A scarf, known as a Kremer, muffler or neck-wrap, is a piece of fabric worn around the neck, near the head or around the waist for warmth, fashion, or religious reasons. They can come in a variety of different colours, ancient Rome is one of the many origins of the scarf, where the garment was used to keep clean rather than warm. It was called the sudarium, which translates from Latin to English as sweat cloth and they were originally worn by men around their neck or tied to their belt. Soon women started using the scarves, which were made of cloth and not made of wool, pashmina, or silk, historians believe that during the reign of the Chinese Emperor Cheng, scarves made of cloth were used to identify officers or the rank of Chinese warriors. In times, scarves were worn by soldiers of all ranks in Croatia around the 17th century. The only difference in the soldiers scarves that designated a difference in rank was that the officers had silk scarves whilst the other ranks were issued with cotton scarves, some of the Croatian soldiers served as mercenaries with the French forces.
The mens scarves were sometimes referred to as cravats, and were the precursor of the necktie, the scarf became a real fashion accessory by the early 19th century for both men and women. By the middle of the 20th century, scarves became one of the most essential, celebrities have often led fashion trends with film props subsequently becoming mainstream fashion items. In cold climates, a thick knitted scarf, often made of wool, is tied around the neck to keep warm and this is usually accompanied by a warm hat and heavy coat. Over time, this custom has evolved into an item in many cultures. The cravat, an ancestor of the necktie and bow tie, religions such as Judaism under Halakhah promote modest dress code among women. Many married Orthodox Jewish women wear a tichel to cover their hair, the Tallit is commonly worn by Jewish men especially for prayers, which they wrap around their head to recite the blessing of the Tallit. Young Sikh boys, and sometimes girls, often wear a bandanna to cover their hair, older Sikhs may wear them as an under-turban.
Islam promotes modest dress among women, many Muslim women wear a headscarf, often known as a hijab and in Quranic Arabic as the khimar. The Keffiyeh is commonly used by Muslim men, as for example Yasser Arafat who adopted a black, several Christian denominations include a scarf known as a Stole as part of their liturgical vestments. Silk scarfs were used by pilots of aircraft in order to keep oily smoke from the exhaust out of their mouths while flying. Silk Scarfs were worn by pilots of closed cockpit aircraft to prevent neck chafing, especially fighter pilots, military flight crews wear scarfs imprinted with unit insignia and emblems not for functional reasons but instead for esprit-de-corps and heritage. In India, woollen scarfs with Bandhani work are becoming very popular, Bandhani or Bandhej is the name of the tie and dye technique used commonly in Bhuj and Mandvi of the Kutch District of Gujarat State
Lace is a delicate fabric made of yarn or thread in an open weblike pattern, made by machine or by hand. Originally linen, gold, or silver threads were used, now lace is often made with cotton thread, although linen and silk threads are still available. Manufactured lace may be made of synthetic fiber, a few modern artists make lace with a fine copper or silver wire instead of thread. The word lace is from Middle English, from Old French las, strin, from Vulgar Latin *laceum, from Latin laqueus, probably akin to lacere, there are many types of lace, classified by how they are made. These include, Needle lace, such as Venetian Gros Point, is using a needle. This is the most flexible of the lace-making arts, while some types can be made more quickly than the finest of bobbin laces, others are very time-consuming. Some purists regard needle lace as the height of lace-making, the finest antique needle laces were made from a very fine thread that is not manufactured today. Cutwork, or whitework, is constructed by removing threads from a woven background.
Bobbin lace, as the name suggests, is made with bobbins, the bobbins, turned from wood, bone, or plastic, hold threads which are woven together and held in place with pins stuck in the pattern on the pillow. The pillow contains straw, preferably oat straw or other such as sawdust, insulation styrofoam. Chantilly lace is a type of bobbin lace, tape lace makes the tape in the lace as it is worked, or uses a machine- or hand-made textile strip formed into a design and embellished with needle or bobbin lace. Knotted lace includes macramé and tatting, tatted lace is made with a shuttle or a tatting needle. Crocheted lace includes Irish crochet, pineapple crochet, and filet crochet, knitted lace includes Shetland lace, such as the wedding ring shawl, a lace shawl so fine that it can be pulled through a wedding ring. Machine-made lace is any style of lace created or replicated using mechanical means, chemical lace, the stitching area is stitched with embroidery threads that form a continuous motif.
Afterwards, the areas are removed and only the embroidery remains. The stitching ground is made of a water-soluble or non-heat-resistant material, the origin of lace is disputed by historians. An Italian claim is a will of 1493 by the Milanese Sforza family, a Flemish claim is lace on the alb of a worshiping priest in a painting about 1485 by Hans Memling. But since lace evolved from techniques, it is impossible to say that it originated in any one place
Mantle (monastic vesture)
A mantle is an ecclesiastical garment in the form of a very full cape that extends to the floor, joined at the neck, that is worn over the outer garments. Unlike the Western cope, the mantle is only by monastics. The klobuk is worn over the mantle, the mantle was originally a cape worn simply to ward off the cold. The mantle was first mentioned in the Old Testament, as a garment worn by several prophets including Elijah, and Elisha saw it, and he cried, My father, my father, the chariot of Israel, and the horsemen thereof. And he saw him no more, and he took hold of his own clothes, and when he had smitten the waters, they parted hither and thither, and Elisha went over. Depictions of monks on icons show the mantle in use from the earliest Christian times, the original monastic mantle was of simple material, brown or grey, depending on what was at hand. As time went on, the use of mantles of a particular color, in the contemporary practice of the Eastern Orthodox Church, Monks & Nuns wear solid black mantles.
They wear veils, differing between traditions and rank, in common practice, monks wear a black veil that covers a Kalimavkion, a cylindrical hat. Abbesses wear this same veil and hat while nuns only wear the veil, Nuns have been wearing a veil, in addition to the mantle since at least the 11th Century. The monastic mantle is worn by Orthodox Christian monks and nuns of the Lesser Schema, in the Greek practice the use of the mantle by those of the Lesser Schema is less common. The mantle worn by a monk or nun is black, joined at the neck. In the Russian tradition, the mantle is usually pleated and it may or may not have a train. Over the centuries, much symbolic meaning has come to be attributed to the mantle, mantle is a monastic vestment, the mantle is bestowed a second time if he becomes a Schemamonk. An Hegumen or Hegumenia wears the monastic mantle. When an Orthodox monk or nun dies, they are vested in their religious habit, a strip of cloth is torn from the bottom of their mantle and is used to bind their body three times, around the chest, around the waist, and around the feet.
The upper two tablets will often be embroidered with crosses, the tablets symbolize the fact that the Archimandrite will guide the brethren according to the commandments of God. The four tablets being symbolic of the Old and the New Testaments, when an archimandrite dies, his mantle is laid on his coffin in place of a funeral pall. Among the Greeks, it is common for all regardless of rank, to wear a red mantle, however
A cape is a sleeveless outer garment, which drapes the wearers back and chest, and fastens at the neck. Capes were common in medieval Europe, especially combined with a hood in the chaperon. Roman Catholic clergy wear a type of known as a ferraiolo. The cope is a vestment in the form of a cape. Capes are often decorated with elaborate embroidery. Capes remain in use as rain wear in various military units and police forces. A gas cape was a military garment designed to give rain protection to someone wearing the bulky gas masks used in twentieth century wars. The fashion cape does not cover the front to any appreciable degree, in raingear, a cape is usually a long and roomy protective garment worn to keep one dry in the rain. These capes may be short or a full-length cloak, typical fabrics used are velvet and satin. Capes are still authorized as an alternative to the more utilitarian trench coat for U. S. Army officers in mess dress, caped overcoats were popular for men during the Victorian era, with some caped Ulsters featuring multiple layered capes, and the Inverness coat had a cape.
The Inverness coat is no longer worn, and the Ulster lost its cape in the 1920s. The cape is a clothing item for superheroes in the American comic book genre. Most often, they are worn merely as a costume adornment, the supernatural character Spawn has a cape that obeys Spawns mental commands, changing shape to scare, confuse or even kill would-be attackers
A Dolman is a type of clothing. Originally, the referred to a long and loose garment with narrow sleeves. It was worn generally by the Turks, and is not unlike a cassock in shape, the name dolman was given to the uniform jacket worn by hussars. The close fitting, short-cut coat was heavily braided and it was usually worn under a pelisse, a similar coat but with fur trimming, usually worn slung over the left shoulder with the sleeves hanging loose. A dolman is a garment worn by ladies, with wide cape like arrangements instead of sleeves. It was a style of mantle worn by fashionable women in the 1870s and 80s. A dolman sleeve is a set into a very low armscye, in fact. Dolman sleeves were popular in ladies clothing during the Civil War. They had the effect of making the shoulders look sloped therefore minimizing the appearance of the waist, the early 21st century dolman sleeve describes a sleeve cut as one with the bodice, which can taper to the wrist or be cut widely
Cloaks have been used by myriad historic societies, many climates favor wearing a full-body garment which is easily removed and does not constrain the wearer with sleeves. Over time cloak designs have changed to match fashion and available textiles. Cloaks generally fasten at the neck or over the shoulder, vary in length, from hip all the way down to the ankle, mid-calf being the normal length. They may have a hood, and may cover and fasten down the front. However, cloaks are almost always sleeveless, the word cloak comes from Old North French cloque meaning travelling cloak, from Medieval Latin clocca travelers cape, literally a bell, so called from the garments bell-like shape. Thus the word is related to the word clock, ancient Greeks and Romans were known to wear cloaks. Greek men and women wore the himation, from the Archaic through the Hellenistic periods, Romans would wear the Greek-styled cloak, the pallium. The pallium was quadrangular, shaped like a square, and sat on the shoulders, Romans of the Republic would wear the toga as a formal display of their citizenship.
It was denied to foreigners and was worn by magistrates on all occasions as a badge of office, the toga was claimed to have originated with Numa Pompilius, the second king of Rome. Opera cloaks are made of quality materials such as wool or cashmere, ladies may wear a long cloak usually called a cape, or a full-length cloak. Gentlemen wear an ankle-length or full-length cloak, formal cloaks often have expensive, colored linings and trimmings such as silk, satin and fur. For example, they may grant the person wearing it invisibility as in the Harry Potter series by J. K. Rowling, they may nullify magical projectiles, as the cloak of magic resistance in NetHack. In addition, the magical hide armor that Hercules made for himself from the skin of the Nemean Lion, at the end of Hercules first labor and this latter was notable because it was said to be impervious to all cutting and impact weapons. Figuratively, a cloak may be anything that disguises or conceals something, in many science fiction worlds such as Star Trek, there are cloaking devices, which provide a way to avoid detection or to make objects appear invisible.
Because they keep a person hidden and conceal a weapon, the cloak and dagger has come to refer to espionage and secretive crimes. Cloak and dagger stories are thus mystery and crime stories of this, the vigilante duo of Marvel comics Cloak and Dagger is a reference to this. ISBN 0-8109-6317-5 Baumgarten, What Clothes Reveal, The Language of Clothing in Colonial and Federal America, ISBN 0-300-09580-5 Payne, History of Costume from the Stone Age to the Twentysecond Century, Harper & Row,2965. No ISBN for this edition, ASIN B0006BMNFS Picken, Mary Brooks, The Fashion Dictionary and Bagnalls,1957
The Bible is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans. Many different authors contributed to the Bible, what is regarded as canonical text differs depending on traditions and groups, a number of Bible canons have evolved, with overlapping and diverging contents. The Christian Old Testament overlaps with the Hebrew Bible and the Greek Septuagint, the New Testament is a collection of writings by early Christians, believed to be mostly Jewish disciples of Christ, written in first-century Koine Greek. These early Christian Greek writings consist of narratives, among Christian denominations there is some disagreement about the contents of the canon, primarily the Apocrypha, a list of works that are regarded with varying levels of respect. Attitudes towards the Bible differ amongst Christian groups and this concept arose during the Protestant Reformation, and many denominations today support the use of the Bible as the only source of Christian teaching.
With estimated total sales of over 5 billion copies, the Bible is widely considered to be the book of all time. It has estimated sales of 100 million copies, and has been a major influence on literature and history, especially in the West. The English word Bible is from the Latin biblia, from the word in Medieval Latin and Late Latin. Medieval Latin biblia is short for biblia sacra holy book, while biblia in Greek and it gradually came to be regarded as a feminine singular noun in medieval Latin, and so the word was loaned as a singular into the vernaculars of Western Europe. Latin biblia sacra holy books translates Greek τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια ta biblia ta hagia, the word βιβλίον itself had the literal meaning of paper or scroll and came to be used as the ordinary word for book. It is the diminutive of βύβλος byblos, Egyptian papyrus, possibly so called from the name of the Phoenician sea port Byblos from whence Egyptian papyrus was exported to Greece, the Greek ta biblia was an expression Hellenistic Jews used to describe their sacred books.
Christian use of the term can be traced to c.223 CE, bruce notes that Chrysostom appears to be the first writer to use the Greek phrase ta biblia to describe both the Old and New Testaments together. The division of the Hebrew Bible into verses is based on the sof passuk cantillation mark used by the 10th-century Masoretes to record the verse divisions used in oral traditions. The oldest extant copy of a complete Bible is an early 4th-century parchment book preserved in the Vatican Library, the oldest copy of the Tanakh in Hebrew and Aramaic dates from the 10th century CE. The oldest copy of a complete Latin Bible is the Codex Amiatinus and he states that it is not a magical book, nor was it literally written by God and passed to mankind. In Christian Bibles, the New Testament Gospels were derived from traditions in the second half of the first century CE. Riches says that, Scholars have attempted to reconstruct something of the history of the oral traditions behind the Gospels, the period of transmission is short, less than 40 years passed between the death of Jesus and the writing of Marks Gospel.
This means that there was time for oral traditions to assume fixed form
Geoffrey Chaucer, known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages. He was the first poet to be buried in Poets Corner of Westminster Abbey, among his many works are The Book of the Duchess, The House of Fame, The Legend of Good Women and Troilus and Criseyde. He is best known today for The Canterbury Tales, Chaucers work was crucial in legitimizing the literary use of the Middle English vernacular at a time when the dominant literary languages in England were French and Latin. Geoffrey Chaucer was born in London sometime around 1343, though the precise date and his father and grandfather were both London vintners, several previous generations had been merchants in Ipswich. In 1324 John Chaucer, Geoffreys father, was kidnapped by an aunt in the hope of marrying the boy to her daughter in an attempt to keep property in Ipswich. The aunt was imprisoned and the fine levied suggests that the family was financially secure. In the City Hustings Roll 110,5, Ric II, dated June 1380, Geoffrey Chaucer refers to himself as me Galfridum Chaucer, filium Johannis Chaucer, Londonie.
He worked as a courtier, a diplomat, and a civil servant, as well as working for the king from 1389 to 1391 as Clerk of the Kings Works. In 1359, in the stages of the Hundred Years War, Edward III invaded France and Chaucer travelled with Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, Elizabeths husband. In 1360, he was captured during the siege of Rheims, Edward paid £16 for his ransom, a considerable sum, and Chaucer was released. After this, Chaucers life is uncertain, but he seems to have travelled in France, around 1366, Chaucer married Philippa Roet. She was a lady-in-waiting to Edward IIIs queen, Philippa of Hainault, and a sister of Katherine Swynford and it is uncertain how many children Chaucer and Philippa had, but three or four are most commonly cited. His son, Thomas Chaucer, had a career, as chief butler to four kings, envoy to France. Thomass daughter, married the Duke of Suffolk, thomass great-grandson, John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln, was the heir to the throne designated by Richard III before he was deposed.
Geoffreys other children probably included Elizabeth Chaucy, a nun at Barking Abbey, Agnes, an attendant at Henry IVs coronation, Chaucers Treatise on the Astrolabe was written for Lewis. According to tradition, Chaucer studied law in the Inner Temple at this time and he became a member of the royal court of Edward III as a valet de chambre, yeoman, or esquire on 20 June 1367, a position which could entail a wide variety of tasks. His wife received a pension for court employment and he travelled abroad many times, at least some of them in his role as a valet. In 1368, he may have attended the wedding of Lionel of Antwerp to Violante Visconti, daughter of Galeazzo II Visconti, two other literary stars of the era were in attendance, Jean Froissart and Petrarch
The Knight's Tale
The Knights Tale is the first tale from Geoffrey Chaucers The Canterbury Tales. The story introduces various typical aspects of such as courtly love. The story is written in iambic pentameter end-rhymed couplets, the epic poem Teseida by Giovanni Boccaccio is the source of the tale, although Chaucer makes many significant diversions from that poem. The Teseida has 9,896 lines in twelve books, while The Knights Tale has only 2,250 lines—though it is one of the longer poems in the Tales. The tale is considered a romance, yet it is markedly different from either the English or French traditions of such tales. For instance, there is the inclusion of philosophical themes—mainly of the contained in the Consolation of Philosophy of Boethius—astrological references. The following tale by the Miller involves the conflict between two men over a woman. It is an antithesis to the Knights, with none of the nobility or heritage of classical mythology, but is instead rollicking, comedic. Two cousins and knights and Arcite, are captured and imprisoned by Theseus, duke of Athens and their cell is in the tower of Theseus castle, with a window which overlooks his palace garden.
The imprisoned Palamon wakes early one morning in May and catches sight of Princess Emily and he instantly falls in love with her, his moan is heard by Arcite, who also wakes and sees Emily. He falls in love with her as well and this angers Palamon, who believes that he claimed her first. Arcite argues that he has the right to love Emily as well, the friendship between Palamon and Arcite quickly deteriorates over their competition for Emilys love. Palamon eventually escapes by drugging the jailer, while hiding in a grove, overhears Arcite singing about love and they begin to duel with each other over who should get Emily, but are thwarted by the arrival of Theseus. Theseus originally plans to sentence the two to death, but upon the protests of his wife and Emily, he decides to have them compete in a tournament instead. Palamon and Arcite are to gather 100 men apiece and to fight a mass judicial tournament, Theseus lays down rules for the tournament so that if any man becomes seriously injured, he must be dragged out of the battle and is no longer in combat.
Because of this, the story seems to claim at the end there were almost no deaths on either side. Although both Palamon and Arcite fight valiantly, Palamon is wounded by a sword thrust from one of Arcites men. Theseus declares the fight to be over, Arcite wins the battle, but following a divine intervention by Saturn, he is mortally wounded by his horse throwing him off and falling on him before he can claim Emily as his prize
Clothing is fiber and textile material worn on the body. The wearing of clothing is mostly restricted to human beings and is a feature of all human societies. The amount and type of clothing worn depends on type, social. Some clothing types can be gender-specific, clothing serves many purposes, it can serve as protection from the elements, and can enhance safety during hazardous activities such as hiking and cooking. It protects the wearer from rough surfaces, rash-causing plants, insect bites, thorns, Clothes can insulate against cold or hot conditions. Further, they can provide a barrier, keeping infectious. Clothing provides protection from ultraviolet radiation, there is no easy way to determine when clothing was first developed, but some information has been inferred by studying lice. The body louse specifically lives in clothing, and diverge from head lice about 170 millennia ago, another theory is that modern humans are the only survivors of several species of primates who may have worn clothes and that clothing may have been used as long ago as 650 millennia.
Other louse-based estimates put the introduction of clothing at around 42, the most obvious function of clothing is to improve the comfort of the wearer, by protecting the wearer from the elements. In hot climates, clothing provides protection from sunburn or wind damage, shelter usually reduces the functional need for clothing. For example, hats and other layers are normally removed when entering a warm home. Similarly, clothing has seasonal and regional aspects, so that thinner materials, Clothing performs a range of social and cultural functions, such as individual and gender differentiation, and social status. In many societies, norms about clothing reflect standards of modesty, gender, Clothing may function as a form of adornment and an expression of personal taste or style. Clothing can and has in history been made from a wide variety of materials. Materials have ranged from leather and furs, to materials, to elaborate and exotic natural. Not all body coverings are regarded as clothing, Clothing protects against many things that might injure the uncovered human body.
Clothes protect people from the elements, including rain, wind, clothing that is too sheer, small, etc. offers less protection. Clothes reduce risk during activities such as work or sport, some clothing protects from specific environmental hazards, such as insects, noxious chemicals, weather and contact with abrasive substances
Harpers Bazaar is an American womens fashion magazine, first published in 1867. Harpers Bazaar is published by Hearst and, as a magazine, considers itself to be the resource for women who are the first to buy the best. Writers Alice Meynell, Daisy Fellowes, Gloria Guinness, and Eleanor Hoyt Brainerd, when Harpers Bazaar began publication, it was a weekly magazine catering to women in the middle and upper classes. It showcased fashion from Germany and Paris in a newspaper-design format and it was not until 1901 that Harpers moved to a monthly issued magazine which it maintains today. Now Harpers Bazaar is owned and operated by the Hearst Corporation in the U. S. harper & Brothers founded the magazine. This company gave birth to Harpers Magazine and HarperCollins Publishing, glenda Bailey is the editor-in-chief of U. S. edition of Harpers Bazaar. As the turn-of-the-century began in America, Harpers Bazaar began featuring both illustrations and photographs for its covers and inside features of society and increasingly of fashion.
During the late Victorian period, as the suffrage movement was gaining momentum. Bazaar began profiling prominent socialites, such as the Astors, in 1933, editor-in-chief Carmel Snow brought photojournalist Martin Munkacsi to a windswept beach to shoot a swimwear spread. As the model ran toward the camera, Munkacsi took the picture that made fashion-magazine history, until that moment, nearly all fashion was carefully staged on mannequin-like models in a studio. Snows buoyant spirit and wicked sense of adventure brought life to the pages of Bazaar, Snows genius came from cultivating the best people. Her first big find was art director Alexey Brodovitch, who innovated Bazaars iconic Didot logo, Snow unleashed the force of nature known as Diana Vreeland, whom she brought on as fashion editor in 1936. The collaboration of these four visionaries resulted in some of the germane fashion shoots of the 20th century and ended only with Snows retirement, at the age of 70, throughout his career at the magazine, Brodovitch, a Russian émigré, revolutionized magazine design.
With his directive Astonish me, he inspired some of the greatest visual artists of the 20th century, one of his assistants was future Rolling Stone art director Tony Lane. Sadly, Brodovitchs personal life was less triumphant, plagued by alcoholism, he left Bazaar in 1958 and eventually moved to the south of France, where he died in 1971. Diana, who is said to have invented the word pizzazz, before long, she became fashion editor, collaborating with photographers Louise Dahl-Wolfe and Richard Avedon and, art director Henry Wolf. Her eccentricity and wit, as well as her sharp wit and sweeping pronouncements, were memorialized in the movie Funny Face, making her, for many, Richard Avedon began creating fashion portfolios for Harpers Bazaar at the age of 22. His distinctive photographs showed both chic insouciance and boundless vitality, avedons women leapt off curbs, roller-skated on the Place de la Concorde, and were seen in nightclubs, enjoying the freedom and fashions of the postwar era