A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that vision; the director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film; the film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film's budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director; some film directors started as screenwriters, producers, film editors or actors. Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches; some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely.
Some directors write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Some directors appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films. A film director's task is to envisage a way to translate a screenplay into a formed film, to realize this vision. To do this, they oversee the technical elements of film production; this entails organizing the film crew in such a way to achieve their vision of the film. This requires skills of group leadership, as well as the ability to maintain a singular focus in the stressful, fast-paced environment of a film set. Moreover, it is necessary to have an artistic eye to frame shots and to give precise feedback to cast and crew, excellent communication skills are a must. Since the film director depends on the successful cooperation of many different creative individuals with strongly contradicting artistic ideals and visions, he or she needs to possess conflict resolution skills in order to mediate whenever necessary.
Thus the director ensures that all individuals involved in the film production are working towards an identical vision for the completed film. The set of varying challenges he or she has to tackle has been described as "a multi-dimensional jigsaw puzzle with egos and weather thrown in for good measure", it adds to the pressure that the success of a film can influence when and how they will work again, if at all. The sole superiors of the director are the producer and the studio, financing the film, although sometimes the director can be a producer of the same film; the role of a director differs from producers in that producers manage the logistics and business operations of the production, whereas the director is tasked with making creative decisions. The director must work within the restrictions of the film's budget and the demands of the producer and studio. Directors play an important role in post-production. While the film is still in production, the director sends "dailies" to the film editor and explains his or her overall vision for the film, allowing the editor to assemble an editor's cut.
In post-production, the director works with the editor to edit the material into the director's cut. Well-established directors have the "final cut privilege", meaning that they have the final say on which edit of the film is released. For other directors, the studio can order further edits without the director's permission; the director is one of the few positions that requires intimate involvement during every stage of film production. Thus, the position of film director is considered to be a stressful and demanding one, it has been said that "20-hour days are not unusual". Some directors take on additional roles, such as producing, writing or editing. Under European Union law, the film director is considered the "author" or one of the authors of a film as a result of the influence of auteur theory. Auteur theory is a film criticism concept that holds that a film director's film reflects the director's personal creative vision, as if they were the primary "auteur". In spite of—and sometimes because of—the production of the film as part of an industrial process, the auteur's creative voice is distinct enough to shine through studio interference and the collective process.
Some film directors started as screenwriters, film producers or actors. Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Barry Sonnenfeld the Coen brothers' DP. Other film directors have attended a film school to get a bachelors degree studying cinema. Film students study the basic skills used in making a film; this includes, for example, shot lists and storyboards, protocols of dealing with professional actors, reading scripts. Some film schools are equipped with post-production facilities. Besides basic technical and logistical skills, students receive education on the nature of professional relationships that occur during film production. A full degree course can be designed for up to five years of studying. Future directors complete short films during their enrollment; the National Film School of Denmark has the student's final projects presented on national TV. Some film schools retain the rights for their students' works. Many directors prepared for making feature films by working in television.
The German Film and Television Academy Berlin cooperate
La ignorancia de la sangre
The Ignorance of Blood is a 2014 Spanish thriller film directed by Manuel Gómez Pereira and starring Ken Appledorn, Juan Diego Botto, Cuca Escribano, Alberto San Juan, Paz Vega and Dacio Caballero. La ignorancia de la sangre on IMDb
Pablo Berger Uranga is a Spanish film director born in Bilbao, Spain. Pablo Berger attended primary and secondary school in Artxanda Trueba, located on the outskirts of Bilbao, Spain. In 1988 he directed his first short film, Mamá with artistic director Álex de la Iglesia and Ramon Barea. With the financial winnings from a grant from the Provincial Council of Biscay, he went to study for a masters in film at New York University. After getting his Ph. D. he worked as a professor of management at the New York Film Academy. Thereafter, he began a parallel career as a publicist and producer of music, culminating in 2003 with his film Torremolinos 73, with Javier Cámara, Fernando Tejero and Candela Peña. In 2012 he premiered his third film Blancanieves, the Spanish representative of the Academy Awards in 2013, in the category of Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. Blancanieves won ten Goya Awards, including Best Original Screenplay, it received the trophy of the 9th edition of Bucharest International Film Festival Mamá Torremolinos 73 Blancanieves Herederos de la bestia Abracadabra
49th Berlin International Film Festival
The 49th annual Berlin International Film Festival was held from February 10 to 21, 1999. The festival opened with Jaguar by Max Färberböck; the Golden Bear was awarded to Canadian-American film The Thin Red Line directed by Terrence Malick. The retrospective dedicated to Austrian-American theatre and film director Otto Preminger was shown at the festival. 70 mm version of Preminger's 1959 musical film Porgy and Bess served as the closing night film. The following people were announced as being on the jury for the festival: Ángela Molina Ken Adam Paulo Branco Assi Dayan Pierre-Henri Deleau Katja von Garnier Hellmuth Karasek Jeroen Krabbé Michelle Yeoh The following films were in competition for the Golden Bear and Silver Bear awards: The following prizes were awarded by the Jury: Golden Bear: The Thin Red Line by Terrence Malick Silver Bear - Special Jury Prize: Mifune by Søren Kragh-Jacobsen Silver Bear for Best Director: Stephen Frears for The Hi-Lo Country Silver Bear for Best Actress: Maria Schrader and Juliane Köhler for Aimée & Jaguar Silver Bear for Best Actor: Michael Gwisdek for Nachtgestalten Silver Bear for an outstanding single achievement: Marc Norman and Tom Stoppard for Shakespeare in Love Silver Bear for an outstanding artistic contribution: David Cronenberg for eXistenZ Honourable Mention: Iben Hjejle for Mifune Ça commence aujourd'hui John Toll for The Thin Red Line Alfred Bauer Prize: Karnaval by Thomas Vincent Blue Angel Award: Güneşe Yolculuk by Yeşim Ustaoğlu Honorary Golden Bear: Shirley MacLaine Berlinale Camera: Armen Medvedjev Meryl Streep Robert Rodriguez FIPRESCI Award Ça commence aujourd'hui by Bertrand Tavernier 49th Berlin International Film Festival 1999 1999 Berlin International Film Festival Berlin International Film Festival:1999 at Internet Movie Database
Sergio G. Sánchez
Sergio Gutiérrez Sánchez is a Spanish film director and screenwriter. Sánchez has written and directed his own screenplays for short films such as Temporada baja and 7337. Sánchez's first film script was for The Orphanage in 1996. Sánchez wanted to direct the script but he was turned down by various Spanish production companies. While Sánchez was working on the short film 7337, he met with director Juan Antonio Bayona and offered him the script to direct; the Orphanage was a large hit and Sánchez was nominated for Best Screenplay at the 2008 Goya Awards in Spain. In May 2009, Variety reported that Sánchez would re-team up with The Orphanage director Juan Antonio Bayona, on a production by Madrid-based Apaches Entertainment, Telecinco Cinema, Spongeman, Bayona's own Barcelona-based label. Sánchez completed a first-draft screenplay in late April; the film, called The Impossible, was filmed in 2010. The Orphanage The End The Impossible Palm Trees in the Snow Marrowbone Sergio G. Sánchez at Allmovie Sergio G. Sánchez on IMDb
Off Key is a 2001 Spanish-British-Italian comedy film written and directed by Manuel Gómez Pereira. In it Joe Mantegna, Danny Aiello, George Hamilton star as three celebrity tenors. Although they perform and have some good times together, they are rivals onstage and in their private lives, they undergo intense scrutiny from the paparazzi and gossip press over their love lives and careers. The film was loosely inspired by the real life Three Tenors, Plácido Domingo, Luciano Pavarotti, José Carreras; the movie opens with a shot of a poster with three men in tuxedos under the name "Los Tres Tenores". Inside a theater in Mexico, one of the men, the dapper and refined French tenor Armand Dupres sings an operatic aria. Backstage, Spanish tenor Ricardo Palacios' wife tries to shoot him in the groin for cheating on her. Police take her away screaming, as Palacios and superstitious Italian tenor, Fabrizio Bernini, prepare to go onstage. Palacios hands his colleagues large Mexican sombreros and tells them to their disgust they must sing a mariachi number together.
The concert turns into a disaster. A series of newspaper headlines follow their performance asking "Tenors or Clowns?" and explaining that his singing partners are suing Palacios for fraud. Paparazzi photographs follow showing Bernini kissing Palacios' wife and Dupres mourning his own wife's death; the action shifts ten years forward. The Frenchman's butler tries to sabotage the union. Bernini has married Palacios' now ex-wife; the Italian tenor does not want to attend Dupres' wedding, but his wife wants to be there for her daughter. She chides him about his insecurity. Palacios plans to attend his daughter's wedding at Dupres' French villa, but he has additional schemes in mind, he hires a call girl to pose as his fiancée to convince his former partners and ex-wife how well he is now doing. While learning facts about his life, the call girl tries to seduce him but he refuses, saying that sex has gotten him into trouble in the past. An irate chef confronts the tenor about sleeping with his daughter, whom he insists now has twins who sing constantly.
On the way to Dupres' villa, Bernini feels ill because of his phobia of air conditioning and germs. At the villa, his wife and Dupres are alone together, she threatens to tell her daughter and he threatens to tell her husband that they too were once lovers. Dupres and Bernini speculate over why Palacios is attending the wedding. Dupres suggests. Once he arrives, Palacios tells his former colleagues that he has discovered "the new Three Tenors", in a bid to get them to return to performing together instead. While his wife is painting his greying eyebrows dark, Bernini theatrically exclaims that everyone wants to replace him, she chides him for thinking. The following day, after Palacios sings a tango, the tenors have an argument. Dupres and Bernini express disgust that Palacios got them to record duets with pop singers, dress as mariachis, promote Pizza Hut and the World Cup, when what they do is art. Palacios avers that repeating the same compositions over for rich people is not art, it is more important to him.
That day, Palacios hears a new composition by Dupres' son performed by three singing waiters. Telling the son that he has conducted modern music like his, he convinces them to perform the composition at a party on the eve of Dupres' wedding, claiming to his former partners that these were his three young discoveries. Once they hear them sing, the older tenors begin to sing together too. After the party, Bernini unsuccessfully tries to kill himself, despairing over his thirty-year rivalry with Palacios, while Dupres' fiancée realizes she is in love with his son; the next day at the wedding Palacios, after bragging about his acting abilities in Otello, pretends to have a heart attack in order to distract the paparazzi while his daughter and Dupres' son run away together. Soon afterwards, Bernini sings "Nessun Dorma" at a Spanish opera house, while a poster with the title "The 3 Tenors the Return" is seen. Palacios comes out of his dressing room after a tryst with the call girl, the three tenors go onstage to sing and dance the "Macarena".
Joe Mantegna as Ricardo Palacios Danny Aiello as Fabrizio Bernini George Hamilton as Armand Dupres Anna Galiena as Rita Ariadna Gil as Carmen Palacios Claudia Gerini as Violeta Ashley Hamilton as Maurice Dupres Geoffrey Bateman as Ivo Tiffany Hofstetter as Norma Vaughan Sivell as Flavio Manuel de Blas as Jean François René Assa as Sigmund Santini Jacques Herlin as Cardenal Around a decade before Off Key was filmed, the most famous operatic tenors in the world, Luciano Pavarotti, Plácido Domingo, José Carreras, appeared together in their first concert, the recording of which became the best-selling classical album of all time. More concerts, a frenzy of publicity followed, including from the paparazzi and gossip books like The Private Lives of the Three Tenors. Variety discussed this background for the movie: "Inspiration is the well-documented squabbling and ego trips of the Pavarotti/Domingo/Carreras roadshow." The film's director, did not intend the movie to be an actual portrayal of the real-life singers.
"My film has nothing to do with the lives of the real Three Tenors," Gómez Pereira said in an interview. "But if the Three Tenors did not exist, I would not have made this film." La Vanguardia explained that the movie was much more broadly about art as a business, in addition to a portra
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has 3.3 million inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union, smaller than only London and Berlin, its monocentric metropolitan area is the third-largest in the EU, smaller only than those of London and Paris; the municipality covers 604.3 km2. Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the Community of Madrid; as the capital city of Spain, seat of government, residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is the political and cultural centre of the country. The current mayor is Manuela Carmena from the party Ahora Madrid; the Madrid urban agglomeration has the third-largest GDP in the European Union and its influence in politics, entertainment, media, science and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities. Madrid is home to Real Madrid and Atlético Madrid. Due to its economic output, high standard of living, market size, Madrid is considered the leading economic hub of the Iberian Peninsula and of Southern Europe.
It hosts the head offices of the vast majority of major Spanish companies, such as Telefónica, IAG or Repsol. Madrid is the 10th most liveable city in the world according to Monocle magazine, in its 2017 index. Madrid houses the headquarters of the World Tourism Organization, belonging to the United Nations Organization, the Ibero-American General Secretariat, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Public Interest Oversight Board, it hosts major international regulators and promoters of the Spanish language: the Standing Committee of the Association of Spanish Language Academies, headquarters of the Royal Spanish Academy, the Cervantes Institute and the Foundation of Urgent Spanish. Madrid organises fairs such as ARCO, SIMO TCI and the Madrid Fashion Week. While Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets, its landmarks include the Royal Palace of Madrid. Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city.
مجريط Majrīṭ is the first documented reference to the city. It is recorded in Andalusi Arabic during the al-Andalus period; the name Magerit was retained in Medieval Spanish. The most ancient recorded name of the city "Magerit" comes from the name of a fortress built on the Manzanares River in the 9th century AD, means "Place of abundant water" in Arabic. A wider number of theories have been formulated on possible earlier origins. According to legend, Madrid was founded by Ocno Bianor and was named "Metragirta" or "Mantua Carpetana". Others contend that the original name of the city was "Ursaria", because of the many bears that were to be found in the nearby forests, together with the strawberry tree, have been the emblem of the city since the Middle Ages, it is speculated that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river; the name of this first village was "Matrice". Following the invasions carried out by the Germanic Sueves and Vandals, as well as the Sarmatic Alans during the 5th century AD, the Roman Empire no longer had the military presence required to defend its territories on the Iberian Peninsula, as a consequence, these territories were soon occupied by the Vandals, who were in turn dispelled by the Visigoths, who ruled Hispania in the name of the Roman emperor taking control of "Matrice".
In the 8th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the name changed to "Mayrit", from the Arabic term ميرا Mayra and the Ibero-Roman suffix it that means'place'. The modern "Madrid" evolved from the Mozarabic "Matrit", still in the Madrilenian gentilic. Although the site of modern-day Madrid has been occupied since prehistoric times, there are archaeological remains of Carpetani settlement, Roman villas, a Visigoth basilica near the church of Santa María de la Almudena and three Visigoth necropoleis near Casa de Campo, Tetúan and Vicálvaro, the first historical document about the existence of an established settlement in Madrid dates from the Muslim age. At the second half of the 9th century, Emir Muhammad I of Córdoba built a fortress on a headland near the river Manzanares, as one of the many fortresses he ordered to be built on the border between Al-Andalus and the kingdoms of León and Castile, with the objective of protecting Toledo from the Christian invasions and as a starting point for Muslim offensives.
After the disintegration of t