Diadem of the Stars
The Diadem of the Stars is a Diamond Tiara originally commissioned by Queen Consort Maria Pia of Savoy, who had a love for jewelry and fashion. It is a piece of the Portuguese Crown Jewels, the diadem was made in 1863 for the Queen Consort Maria Pia of Savoy, wife of King Luís I of Portugal. The tiara was fashioned in the workshop of the Portuguese Royal Jeweler, Estêvão de Sousa, in Lisbon, Portugal. The tiara is just a piece of a set of jewelry that was commissioned by Maria Pia, which includes the Necklace of the Stars. The Diadem of the Stars was made in the workshop of the Portuguese Royal Jeweler in Lisbon, commissioned in 1863, the tiara took three years before it was completed in 1866. It is fashioned out of gold and colourless and pink diamonds
Afonso I of Portugal
Afonso I, nicknamed the Conqueror, the Founder or the Great by the Portuguese, and El-Bortukali and Ibn-Arrink by the Moors whom he fought, was the first King of Portugal. Afonso I was born in Coimbra, Guimarães or Viseu and he was the son of Henry of Burgundy and Theresa, the natural daughter of King Alfonso VI of León and Castile. The pair reigned jointly as Count and Countess of Portugal until Henrys death, Afonso was slightly more than two years old when his father, Count Henry, died on 22 May 1112 during the siege of Astorga. In an effort to pursue a share in the Leonese inheritance, his mother Theresa joined forces with Fernando Pérez de Trava. The Portuguese nobility disliked the alliance between Galicia and Portugal and rallied around the infant Afonso, in 1122, Afonso turned fourteen, the adult age in the 12th century. He made himself a knight on his own account in the Cathedral of Zamora, raised an army, in 1128, near Guimarães, at the Battle of São Mamede Afonso and his supporters overcame troops under his Count Fernando Peres de Trava of Galicia.
Afonso exiled his mother to Galicia, and took rule of the County of Portugal. He vanquished his mothers nephew, Alfonso VII of León, who came to her rescue, on 6 April 1129, Afonso Henriques dictated the writ in which he proclaimed himself Prince of Portugal. Afonso turned his arms against the persistent problem of the Moors in the south, the first assembly of the Portuguese Cortes convened at Lamego is a 17th-century embellishment of Portuguese history. Independence from Alfonso VII of Leóns suzerainty, was not a thing he just could achieve militarily, the County of Portugal still had to be acknowledged diplomatically by the neighboring lands as a kingdom and, most importantly, by the Roman Catholic Church and the Pope. Afonso wed Mafalda of Savoy, daughter of Amadeus III, Count of Savoy and he succeeded in renouncing the suzerainty of his cousin, Alfonso VII of León, becoming instead a vassal of the papacy, as the kings of Sicily and Aragon had done before him. In 1179 the bull Manifestis Probatum accepted the new king as vassal to the pope exclusively, in Portugal he built several monasteries and convents and bestowed important privileges to religious orders.
He is notably the builder of Alcobaça Monastery, to which he called the Cistercian Order of his uncle Bernard of Clairvaux of Burgundy. In 1143, he wrote to Pope Innocent II to declare himself, bypassing any king of León, Afonso declared himself the direct liege man of the papacy. Afonso continued to distinguish himself by his exploits against the Moors, from whom he wrested Santarém and he conquered an important part of the land south of the Tagus River, although this was lost again to the Moors in the following years. Meanwhile, King Alfonso VII of León regarded the independent ruler of Portugal as nothing, conflict between the two was constant and bitter in the following years. Afonso became involved in a war, taking the side of the Aragonese king, to ensure the alliance, his son Sancho was engaged to Dulce, sister of the Count of Barcelona and Infanta of Aragon. Finally after winning the Battle of Valdevez, the Treaty of Zamora established peace between the cousins and the recognition by the Kingdom of León that Portugal was a sovereign kingdom
The Portuguese Diamond is a large octagonal-cut diamond known for its flawlessness and clarity. Under ultraviolet light the stone gives out a strong fluorescence, under daylight or artificial light, it exudes a soft fluorescence and a bluish haze. The name The Portuguese Diamond was given by Harry Winston, who acquired it from dancer Peggy Hopkins Joyce, noted for her many marriages and he in turn arranged a 1963 trade with its current owner, the Smithsonian Institution, for 3,800 carats of smaller diamonds. According to one of the legends, the diamond was mined in Brazil in the century and became part of the Portuguese Crown Jewels, however. The stone was first documented as being owned by Black, Peggy Hopkins Joyce, a Ziegfeld Follies dancer noted for her marriages and affairs with wealthy men, acquired it in February 1928, for a $350,000 pearl necklace and $23,000 in cash. She had it mounted on a short platinum choker, Harry Winston bought the diamond from Joyce in 1951 and added it to his Court of Jewels.
In 1963, he traded it to the Smithsonian Institution in exchange for 3,800 carats of smaller diamonds
Coat of arms of Portugal
The coat of arms of Portugal is the main heraldic insignia of Portugal. The present model was adopted on 30 June 1911, along with the present model of the Flag of Portugal. It is based on the coat of arms used by the Portuguese Kingdom since the Middle Ages, the coat of arms of Portugal is popularly referred as the Five Quinas or simply the Quinas. The national heraldry of Portugal evolved from the heraldry, with the royal coat of arms gradually coming to be considered a national coat of arms. The Portuguese coat of arms itself is the result of almost a millennium of modifications and alterations, the main and constant element of the coat of arms of Portugal is and has always been the Portuguese shield. This resulted from around 300 years of evolution, from the 12th to the 15th centuries, the initial shield evolved to a field argent with five escutcheons azur forming a cross, the dexter and sinister ones pointing to the center, with each escutcheon semée of plates. This is the first confirmed model of Portuguese shield in use, apparently, it was introduced still in the reign of Afonso Henriques and definitely was used in the reign of Portugals following King Sancho I.
There are several legends that explain the origin of the five escutcheons and these five pieces of blue leather and the heads of the nails, being so allegedly the origin of the five escutcheons azur, each semée of plates. When Afonso III became King in 1247, he maintained this defaced shield, during the 1383–1385 Portuguese interregnum, one of the emerging candidates to the throne was John, master of the Order of Aviz, who was an illegitimate son of King Peter I of Portugal. John was elected Regent and Defender of Kingdom in 1383 and acclaimed King of Portugal in 1385, with John, the Portuguese shield was added by the insertion of the insignia of the Order of Aviz, with its points appearing in the bordure gules, between the castles or. Although more commonly represented inserted in the shield, occasionally the cross of the Order of Aviz was represented outside the shield with this laying over it, the semée of plates of each of the five escutcheons gradually evolved to fixed five plates disposed in saltire.
Because of this, each of these started to be known as quina. By synecdoche, the Portuguese shield started to be referred as the five quinas or simply as the quinas, finally, in 1481, King John II ordered the correction of the Portuguese shield, eliminating its features identified as heraldic errors. So, the cross of the Order of Aviz was taken off, the semée of castles or of the bordure evolved to seven fixed castles, this being the version of the shield still in use today. During some periods of effective or claimed Royal union of Portugal with other states, the Portuguese shield was used marshaled with the coats of arms of those states. King Afonso V of Portugal, who claimed the crown of Castile during the 1475-1479 period, used the Portuguese arms in the I and IV, marshaled with the arms of Castile and León in the II and III. During the period of the Iberian Union, the Portuguese shield was placed in the point of the complex coat of arms of the House of Habsburg. The new Royal achievement of arms consisted so of the Portuguese shield over the armillary sphere and this achievement of arms was used in Portugal from 1815 to 1825
Necklace of the Stars
The Necklace of the Stars is a diamond necklace originally made for Queen Consort Maria Pia of Savoy. It is a piece of the Portuguese Crown Jewels, the Necklace of the Stars was made in 1865 for the wife of King Luís I of Portugal, Queen Cosort Maria Pia of Savoy, who had a love for jewelry and fashion. The necklace was fashioned in the workshop of the Portuguese Royal Jeweler in Lisbon, the necklace is just a piece of a whole set of jewelry that was commissioned by Maria Pia, which includes the famed Diadem of the Stars, the counterpart of the necklace. It is fashioned out of gold and colourless and pink diamonds, Diadem of the Stars Portuguese Crown Jewels Jóias da Coroa Portuguesa
Kingdom of Portugal
The Kingdom of Portugal was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal. It was in existence from 1139 until 1910, after 1248, it was known as the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves and between 1815 and 1822, it was known as the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. The name is often applied to the Portuguese Empire, the realms extensive overseas colonies. The nucleus of the Portuguese state was the County of Portugal, established in the 9th century as part of the Reconquista, by Vímara Peres, a vassal of the King of Asturias. The county became part of the Kingdom of León in 1097, the kingdom was ruled by the Alfonsine Dynasty until the 1383–85 Crisis, after which the monarchy passed to the House of Aviz. During the 15th and 16th century, Portuguese exploration established a vast colonial empire, from 1580 to 1640, the kingdom of Portugal was in personal union with Habsburg Spain. After the Portuguese Restoration War of 1640–1668, the passed to the House of Braganza and after to the House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg.
From this time, the influence of Portugal declined, but it remained a major due to its most valuable colony. Portugal was an absolute monarchy before 1822. It rotated between absolute and constitutional monarchy from 1822 until 1834, and was a constitutional monarchy after 1834. The Kingdom of Portugal finds its origins in the County of Portugal, the Portuguese County was a semi-autonomous county of the Kingdom of León. Independence from León took place in three stages, The first on 26 July 1139 when Afonso Henriques was acclaimed King of the Portuguese internally, the second was on 5 October 1143, when Alfonso VII of León and Castile recognized Afonso Henriques as king through the Treaty of Zamora. The third, in 1179, was the Papal Bull Manifestis Probatum, once Portugal was independent, D. Afonso Is descendants, members of the Portuguese House of Burgundy, would rule Portugal until 1383. Even after the change in houses, all the monarchs of Portugal were descended from Afonso I, one way or another.
With the start of the 20th century, Republicanism grew in numbers and support in Lisbon among progressive politicians, however a minority with regard to the rest of the country, this height of republicanism would benefit politically from the Lisbon Regicide on 1 February 1908. When returning from the Ducal Palace at Vila Viçosa, King Carlos I, with the death of the king and his heir, Carlos Is second son would become king as King Manuel II of Portugal. Manuels reign, would be short-lived, ending by force with the 5 October 1910 revolution, sending Manuel into exile in England, on 19 January 1919, the Monarchy of the North was proclaimed in Porto. The monarchy would be deposed a month and no other monarchist counterrevolution in Portugal has happened since, after centuries of Portuguese dominion in Angola, the Kingdom of Kongo was made a vassal state of the Portuguese kingdom, its king pledging allegiance to the King of Portugal
The shield-shaped stone comprises two back-to-back crowns but lacks any semblance to a pavilion. The Sancys known history began circa 1570, several sources state it belonged to Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. After Charles died, in 1495 it passed to his cousin King Manuel I of Portugal, when Portugal was threatened to come under Spanish rule, claimant António, Prior of Crato fled the country with the bulk of the Portuguese Crown Jewels. He spent his life trying to get allies to regain the Portuguese throne in the French and English courts, other sources claim that the diamond was purchased in Constantinople by de Sancy. He was popular in the French Court and was French Ambassador to Turkey, something of a gem connoisseur, de Sancy used his knowledge to prosperous advantage. Henry III of France suffered from premature baldness and tried to conceal this fact by wearing a cap, as diamonds were becoming increasingly fashionable at the time, Henry arranged to borrow de Sancys diamond to decorate his cap.
Henry IV borrowed the stone, for the practical purpose of using it as security for financing an army. When the body was disinterred, the jewel was found in the mans stomach. De Sancy sold the diamond to James I about 1605 when it is thought the Sancy acquired its name and it was described in the Tower of Londons 1605 Inventory of Jewels as. one fayre dyamonde, cut in fawcetts, bought of Sauncy. James had it set into the Mirror of Great Britain, the Sancy was briefly possessed by the unfortunate Charles I and by his third son James II. Beleaguered after a defeat, James took shelter under Louis XIV of France. Facing destitution, James had no choice but to sell the Sancy to Cardinal Mazarin in 1657 for the sum of £25,000. The cardinal bequeathed the diamond to the king upon his death in 1661, the Sancy was thus domiciled in France but disappeared during the French Revolution when brigands raided the Garde Meuble. As well as the Sancy, other treasures stolen were the Regent diamond, the Sancys history is unknown from until 1828 when purchased by Prince Demidoff for £80,000.
It remained in the Demidov family collection until 1865 when sold to Sir Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy and he sold it only a year later, creating another gap in its history. It reappeared in 1867, displayed at the Paris Exposition, carrying a price tag of one million francs, the Sancy next surfaced in 1906 when bought by William Waldorf Astor, 1st Viscount Astor. The prominent Astor family possessed it for 72 years until the 4th Viscount Astor sold it to the Louvre for $1 million in 1978, the Sancy now rests in the Apollo Gallery, sharing attention with the likes of the Regent and the Hortensia. Burton, E. Legendary Gems or Gems That Made History, chilton Book Company, Radnor, PA Fowler, M. Hope, Adventures of a Diamond, p.100,151,321
Portuguese Crown Jewels
The Portuguese Crown Jewels were the pieces of jewelry and vestments worn by the Monarchs of Portugal during the time of the Portuguese Monarchy. Over the nine centuries of Portuguese history, the Portuguese Crown Jewels have lost, most of the current set of the Portuguese Crown Jewels are from the reigns of King João VI and King Luís I. By the reign of King Manuel I, Portugal had already a set of jewels. In early 1581 King António I fled to France after King Philip I was made the King of Portugal, António I took with him the Portuguese Crown Jewels, including many valuable diamonds. After several failed attempts to reclaim the Portuguese Crown, António I fell into poverty and his poverty led him to sell many of the remaining diamonds. From Maximilien, the diamond would finally go to join the French Crown Jewels, during the Portuguese Restoration War, João II of Braganza sold many of the Portuguese Crown Jewels to finance the war with Spain. Since then, Portuguese monarchs did not have a coronation but instead an acclamation, before the assumption of the Portuguese throne by the Philippine Dynasty, the Kings of Portugal used to be anointed and crowned in the Jeronimos Monastery in Lisbon.
In 1755 the Great Lisbon earthquake destroyed Lisbon and the Paço da Ribeira, with the destruction of the palace, innumerable pieces of the Portuguese Crown Jewels of the time were destroyed, lost, or stolen. While his court was in Rio de Janeiro, João VI had a new set of Portuguese Crown Jewels made. Constructed by the royal jewelers at the workshop of António Gomes da Silva, the pieces from this era are the majority of the current set of jewels. When Maria Pia of Savoy became Queen Consort of Portugal, King Luís I ordered many pieces of jewelry to be made, alongside this, he had a new royal mantle produced. When the Portuguese Royal Family was exiled, many of the jewels were taken with Queen Amélie of Orléans, in 2002 a large part of the Portuguese Crown Jewels were stolen from the Museon in The Hague, where they were on loan for an exhibition on European Crown Jewels. Following an investigation by the museum and Dutch authorities, the Dutch government paid a sum of six million euros to the Portuguese government for reparation, the Portuguese Crown Jewels are currently kept in a secured vault at the Ajuda National Palace, in Lisbon.
While the palace is a popular and important museum, the jewels are not open to the public. The crown jewels are now seen at special events concerning them or the palace specifically. Though the Portuguese Crown Jewels have had a history, theft. The current set of crown jewels includes numerous pieces of jewelry, gems and other regalia, but most notably, The Crown of João VI is an imperial format crown. A unique feature of the crown is that it is composed only of gold and red velvet