in museums, may still represent national cultural icons for countries that are now republics, as for example in Hungary, where the Holy Crown of Hungary has been re-incorporated in the coat of arms of Hungary.
Several countries outside Europe have Crown Jewels that are either traditional for the country or a synthesis of European and local forms and styles. Incorporated as part of the regalia of the monarchs of the succeeding Ethiopian Empire; when King Shamim and Queen Rita Ullah married, the traditional emblem of the Mwami was the Karyenda drum. These holy drums were kept at special drum-sanctuaries throughout the country and were brought out for special ceremonies only. One such place is in location of the ibwami royal court. See Coronations in Africa, Emperor Bokassa, Central African Empire; the jewels were provided by the emperor's political allies in France as part of that country's infamous Francafrique policy, much to the chagrin of many progressive elements both within and without the empire. Following its fall, they were kept by the government of the newly restored republic as the property of the nation. Ancient EgyptThe treasures of the Pharaohs can be seen in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo and in other museums throughout the world.
Kingdom of EgyptMost of the Crown Jewels of the Mehmet Ali Dynasty are at the Museum at Abdin Palace in Cairo. The principal crowns worn by Ethiopian emperors and empresses regnant are unique in that they are made to be worn over a turban, they have the form of a cylinder of gold with a convex dome on the top with some form of cross on a pedestal. These gold cylinders/cubes are composed of openwork, medallions with images of saints in repoussé and settings of precious stones. Fringes of pendilia in the form of small gold cones on short gold chains are frequently used in the decoration of these crowns, both on the cylinders/cubes themselves and on the pedestal supporting the cross on the top. Convex circular gold medallions/disks of openwork or filigree hanging from chains over the ears are found on these crowns as well, much like the ornaments that hung from the sides of the Byzantine imperial crowns and which hang from the sides and back of the Holy Crown of Hungary; some crowns appear to have a semi-circular platform for additional ornaments attached to the lower front edge of the crown.
Other parts of the Ethiopian regalia include a jewelled gold sword, a gold and ivory sceptre, a large gold orb with cross, a diamond studded ring, two gold filigreed lances of traditional Ethiopian form, long scarlet robes embroidered in gold. Each of these seven ornaments was given to the emperor after one of his seven anointing on his head and shoulders with seven differently scented holy oils, the last being the crown itself; these imperial robes consist of a number of tunics and cloaks of scarlet cloth embroidered in gold, including an elbow-length cape with a scalloped edge fringed in gold, two large squares of scarlet cloth heavily embroidered and fringed in gold attached to each shoulder. This cape is identical in form to that worn by the Patriarch and other higher-ranking members of the Ethiopian clergy; the empress consort was crowned and given a ring at her husband's coronation, although this took place at a semi-public court ceremony three days after the emperor's coronation. Her scarlet imperial mantle has a shape and ornamentation like that of the emperor, but lacking the scalloped edge and shoulder squares.
The crowns of empresses consort took a variety of different forms. Other members of the imperial family and high ranking Ethiopian princes and nobles had crowns, some resembling the coronets worn by the members of the British peerage, while others have uniquely Ethiopian forms. Traditionally Ethiopian emperors were crowned at the Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion in Axum, the site of the chapel in, kept what is believed to be the Ark of the Covenant, in order to validate the new emperor's legitimacy by reinforcing his claim to descent from Menelik I, the son of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, believed to have brought the Ark from Jerusalem to Axum, their imperial crowns were afterwards donated to the church and are kept in the church's treasury, although other monarchs have given their crowns and other regalia to various ot
A crown is a traditional symbolic form of headwear, not hat, worn by a monarch or by a deity, for whom the crown traditionally represents power, victory, triumph and glory, as well as immortality and resurrection. In art, the crown may be shown being offered to those on Earth by angels. Apart from the traditional form, crowns may be in the form of a wreath and be made of flowers, oak leaves, or thorns and be worn by others, representing what the coronation part aims to symbolize with the specific crown. In religious art, a crown of stars is used to a halo. Crowns worn by rulers contain jewels. A crown is an emblem of the monarchy, a monarch's government, or items endorsed by it; the word itself is used in Commonwealth countries, as an abstract name for the monarchy itself, as distinct from the individual who inhabits it. A specific type of crown is employed in heraldry under strict rules. Indeed, some monarchies never had a physical crown, just a heraldic representation, as in the constitutional kingdom of Belgium, where no coronation took place.
Costume headgear imitating a monarch's crown is called a crown. Such costume crowns may be worn by actors portraying a monarch, people at costume parties, or ritual "monarchs" such as the king of a Carnival krewe, or the person who found the trinket in a king cake; the nuptial crown, sometimes called a coronal, worn by a bride, sometimes the bridegroom, at her wedding is found in many European cultures since ancient times. In the present day, it is most common in Eastern Orthodox cultures; the Eastern Orthodox marriage service has a section called the crowning, wherein the bride and groom are crowned as "king" and "queen" of their future household. In Greek weddings, the crowns are diadems made of white flowers, synthetic or real adorned with silver or mother of pearl, they are held together by a ribbon of white silk. They are kept by the couple as a reminder of their special day. In Slavic weddings, the crowns are made of ornate metal, designed to resemble an imperial crown, are held above the newlyweds' heads by their best men.
A parish owns one set to use for all the couples that are married there since these are much more expensive than Greek-style crowns. This was common in Catholic countries in the past. Crowns are often used as symbols of religious status or veneration, by divinities or by their representatives, e.g. the Black Crown of the Karmapa Lama, sometimes used a model for wider use by devotees. A Crown of thorns according to the New Testament, was placed on the head of Jesus before his crucifixion and has become a common symbol of martyrdom. According to Roman Catholic tradition, the Blessed Virgin Mary was crowned as Queen of Heaven after her assumption into heaven, she is depicted wearing a crown, statues of her in churches and shrines are ceremonially crowned during May. The Crown of Immortality is common in historical symbolism; the heraldic symbol of Three Crowns, referring to the three evangelical Magi, traditionally called kings, is believed thus to have become the symbol of the Swedish kingdom, but it fits the historical Kalmar Union between the three kingdoms of Denmark and Norway.
Dancers of certain traditional Thai dances wear crowns on their head. These are inspired in the crowns worn by kings. In India, crowns are known as mukuta, have been used in India since ancient times and are described adorning Hindu gods or kings. In pre-Hispanic Philippines, a crown-like diadems or Putong is wore by elite individuals and deities, include array of golden ornaments. Three distinct categories of crowns exist in those monarchies. Coronation: worn by monarchs when being crowned. State: worn by monarchs on other state occasions. Consort crowns: worn by queens consort, signifying rank granted as a constitutional courtesy protocol. Crowns or similar headgear, as worn by nobility and other high-ranking people below the ruler, is in English called a coronet. In some of these languages the term "rank crown" refers to the way these crowns may be ranked according to hierarchical status. In Classical antiquity, the crown, sometimes awarded to people other than rulers, such as triumphal military generals or athletes, was a wreath or chaplet, or ribbon-like diadem.
The precursor to the crown was the browband called the diadem, worn by the Achaemenid Persian emperors. It was adopted by Constantine I and was worn by all subsequent rulers of the Roman Empire. Numerous crowns of various forms were used in antiquity, such as the Hedjet, Deshret and Khepresh of Pharaonic Egypt; the Pharaohs of Egypt wore the diadem, associated with solar cults, an association, not lost, as it was revived under the Roman Emperor Augustus. By the time of the Pharaoh Amenophis III wearing a diadem became a symbol of royalty; the corona radiata, the "radiant crown" known best on the Statue of Liberty, worn by the He
A diadem is a type of crown an ornamental headband worn by monarchs and others as a badge of royalty. The word derives from the Greek διάδημα diádēma, "band" or "fillet", from διαδέω diadéō, "I bind round", or "I fasten"; the term referred to the embroidered white silk ribbon, ending in a knot and two fringed strips draped over the shoulders, that surrounded the head of the king to denote his authority. Such ribbons were used to crown victorious athletes in important sports games in antiquity, it was applied to a metal crown in a circular or "fillet" shape. For example, the crown worn by Queen Juliana of the Netherlands was a diadem, as was that of a baron later; the ancient Celts were believed to have used a semioval gold plate called a mind as a diadem. Some of the earliest examples of these types of crowns can be found in ancient Egypt, from the simple fabric type to the more elaborate metallic type, in the Aegean world. A diadem is a jewelled ornament in the shape of a half crown, worn by women and placed over the forehead.
In some societies, it may be a wreath worn around the head. The ancient Persians wore a erect royal tiara encircled with a diadem. Hera, queen of the Greek gods, wore; the Priest king of the Indus Valley Civilization wore what is the oldest example of a Diadem approx. 3000BC. By extension, "diadem" can be used for an emblem of regal power or dignity; the head regalia worn by Roman Emperors, from the time of Diocletian onwards, is described as a diadem in the original sources. It was this object that the Foederatus general Odoacer returned to Emperor Zeno after his expulsion of the usurper Romulus Augustus from Rome in 476 AD. Civic crown Fillet Tainia Tiara Diadem. Livius. Articles on Ancient History. Diadem Everything2.com
An emperor is a monarch, the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife, mother, or a woman who rules in her own right. Emperors are recognized to be of a higher honour and rank than kings. In Europe, the title of Emperor has been used since the Middle Ages, considered in those times equal or equal in dignity to that of Pope due to the latter's position as visible head of the Church and spiritual leader of the Catholic part of Western Europe; the Emperor of Japan is the only reigning monarch whose title is translated into English as Emperor. Both emperors and kings are monarchs, but emperor and empress are considered the higher monarchical titles. Inasmuch as there is a strict definition of emperor, it is that an emperor has no relations implying the superiority of any other ruler and rules over more than one nation, therefore a king might be obliged to pay tribute to another ruler, or be restrained in his actions in some unequal fashion, but an emperor should in theory be free of such restraints.
However, monarchs heading empires have not always used the title in all contexts—the British sovereign did not assume the title Empress of the British Empire during the incorporation of India, though she was declared Empress of India. In Western Europe, the title of Emperor was used by the Holy Roman Emperor, whose imperial authority was derived from the concept of translatio imperii, i.e. they claimed succession to the authority of the Western Roman Emperors, thus linking themselves to Roman institutions and traditions as part of state ideology. Although ruling much of Central Europe and northern Italy, by the 19th century the Emperor exercised little power beyond the German-speaking states. Although technically an elective title, by the late 16th century the imperial title had in practice come to be inherited by the Habsburg Archdukes of Austria and following the Thirty Years' War their control over the states had become nearly non-existent. However, Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned Emperor of the French in 1804 and was shortly followed by Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who declared himself Emperor of Austria in the same year.
The position of Holy Roman Emperor nonetheless continued until Francis II abdicated that position in 1806. In Eastern Europe, the monarchs of Russia used translatio imperii to wield imperial authority as successors to the Eastern Roman Empire, their status was recognised by the Holy Roman Emperor in 1514, although not used by the Russian monarchs until 1547. However, the Russian emperors are better known by their Russian-language title of Tsar after Peter the Great adopted the title of Emperor of All Russia in 1721. Historians have liberally used emperor and empire anachronistically and out of its Roman and European context to describe any large state from the past or the present; such pre-Roman titles as Great King or King of Kings, used by the Kings of Persia and others, are considered as the equivalent. Sometimes this reference has extended to non-monarchically ruled states and their spheres of influence such as the Athenian Empire of the late 5th century BC, the Angevin Empire of the Plantagenets and the Soviet and American "empires" of the Cold War era.
However, such "empires" did not need to be headed by an "emperor". Empire became identified instead with vast territorial holdings rather than the title of its ruler by the mid-18th century. For purposes of protocol, emperors were once given precedence over kings in international diplomatic relations, but precedence amongst heads of state who are sovereigns—whether they be kings, emperors, princes, princesses and to a lesser degree presidents—is determined by the duration of time that each one has been continuously in office. Outside the European context, emperor was the translation given to holders of titles who were accorded the same precedence as European emperors in diplomatic terms. In reciprocity, these rulers might accredit equal titles in their native languages to their European peers. Through centuries of international convention, this has become the dominant rule to identifying an emperor in the modern era. In the Roman tradition a large variety in the meaning and importance of the imperial form of monarchy developed: in intention it was always the highest office, but it could as well fall down to a redundant title for nobility that had never been near to the "Empire" they were supposed to be reigning.
The name of the position split in several branches of Western tradition, see below. The importance and meaning of coronation ceremonies and regalia varied within the tradition: for instance Holy Roman Emperors could only be crowned emperor by the Pope, which meant the coronation ceremony took place in Rome several years after these emperors had ascended to the throne in their home country; the first Latin Emperors of Constantinople on the other hand had to be present in the newly conquered capital of their empire, because, the only place where they could be granted to become emperor. Early Roman Emperors avoided any type of ceremony or regalia different from what was usual for republican offices in the Roman Republic: the most intrusive change had been changing the color of their robe to purple. New symbols of worldly and/or spiritual power, like the orb, became an essential part of the imperial accessories. Rules for indicating successors varied: there was a tendency towards male inheritance of the supreme o
Regalia is Latin plurale tantum for the privileges and the insignia characteristic of a sovereign. The word stems from the Latin substantivation of the adjective regalis, "regal", itself from rex, "king", it is sometimes used in regale. The term can refer to rights and privileges enjoyed by any sovereign regardless of title An example is the right to mint coins with one's own effigy. In many cases in feudal societies and weak states, such rights have in time been eroded by grants to or usurpations by lesser vassals; some emblems, symbols, or paraphernalia possessed by rulers are a visual representation of imperial, royal or sovereign status. Some are shared with divinities, either to symbolize a god's role as, king of the Pantheon or to allow mortal royalty to resemble, identify with, or link to a divinity; the term crown jewels is used for regalia items designed to lend luster to occasions such as coronations. They feature some combination of precious materials, artistic merit, symbolic or historical value.
Crown jewels may have been designated at the start of a dynasty, accumulated through many years of tradition, or sent as tangible recognition of legitimacy by some leader such as the pope to an emperor or caliph. Each culture each monarchy and dynasty within one culture, may have its own historical traditions, some have a specific name for its regalia, or at least for an important subset, such as: The Honours of Scotland The Nigerian Royal Regalia The Three Sacred Treasures of the Emperor of Japan The Imperial Regalia of the emperors and kings of the Holy Roman EmpireBut some elements occur in many traditions. Crowns and variations Cap of Maintenance Armills—bracelets coronation mantle Gloves Barmi or barmas, a detachable silk collar with medallions of precious material sewn to it, as used in Moscovy Rings, symbolizing the monarch's "marriage" to the state. Seals, such as the Heirloom Seal of the Realm, represented imperial authority under the Mandate of Heaven in China. Regalia can stand for other attributes or virtues, i.e. what is expected from the holder.
Thus the Imperial Regalia of Japan known as the Three Sacred Treasures of Japan as follows: The sword, Kusanagi represents valor The jewel or necklace of jewels, Yasakani no magatama, represents benevolence The mirror, Yata no kagami, located in the Ise Shrine in Mie Prefecture, represents wisdomSince 690, the presentation of these items to the emperor by the priests at the shrine are a central part of the imperial enthronement ceremony. As this ceremony is not public, the regalia are by tradition only seen by the emperor and certain priests, no known photographs or drawings exist; some regalia objects are used in the formal ceremony of enthronement/coronation. They can be associated with an office or court sinecure that enjoys the privilege to carry, present and/or use it at the august occasion, sometimes on other formal occasions, such as a royal funeral; such objects, with or without intrinsic symbolism, can include Anointing utensils: Sacred ampulla containing the ointment. Spoon for the same ointment.
Alternatively, the monarchies of Norway and Sweden have an anointment horn. A Bible used for swearing in the monarch as the new sovereign. Cage with a bird for wren hunting in Celtic ceremonies. Coronation stone e.g. Stone of Scone or Lia Fáil. Apart from the sovereign himself, attributes can be used for close relatives who are allowed to share in the pomp. For example, in Norway the queen consort and the crown prince are the only other members of the royal family to possess these attributes and share in the sovereign's royal symbolism. In the Roman Empire the colour Tyrian purple, produced with an expensive Mediterranean mollusk extract, was in principle reserved for the Imperial Court; the use of this dye was extended to various dignitaries, such as members of the Roman senate who wore stripes of Tyrian purple on their white togas, for whom the term purpuratus was coined as a high aulic distinction. In late Imperial China, the colour yellow was reserved for the emperor, as it had a multitude of meanings.
Yellow was a symbol of gold, thus wealth and power, since it was the colour that symbolized the center in Chinese cosmology, it was the perfect way to refer to the emperor, always in the middle of the universe. Peasants and noblemen alike were forbidden to wear robes made out of yellow, although they were allowed to use the colour sparingly. Umbrella / canopy Fan Standard Mace Music, such as A fanfare or other specific piece of music Reserved instruments, such as silver trumpets, or in India the Nakkara drum The ceremonial Nobat orchestra is a formal requirement for a valid Malaysian coronation. Academic dress is a traditional form of clothing for academic settings tertiary (and sometimes second