In geology, a high island or volcanic island is an island of volcanic origin. The term can be used to distinguish such islands from low islands, which are formed from sedimentation or the uplifting of coral reefs. There are a number of "high islands" which rise no more than a few feet above sea level classified as "islets or rocks", while some "low islands", such as Makatea, Niue and Banaba, as uplifted coral islands, rise several hundred feet above sea level; the two types of islands are found in proximity to each other among the islands of the South Pacific Ocean, where low islands are found on the fringing reefs that surround most high islands. Volcanic islands arise above a so-called hotspot; the differences in geology and topography between high and low islands mean a lot in terms of habitability for humans: high islands above a certain size have fresh groundwater, while low islands do not. This hampers human settlement on many low islands. Archipelagic apron – A fan-shaped sloping region of sea floor found around oceanic islands Atoll – Ring-shaped coral reef formed over a subsiding oceanic volcano, with a central lagoon and islands around the rim Galápagos Islands Krakatoa Archipelago Low island Volcanic arc – A chain of volcanoes formed above a subducting plate Micronesian culture: High island and low island cultures at Britannica.com.
Ofu and Olosega are parts of a volcanic doublet in the Manu‘a Group of the Samoan Islands—part of American Samoa. The twin islands, formed from shield volcanoes, have a combined length of 6 km and an area of 12 square kilometers, they are geographic volcanic remnants separated by the narrow 137-meter-wide Asaga strait, a natural bridge of shallow coral reef. Before 1970, one had to wade between the two islands at low tide; the highest peak on Ofu is Mount Tumutumu and the highest elevation on Olosega is Mount Piumafua. The most recent volcanic eruption took place in 3 km south east of Olosega. Archaeology field work carried out in the 1980s yielded pre-historic evidence including ceramics, adzes and bone which have been significant in furthering understanding of the ancient history of the Samoa Islands and Polynesia; this included samples of red-slipped plainware ceramics that appeared to be in the tradition of the Lapita culture. The work, carried out by a team that included Pacific archaeology specialist Patrick Vinton Kirch, focused on a site called To'aga, a 2 km coastal stretch on the south coast of Ofu.
The results showed continuous human habitation of about 3,000 years. Ofu is the western part of the volcanic outcrop of Ofu-Olosega Island; the main village of Ofu is located on the western shore, protected behind an offshore islet known as Nu'utele. Ofu has a boat harbor that serve the population on Ofu and Olosega; the weekly flight from Pago Pago takes about half an hour. Most of the southern shore and associated coral reef are part of the National Park of American Samoa. In 2005 the U. S. National Park Service was negotiating with village councils on Olosega to expand the park around that island; the island forms the Ofu County subdivision of the Manua District. It has a land area of 7.215 km², had an official population of 289 persons as of the 2000 census. Situated on the south coast of the island is To'aga lagoon which has a high diversity of corals and fishes; the marine site has been part of long term research and study on coral reefs and global climate change. The island is home to the Samoa Flying-fox, a species of bat threatened by habitat loss.
Olosega Island is a remnant of the Sili shield volcano, the caldera of which may lie submerged off the north shore. The volcanic eruption of 1866 was 3 km east of Olosega, on a submarine ridge that extends east southeast to nearby Ta‘ū; the island forms the Olosega County subdivision of the Manua District. It has a land area of 5.163 km², had an official population of 216 persons as of the 2000 census. There are four villages on Olosega: Olosega, Lalomoana and Faiava. Archaeology in Samoa Office of the Governor. 2004. Manu‘a ma Amerika. A brief historical documentary. Manu‘a Centennial. 16 July 1904. 16 July 2004. Office of the Governor, American Samoa Government. 20 p. "Ofu-Olosega". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Ofu County and Olosega County, Manu'a District, United States Census Bureau National Park Service map of the Manu‘a Islands Persistence of Coral Reefs Under Extreme Environmental Stress in American Samoa G. Piniak, C. Birkeland, G. Garrison. University of Hawaii. Back Bay Sharks U12-The Fasí Crew-Rugby
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Tui Manuʻa Elisala
Tui Manuʻa Elisala was the last Tui Manu'a titleholder in Manu'a, now part of the U. S. Territory of American Samoa. Elisala was the son of Tui Manuʻa Alalamua. Tui Manu'a Elisara was born on the island of Ta'u as the second son of Tui Manu'a Alalamua and Sofe, a daughter of Matiu of Ta'u island. Tui Manu'a Alalamua was the successor of Tui Manu'a Tauveve from the Avaloa clan. Shortly after the death of Tui Manu'a Alalamua a vigorous debate ensued among potential heirs. From the three main branches of the Tui Manu'a family, three candidates emerged from each clan as each endorsed by their own branches of the Tui Manu'a family and their political allies: Alalamua's own son, Elisara was named as an obvious contender although Elisara himself refused the title in lieu of his religious calling; the other two claimants were a young woman named Matelita. With Elisara temporarily out of the succession, Taofi remained as one of the lesser direct heir and his party named him Tui Manu'a. Matelita's party, was able to amass more support for her campaign.
As there were no other available family member of the male branch from the Anoalo clan after Tui Manu'a Matelita to take the title, in 1899 chiefly assembly of the Faletolu and Anoalo appointed the title to one of the female branches the Avaloa clan from Alalamua's line by persuading Elisara to take the throne. Tui Manu’a Elisara Alalamua attended the London Missionary Society seminary in Malua on'Upolu island and returned to his native village where he served as the Congregationalist minister of Fitiuta; when the Faletolu of Ta'u approached Elisara about taking the Tui Manu'a throne the request was denied on the grounds of his ministry. However, when the Berlin Act placed the Manu'a islands under the protection of the United States, he was petitioned zealously by the people of Manu'a, he accepted the leadership role and was bestowed the paramount title of Tui Manu'a on the island of Ta'u on 25 October 1899. The Manu'a islands were grouped with Tutuila and Aunu'u as the United States possession now called American Samoa.
The presidency of the United States, to some extent the military authorities of the US Navy, supplanted the native administrative role of the Tui Manu'a. On 6 July 1904 Tui Manu'a Elisara ceded the islands of Manu'a to the United States through the signing of the Treaty of Cession of Manu'a, he was relegated the office of Governor of Manu'a for the term of life and the understanding that the Tui Manu'a title would follow him to the grave. He died on 2 July 1909. After a fifteen-year break, the office was revived in 1924 when Chris Taliutafa Young, a member of the Anoalo clan of the Tui Manu'a family and the brother of Tui Manu'a Matelita who reigned between 1890–95, was named Tui Manu'a by the general assembly of the Faletolu and Anoalo. American officials were worried that the Manu'ans were restoring a "king" who would cause trouble for the administration. Governor Edward Stanley Kellogg opposed the bestowal and had the new Tui Manu'a brought to Tutuila where he was prevented from exercising the powers of his office.
The Governor did not recognise the title on the basis that a monarchy was incompatible within the framework of the Constitution of the United States, the previous Tui Manu'a had pledged to be the last person to hold the title. Isaia, Malopaʻupo. Coming of Age in American Anthropology: Margaret Mead and Paradise. Boca Raton, Florida: Universal-Publishers. ISBN 9781581128451. McMullin, Dan Taulapapa. 2005. "The Passive Resistance of Samoans to US and Other Colonialisms", article in "Sovereignty Matters", University of Nebraska Press. Office of the Governor. 2004. Manu'a ma Amerika. A brief historical documentary. Manu'a Centennial. 16 July 1904. 16 July 2004. Office of the Governor, American Samoa Government. 20 p. Young, Stephen L. "Get The Facts Straight About Tui Manu'a". Samoa News. Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Linnekin, Lang & McCormick
Ta‘ū is the largest island in the Manu‘a Group and the easternmost volcanic island of the Samoan Islands. Ta‘ū is part of American Samoa. In the early 19th century, the island was sometimes called Opoun. Ta‘ū is well known as the site where the American anthropologist Margaret Mead conducted her dissertation research in Samoa in the 1920s, where she published her findings in Coming of Age in Samoa; the island is the eroded remnant of a "hotspot" shield volcano with a caldera complex or collapse feature on the south face. The summit of the island, called Lata Mountain, is at an elevation of 931 meters, making it the highest point in American Samoa; the last known volcanic eruption in the Manu‘a Islands was in 1866, on the submarine ridge that extends west-northwest towards nearby Ofu-Olosega. The largest airport in the Manu‘a Islands is on the northeast corner of Ta‘ū at Fiti‘uta. There is a private airport. A boat harbor is located at Faleāsao at the northwestern corner of the island. A roadway along the north coast connects all of the several inhabited villages between Ta‘ū on the west and Fiti‘uta.
All of the southeastern half of Ta‘ū—including all of the rainforest on top of Lata Mountain and within the caldera—and southern shoreline and associated coral reefs are part of the National Park of American Samoa. The park includes the ancient, sacred site of Saua, considered to be the birthplace of the Polynesian people. Administratively, the island is divided into three counties: Faleasao County, Fitiuta County, Ta'u County. Along with Ofu and Olosega islands, Tau Island comprises the Manua District of American Samoa; the land area of Tau Island is 44.31 square kilometers and it had a population of 873 persons as of the 2000 census and of 790 persons in the 2010 census. Ta‘ū is where the 23-year-old anthropologist Margaret Mead conducted her dissertation research in Samoa in the 1920s, published in 1928 as Coming of Age in Samoa. In her work, she studied adolescent teenage girls and compared their experience to those of Western societies, she concluded that adolescence was a smooth transition, not marked by the emotional or psychological distress, anxiety, or confusion seen in the United States.
Until 2016, being a small and isolated island, the populace relied on costly and environmentally unfriendly diesel generators to supply their energy. However, with the construction of a solar array, battery storage system and microgrid the island's power is provided 100% from the sun; this solar array was constructed by SolarCity, now includes sixty Tesla Powerpacks. The system should be a more reliable source of energy, was designed to power the entire island for three days without sunlight and recharge in seven hours. Tau Island: Faleasao, Ta'u counties, Manu'a District, United States Census Bureau
United States territory
United States territory is any extent of region under the sovereign jurisdiction of the federal government of the United States, including all waters and all U. S. naval vessels. The United States asserts sovereign rights for exploring, exploiting and managing its territory; this extent of territory is all the area belonging to, under the dominion of, the United States federal government for administrative and other purposes. The United States total territory includes a subset of political divisions; the United States territory includes any geography under the control of the United States federal government. Various regions and divisions are under the supervision of the United States federal government; the United States territory includes defined geographical area and refers to an area of land, air, or sea under jurisdiction of United States federal governmental authority. The extent of territory is all the area belonging to, under the dominion of, the United States of America federal government for administrative and other purposes.
Under Article IV of the U. S. Constitution, territory belongs to the United States; this includes tracts of land or water not included within the limits of any State and not admitted as a State into the Union. The Constitution of the United States states: The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States. Congress possesses power to set territorial governments within the boundaries of the United States; the power of Congress over such territory is universal. Congressional legislation is subject to no control, unless in the case of its being and explicitly ceded to the territory by act of Congress; the U. S. Congress is granted the exclusive and universal power to set a United States territory's political divisions. All territory under the control of the federal government is considered part of the "United States" for purposes of law. From 1901–1905, the U. S. Supreme Court in a series of opinions known as the Insular Cases held that the Constitution extended ex proprio vigore to the territories.
However, the Court in these cases established the doctrine of territorial incorporation. Under the same, the Constitution only applied in incorporated territories such as Alaska and Hawaii, whereas it only applied in the new unincorporated territories of Puerto Rico and the Philippines. A Supreme Court ruling from 1945 stated that the term "United States" can have three different meanings, in different contexts: The term "United States" may be used in any one of several senses, it may be the name of a sovereign occupying the position analogous to that of other sovereigns in the family of nations. It may designate the territory over which the sovereignty of the United States extends, or it may be the collective name of the states which are united by and under the Constitution; the United States Department of the Interior is charged with managing federal affairs within U. S. territory. The Interior Department has a wide range of responsibilities; the United States Department of the Interior is not responsible for local government or for civil administration except in the cases of Indian reservations, through the Bureau of Indian Affairs, as well as those territories administered through the Office of Insular Affairs.
The exception is the "incorporated and unorganized" United States Territory of Palmyra Island, the legal remnant of the former United States Territory of Hawaii since 1959, in which the local government and civil administration were assigned by the Secretary of the Interior to the Fish and Wildlife Service in 2001. The contiguous United States and Alaska are divided into smaller administrative regions; these are called counties in 48 of the 50 states, they are called boroughs in Alaska and parishes in Louisiana. A county can include a number of towns, or just a portion of either type; these counties have varying degrees of legal significance. A township in the United States refers to a small geographic area; the term is used in two ways: a survey township is a geographic reference used to define property location for deeds and grants. Territories are subdivided into administered tracts—e.g. Geographic areas that are under the authority of a government; the District of Columbia and territories are under the direct authority of Congress, although each is allowed home rule.
The United States Government, rather than individual states or territories, conducts foreign relations under the U. S. Constitution. Federal enclaves, such as domestic military bases and national parks, are administered directly by the federal government. To varying degrees, the federal government exercises concurrent jurisdiction with the states where federal land is part of the territory granted to a state. At times, territories are organized with a separate legislature, under a territorial governor and officers, appointed by the President and approved by the Senate of the United States. A territory has been divided into organized territories and unorganized territories. An unorga
Fiji the Republic of Fiji, is an island country in Melanesia, part of Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about 1,100 nautical miles northeast of New Zealand's North Island. Its closest neighbours are Vanuatu to the west, New Caledonia to the southwest, New Zealand's Kermadec Islands to the southeast, Tonga to the east, the Samoas and France's Wallis and Futuna to the northeast, Tuvalu to the north. Fiji consists of an archipelago of more than 330 islands—of which 110 are permanently inhabited—and more than 500 islets, amounting to a total land area of about 18,300 square kilometres; the most outlying island is Ono-i-Lau. The two major islands, Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, account for 87% of the total population of 898,760; the capital, Suva, on Viti Levu, serves as the country's principal cruise-ship port. About three-quarters of Fijians live on Viti Levu's coasts, either in Suva or in smaller urban centres such as Nadi—where tourism is the major local industry—or Lautoka, where the sugar-cane industry is paramount.
Due to its terrain, the interior of Viti Levu is sparsely inhabited. The majority of Fiji's islands formed through volcanic activity starting around 150 million years ago; some geothermal activity still occurs today, on the islands of Vanua Taveuni. The geothermal systems on Viti Levu are non-volcanic in origin, with low-temperature surface discharges. Sabeto Hot Springs near Nadi is a good example. Humans have lived in Fiji since the second millennium BC—first Austronesians and Melanesians, with some Polynesian influences. Europeans visited Fiji from the 17th century onwards, after a brief period as an independent kingdom, the British established the Colony of Fiji in 1874. Fiji operated as a Crown colony until 1970. A military government declared a Republic in 1987 following a series of coups d'état. In a coup in 2006, Commodore Frank Bainimarama seized power; when the High Court ruled the military leadership unlawful in 2009, President Ratu Josefa Iloilo, whom the military had retained as the nominal Head of State, formally abrogated the 1997 Constitution and re-appointed Bainimarama as interim Prime Minister.
In 2009, Ratu Epeli Nailatikau succeeded Iloilo as President. After years of delays, a democratic election took place on 17 September 2014. Bainimarama's FijiFirst party won 59.2% of the vote, international observers deemed the election credible. Fiji has one of the most developed economies in the Pacific thanks to its abundant forest and fish resources, its currency is the Fijian dollar, its main sources of foreign exchange are its tourist industry, remittances from Fijians working, bottled water exports. The Ministry of Local Government and Urban Development supervises Fiji's local government, which takes the form of city and town councils. Fiji's main island is known as Viti Levu and it is from this that the name "Fiji" is derived, though the common English pronunciation is based on that of their island neighbours in Tonga, its emergence can be described as follows: Fijians first impressed themselves on European consciousness through the writings of the members of the expeditions of Cook who met them in Tonga.
They were described as formidable warriors and ferocious cannibals, builders of the finest vessels in the Pacific, but not great sailors. They inspired awe amongst the Tongans, all their Manufactures bark cloth and clubs, were valued and much in demand, they called their home Viti, but the Tongans called it Fisi, it was by this foreign pronunciation, first promulgated by Captain James Cook, that these islands are now known. "Feejee", the Anglicised spelling of the Tongan pronunciation, was used in accounts and other writings until the late 19th century, by missionaries and other travellers visiting Fiji. Located in the central Pacific Ocean, Fiji's geography has made it both a destination and a crossroads for migrations for many centuries. According to oral tradition, the indigenous Fijians of today are descendants of the chief Lutunasobasoba and those who arrived with him on the Kaunitoni canoe. Landing at what is now Vuda, the settlers moved inland to the Nakauvadra mountains. Though this oral tradition has not been independently substantiated, the Fijian government promotes it, many tribes today claim to be descended from the children of Lutunasobasoba.
Pottery art from Fijian towns shows that Fiji was settled by Austronesian peoples before or around 3500 to 1000 BC, with Melanesians following around a thousand years although the question of Pacific migration still lingers. It is believed that the Lapita people or the ancestors of the Polynesians settled the islands first but not much is known of what became of them after the Melanesians arrived. Archeological evidence shows signs of settlement on Moturiki Island from 600 BC and as far back as 900 BC. Aspects of Fijian culture are similar to the Melanesian culture of the western Pacific but have a stronger connection to the older Polynesian cultures. Trade between Fiji and neighbouring archipelagos long before European contact is testified by the canoes made from native Fijian trees found in Tonga and Tongan words being part of the language of the Lau group of islands. Pots made in Fiji have been found in Samoa and the Marquesas Islands. In the 10th century, the Tu'i Tonga Empire was established in Tonga, Fiji came within its sphere of influence.
The Tongan influence brought Polynesian cu