Coat of arms of Portugal
The coat of arms of Portugal is the main heraldic insignia of Portugal. The present model was adopted on 30 June 1911, along with the present model of the Flag of Portugal. It is based on the coat of arms used by the Portuguese Kingdom since the Middle Ages, the coat of arms of Portugal is popularly referred as the Five Quinas or simply the Quinas. The national heraldry of Portugal evolved from the heraldry, with the royal coat of arms gradually coming to be considered a national coat of arms. The Portuguese coat of arms itself is the result of almost a millennium of modifications and alterations, the main and constant element of the coat of arms of Portugal is and has always been the Portuguese shield. This resulted from around 300 years of evolution, from the 12th to the 15th centuries, the initial shield evolved to a field argent with five escutcheons azur forming a cross, the dexter and sinister ones pointing to the center, with each escutcheon semée of plates. This is the first confirmed model of Portuguese shield in use, apparently, it was introduced still in the reign of Afonso Henriques and definitely was used in the reign of Portugals following King Sancho I.
There are several legends that explain the origin of the five escutcheons and these five pieces of blue leather and the heads of the nails, being so allegedly the origin of the five escutcheons azur, each semée of plates. When Afonso III became King in 1247, he maintained this defaced shield, during the 1383–1385 Portuguese interregnum, one of the emerging candidates to the throne was John, master of the Order of Aviz, who was an illegitimate son of King Peter I of Portugal. John was elected Regent and Defender of Kingdom in 1383 and acclaimed King of Portugal in 1385, with John, the Portuguese shield was added by the insertion of the insignia of the Order of Aviz, with its points appearing in the bordure gules, between the castles or. Although more commonly represented inserted in the shield, occasionally the cross of the Order of Aviz was represented outside the shield with this laying over it, the semée of plates of each of the five escutcheons gradually evolved to fixed five plates disposed in saltire.
Because of this, each of these started to be known as quina. By synecdoche, the Portuguese shield started to be referred as the five quinas or simply as the quinas, finally, in 1481, King John II ordered the correction of the Portuguese shield, eliminating its features identified as heraldic errors. So, the cross of the Order of Aviz was taken off, the semée of castles or of the bordure evolved to seven fixed castles, this being the version of the shield still in use today. During some periods of effective or claimed Royal union of Portugal with other states, the Portuguese shield was used marshaled with the coats of arms of those states. King Afonso V of Portugal, who claimed the crown of Castile during the 1475-1479 period, used the Portuguese arms in the I and IV, marshaled with the arms of Castile and León in the II and III. During the period of the Iberian Union, the Portuguese shield was placed in the point of the complex coat of arms of the House of Habsburg. The new Royal achievement of arms consisted so of the Portuguese shield over the armillary sphere and this achievement of arms was used in Portugal from 1815 to 1825
The shield-shaped stone comprises two back-to-back crowns but lacks any semblance to a pavilion. The Sancys known history began circa 1570, several sources state it belonged to Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. After Charles died, in 1495 it passed to his cousin King Manuel I of Portugal, when Portugal was threatened to come under Spanish rule, claimant António, Prior of Crato fled the country with the bulk of the Portuguese Crown Jewels. He spent his life trying to get allies to regain the Portuguese throne in the French and English courts, other sources claim that the diamond was purchased in Constantinople by de Sancy. He was popular in the French Court and was French Ambassador to Turkey, something of a gem connoisseur, de Sancy used his knowledge to prosperous advantage. Henry III of France suffered from premature baldness and tried to conceal this fact by wearing a cap, as diamonds were becoming increasingly fashionable at the time, Henry arranged to borrow de Sancys diamond to decorate his cap.
Henry IV borrowed the stone, for the practical purpose of using it as security for financing an army. When the body was disinterred, the jewel was found in the mans stomach. De Sancy sold the diamond to James I about 1605 when it is thought the Sancy acquired its name and it was described in the Tower of Londons 1605 Inventory of Jewels as. one fayre dyamonde, cut in fawcetts, bought of Sauncy. James had it set into the Mirror of Great Britain, the Sancy was briefly possessed by the unfortunate Charles I and by his third son James II. Beleaguered after a defeat, James took shelter under Louis XIV of France. Facing destitution, James had no choice but to sell the Sancy to Cardinal Mazarin in 1657 for the sum of £25,000. The cardinal bequeathed the diamond to the king upon his death in 1661, the Sancy was thus domiciled in France but disappeared during the French Revolution when brigands raided the Garde Meuble. As well as the Sancy, other treasures stolen were the Regent diamond, the Sancys history is unknown from until 1828 when purchased by Prince Demidoff for £80,000.
It remained in the Demidov family collection until 1865 when sold to Sir Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy and he sold it only a year later, creating another gap in its history. It reappeared in 1867, displayed at the Paris Exposition, carrying a price tag of one million francs, the Sancy next surfaced in 1906 when bought by William Waldorf Astor, 1st Viscount Astor. The prominent Astor family possessed it for 72 years until the 4th Viscount Astor sold it to the Louvre for $1 million in 1978, the Sancy now rests in the Apollo Gallery, sharing attention with the likes of the Regent and the Hortensia. Burton, E. Legendary Gems or Gems That Made History, chilton Book Company, Radnor, PA Fowler, M. Hope, Adventures of a Diamond, p.100,151,321
Necklace of the Stars
The Necklace of the Stars is a diamond necklace originally made for Queen Consort Maria Pia of Savoy. It is a piece of the Portuguese Crown Jewels, the Necklace of the Stars was made in 1865 for the wife of King Luís I of Portugal, Queen Cosort Maria Pia of Savoy, who had a love for jewelry and fashion. The necklace was fashioned in the workshop of the Portuguese Royal Jeweler in Lisbon, the necklace is just a piece of a whole set of jewelry that was commissioned by Maria Pia, which includes the famed Diadem of the Stars, the counterpart of the necklace. It is fashioned out of gold and colourless and pink diamonds, Diadem of the Stars Portuguese Crown Jewels Jóias da Coroa Portuguesa
The Portuguese Diamond is a large octagonal-cut diamond known for its flawlessness and clarity. Under ultraviolet light the stone gives out a strong fluorescence, under daylight or artificial light, it exudes a soft fluorescence and a bluish haze. The name The Portuguese Diamond was given by Harry Winston, who acquired it from dancer Peggy Hopkins Joyce, noted for her many marriages and he in turn arranged a 1963 trade with its current owner, the Smithsonian Institution, for 3,800 carats of smaller diamonds. According to one of the legends, the diamond was mined in Brazil in the century and became part of the Portuguese Crown Jewels, however. The stone was first documented as being owned by Black, Peggy Hopkins Joyce, a Ziegfeld Follies dancer noted for her marriages and affairs with wealthy men, acquired it in February 1928, for a $350,000 pearl necklace and $23,000 in cash. She had it mounted on a short platinum choker, Harry Winston bought the diamond from Joyce in 1951 and added it to his Court of Jewels.
In 1963, he traded it to the Smithsonian Institution in exchange for 3,800 carats of smaller diamonds
Manuel I of Portugal
Manuel I, the Fortunate, King of Portugal and the Algarves, was the son of Infante Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu, by his wife, the Infanta Beatrice of Portugal. His name is associated with a period of Portuguese civilization that was distinguished by significant achievements both in political affairs and the arts. Manuels mother was the granddaughter of King John I of Portugal, whereas his father was the surviving son of King Edward of Portugal. In 1495, Manuel succeeded his first cousin, King John II of Portugal, Manuel grew up amidst conspiracies of the Portuguese upper nobility against King John II. He was aware of people being killed and exiled. His older brother Diogo, Duke of Viseu, was stabbed to death in 1484 by the king himself, as a result of this stroke of luck, he was nicknamed the Fortunate. Manuel would prove a worthy successor to his cousin John II for his support of Portuguese exploration of the Atlantic Ocean, during his reign, the following achievements were realized,1498 — The discovery of a maritime route to India by Vasco da Gama.
1500 — The discovery of Brazil by Pedro Álvares Cabral,1505 — The appointment of Francisco de Almeida as the first viceroy of India. 1503–1515 — The establishment of monopolies on maritime routes to the Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf by Afonso de Albuquerque. All these events made Portugal wealthy from trade as it formally established a vast overseas empire. Manuel used the wealth to build a number of royal buildings, commercial treaties and diplomatic alliances were forged with China and the Persian Empire. Pope Leo X received an embassy from Portugal during his reign designed to draw attention to Portugals newly acquired riches to all of Europe. In Manuels reign, royal absolutism was the method of government, the Portuguese Cortes met only three times during his reign, always in Lisbon, the kings seat. He reformed the courts of justice and the municipal charters with the crown, modernizing taxes, during his reign, the laws in force in the kingdom of Portugal were recodified with the publication of the Manueline Ordinations.
Manuel endeavoured to promote another crusade against the Turks and his relationship with the Portuguese Jews started out well. At the outset of his reign, he released all the Jews who had been made captive during the reign of John II, unfortunately for the Jews, he decided that he wanted to marry Infanta Isabella of Aragon, heiress of the future united crown of Spain. Ferdinand and Isabella had expelled the Jews in 1492 and would never marry their daughter to the king of a country that still tolerated their presence, in the marriage contract, Manuel I agreed to persecute the Jews of Portugal. In December 1496, it was decreed that all Jews either convert to Christianity or leave the country without their children, those expelled could only leave the country in ships specified by the king
Slaves, especially those brought from Africa, provided most of the working force of the Brazilian export economy after a brief period of Indian slavery to cut brazilwood. The boom and bust economic cycles were linked to export products and diamonds were discovered and mined in southern Brazil through the end of the colonial era. Brazilian cities were largely port cities and the administrative capital was moved several times in response to the rise. Unlike Spanish America that fragmented in many republics, Brazil remained as an administrative unit with a monarch. Like Spanish America with European Spanish, Brazil had linguistic integrity of Portuguese, both Spanish America and Brazil were Roman Catholic. The Portuguese identified brazilwood as a red dye and an exploitable product. Its maritime exploration proceeded down the coast of West Africa and they sought the sources of gold and African slaves that were high value goods of the African trade. The Portuguese set up fortified trading factories, whereby permanent, fairly small commercial settlements anchored trade in a region, the initial costs of setting up these commercial posts was borne by private investors, who in turn received hereditary titles and commercial advantages.
From the Portuguese crowns point of view, its realm was expanded with relatively little cost to itself, the most decisive of these treaties was the Treaty of Tordesillas, signed in 1494, that created the Tordesillas Meridian, dividing the world between those two kingdoms. All land discovered or to be discovered east of that meridian was to be the property of Portugal, the Tordesillas Meridian divided South America into two parts, leaving a large chunk of land to be exploited by the Spaniards. The Treaty of Tordesillas was arguably the most decisive event in all Brazilian history, the present extent of Brazils coastline is almost exactly that defined by the treaty of Madrid, which was approved in 1750. On April 22,1500, during the reign of King Manuel I, although it is debated whether previous Portuguese explorers had already been in Brazil, this date is widely and politically accepted as the day of the discovery of Brazil by Europeans. Álvares Cabral was leading a fleet of 13 ships and more than 1000 men following Vasco da Gamas way to India.
The place where Álvares Cabral arrived is now known as Porto Seguro, after the voyage of Álvares Cabral, the Portuguese concentrated their efforts on the lucrative possessions in Africa and India and showed little interest in Brazil. Between 1500 and 1530, relatively few Portuguese expeditions came to the new land to chart the coast, in Europe, this wood was used to produce a valuable dye to give color to luxury textiles. Over time, the Portuguese realized that some European countries, especially France, were sending excursions to the land to extract brazilwood. Worried about foreign incursions and hoping to find riches, the Portuguese crown decided to send large missions to take possession of the land. In 1530, an expedition led by Martim Afonso de Sousa arrived in Brazil to patrol the entire coast, ban the French, at first, Brazil was set up as fifteen private, hereditary captaincies
Diadem of the Stars
The Diadem of the Stars is a Diamond Tiara originally commissioned by Queen Consort Maria Pia of Savoy, who had a love for jewelry and fashion. It is a piece of the Portuguese Crown Jewels, the diadem was made in 1863 for the Queen Consort Maria Pia of Savoy, wife of King Luís I of Portugal. The tiara was fashioned in the workshop of the Portuguese Royal Jeweler, Estêvão de Sousa, in Lisbon, Portugal. The tiara is just a piece of a set of jewelry that was commissioned by Maria Pia, which includes the Necklace of the Stars. The Diadem of the Stars was made in the workshop of the Portuguese Royal Jeweler in Lisbon, commissioned in 1863, the tiara took three years before it was completed in 1866. It is fashioned out of gold and colourless and pink diamonds
Afonso I of Portugal
Afonso I, nicknamed the Conqueror, the Founder or the Great by the Portuguese, and El-Bortukali and Ibn-Arrink by the Moors whom he fought, was the first King of Portugal. Afonso I was born in Coimbra, Guimarães or Viseu and he was the son of Henry of Burgundy and Theresa, the natural daughter of King Alfonso VI of León and Castile. The pair reigned jointly as Count and Countess of Portugal until Henrys death, Afonso was slightly more than two years old when his father, Count Henry, died on 22 May 1112 during the siege of Astorga. In an effort to pursue a share in the Leonese inheritance, his mother Theresa joined forces with Fernando Pérez de Trava. The Portuguese nobility disliked the alliance between Galicia and Portugal and rallied around the infant Afonso, in 1122, Afonso turned fourteen, the adult age in the 12th century. He made himself a knight on his own account in the Cathedral of Zamora, raised an army, in 1128, near Guimarães, at the Battle of São Mamede Afonso and his supporters overcame troops under his Count Fernando Peres de Trava of Galicia.
Afonso exiled his mother to Galicia, and took rule of the County of Portugal. He vanquished his mothers nephew, Alfonso VII of León, who came to her rescue, on 6 April 1129, Afonso Henriques dictated the writ in which he proclaimed himself Prince of Portugal. Afonso turned his arms against the persistent problem of the Moors in the south, the first assembly of the Portuguese Cortes convened at Lamego is a 17th-century embellishment of Portuguese history. Independence from Alfonso VII of Leóns suzerainty, was not a thing he just could achieve militarily, the County of Portugal still had to be acknowledged diplomatically by the neighboring lands as a kingdom and, most importantly, by the Roman Catholic Church and the Pope. Afonso wed Mafalda of Savoy, daughter of Amadeus III, Count of Savoy and he succeeded in renouncing the suzerainty of his cousin, Alfonso VII of León, becoming instead a vassal of the papacy, as the kings of Sicily and Aragon had done before him. In 1179 the bull Manifestis Probatum accepted the new king as vassal to the pope exclusively, in Portugal he built several monasteries and convents and bestowed important privileges to religious orders.
He is notably the builder of Alcobaça Monastery, to which he called the Cistercian Order of his uncle Bernard of Clairvaux of Burgundy. In 1143, he wrote to Pope Innocent II to declare himself, bypassing any king of León, Afonso declared himself the direct liege man of the papacy. Afonso continued to distinguish himself by his exploits against the Moors, from whom he wrested Santarém and he conquered an important part of the land south of the Tagus River, although this was lost again to the Moors in the following years. Meanwhile, King Alfonso VII of León regarded the independent ruler of Portugal as nothing, conflict between the two was constant and bitter in the following years. Afonso became involved in a war, taking the side of the Aragonese king, to ensure the alliance, his son Sancho was engaged to Dulce, sister of the Count of Barcelona and Infanta of Aragon. Finally after winning the Battle of Valdevez, the Treaty of Zamora established peace between the cousins and the recognition by the Kingdom of León that Portugal was a sovereign kingdom
John VI of Portugal
John VI, nicknamed the Clement, was King of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves from 1816 to 1822. Although the United Kingdom over which he ruled ceased to exist de facto beginning in 1822, after the recognition of Brazilian independence under the Treaty of Rio de Janeiro of 1825, he continued as King of Portugal and the Algarves until his death in 1826. Under the same treaty, he became titular Emperor of Brazil for life, while his son. Born in Lisbon in 1767, the son of Maria I and Peter III of Portugal and he only became heir to the throne when his older brother José, Prince of Brazil, died of smallpox in 1788 at the age of 27. Before his accession to the Portuguese throne, John VI bore the titles Duke of Braganza and Duke of Beja, from 1799, he served as prince regent of Portugal, due to the mental illness of his mother, Queen Maria I. In 1816, he succeeded his mother as monarch of the Portuguese Empire, with no change in his authority. One of the last representatives of absolute monarchy in Europe, he lived during a turbulent period, throughout his period of rule, major powers, such as Spain and Great Britain, continually intervened in Portuguese affairs.
His marriage was no less conflictual, as his wife, Carlota Joaquina of Spain and he lost Brazil when his son Pedro declared independence, and his other son Miguel led a rebellion that sought to depose him. According to recent scholarly research, his death may well have been caused by arsenic poisoning, João Maria José Francisco Xavier de Paula Luís António Domingos Rafael was born 13 May 1767, during the reign of his grandfather, Joseph I of Portugal. He was the son of the future Queen Maria I, Josephs daughter, and her husband. At the time of Johns birth they were, Princess of Brazil and he was ten years old when his grandfather died and his mother ascended to the throne. His childhood and youth were lived quietly, as he was a mere infante in the shadow of his elder brother José, Prince of Brazil and 14th Duke of Braganza, the heir-apparent to the throne. Folklore has John as a rather uncultured youth, but according to Jorge Pedreira e Costa, still, a French ambassador of the time painted him in unfavorable colors, seeing him as hesitant and dim.
The record of this period of his life is too vague for historians to form any definitive picture, little is known of the substance of his education. He surely received instruction in religion, law and etiquette, and would presumably have learned history through reading the works of Duarte Nunes de Leão and João de Barros. In 1785, Henrique de Meneses, 3rd Marquis of Louriçal, arranged a marriage between John and the Infanta Carlota Joaquina of Spain, daughter of King Charles IV of Spain, like her betrothed, Carlota was a junior member of a royal family. Fearing a new Iberian Union, some in the Portuguese court viewed the marriage to a Spanish infanta unfavorably and she endured four days of testing by the Portuguese ambassadors before the marriage pact was confirmed. Because John and Carlota were related, and because of the brides youth, after being confirmed, the marriage capitulation was signed in the throne room of the Spanish court with great pomp and with the participation of both kingdoms