2012 Belizean general election
A legislative election was held in Belize on 7 March 2012 to elect all 31 members of the Belize House of Representatives as well as offices in the various local governments. The election was run by the Elections and Boundaries Commission's Elections and Boundaries Department. Dean Barrow and his United Democratic Party were re-elected, but lost eight seats to the opposition People's United Party to maintain a slim 17-14 majority in the Belize House; the upper house of the Belize National Assembly, the Senate, was appointed after the election by the UDP-led government in accordance with the Constitution of Belize. Prime Minister Dean Barrow's United Democratic Party was the incumbent in the election with his party holding 25 seats at dissolution; the opposition People's United Party, led by Francis Fonseca since late 2011, held the other seats in the Belize House. An unrepresented coalition of smaller parties ran in nine of the 31 constituencies under the banner of the Belize Unity Alliance; the UDP's primary campaign promise was to renegotiate the terms of a US$550 million bond repayment, which Barrow said would be his first task if re-elected.
The bond accounted for 40% of Belize's economic output and half of the national debt, making Belize the 13th most indebted state in the world in 2012. The interest on the debt was scheduled to cost US$46 million in the year, 12% of the country's revenues at the time affected its ability to raise future funds after credit rating agencies downgraded the sovereign credit status to "junk." Conversely, Fonseca said that he would abide by the obligation to pay off the debt with promises to grow the country's current US$1.25 billion economy. Another campaign theme was the issue of oil drilling off the coast of the country within proximity of the Belize Barrier Reef after Belize started exporting oil in 2006. However, opinion polls showed opposition to further oil exploration. Barrow promised to hold a referendum on the issue, while Fonseca pledged a moratorium over continued exploration; the Belize Unity Alliance campaigned in such locales as San Pedro, the biggest town on Ambergris Caye, off the Belize coast, supporting independent candidates and calling for votes for the party.
However, the coalition failed to make significant inroads and was not competitive in any of the 31 Belize House constituencies under the country's first past the post electoral system. On 29 February, Oceana, a member of the Belize Coalition to Save Our National Heritage, held an informal referendum that they called the "People's Referendum"; the "referendum" consisted of 51 polling stations, including two mobile polling stations, manned by volunteers over the issue of oil drilling. A previous attempt to hold the referendum alongside the election was rejected after 40% of the petitioned signatures were disqualified due to double signatories and mismatched names with the official voter rolls; the voter turnout was 28,000. The group's vice president, Audrey Matura-Shepherd, said that the referendum sought to use "the law to force the government to hear the people." Opinion polls suggested a tight race with many undecided voters. A poll conducted on 17 February 2012, the day of nominations for running in the election by former politician Derek Aikman, showed that the UDP held a majority of 16 seats and the PUP leading in nine seats, including Orange Walk Central, which they had won in the last poll.
The UDP led in Queen's Square, Port Loyola, Caribbean Shores, Collet, Lake Independence, Corozal North, Cayo Northeast, Cayo Central, Orange Walk South. The other seats that could play the role of kingmaker included Albert, Belize Rural North and Central and Stann Creek West, Toledo East and West, Corozal Southwest, Cayo South and Orange Walk East. Another poll by Aikman on 2 March showed a large lead for the UDP, though many voters were willing to support PUP; the poll was of 8,847 voters, or 4.97%. The UDP's 15% lead in the nomination day poll fell to a 4% gap with a lead of 30% to 26% on 2 March; the BUA recorded 1% support in the Belize Rural South and Belmopan. Undecided voters were at 43%. An Organization of American States monitoring group observed the poll; the team was led by the former US Ambassador to Honduras Frank Almaguer. The Organization of American States Electoral Observation Mission was present in all six districts. Afterwards the election was praised by the OAS as an "exemplary practice for the region."
The total number of eligible voters was 178,054, out of a population of just over 300,000. There were 320 polling stations. For the simultaneous local elections, 97,979 of the voters had the choice to choose from 170 candidates at 168 of the polling stations; the UDP did well in Belize City, holding all of their constituencies there as well as picking up Lake Independence and Albert. However the PUP made significant gains in the rural constituencies in the south where they swept the constituencies in the Stann Creek and Toledo Districts. Source: Elections and Boundaries Department Source: Elections and Boundaries Department DomesticDean Barrow reacted to the victory by assuring the public that he would appoint a delegation to renegotiate the terms of the so-called superbond with foreign financiers. Analysts at JP Morgan and Nomura Securities have estimated the government's chances of obtaining more favourable repayment terms after the positive completion of the electoral process. According to Nomura Securities analyst Boris Segura, th
Civil aviation is one of two major categories of flying, representing all non-military aviation, both private and commercial. Most of the countries in the world are members of the International Civil Aviation Organization and work together to establish common standards and recommended practices for civil aviation through that agency. Civil aviation includes two major categories: Scheduled air transport, including all passenger and cargo flights operating on scheduled routes. S. GA carries 166 million passengers each year, more than any individual airline, though less than all the airlines combined. Since 2004, the US Airlines combined have carried over 600 million passengers each year, in 2014, they carried a combined 662,819,232 passengers; some countries make a regulatory distinction based on whether aircraft are flown for hire like: Commercial aviation includes most or all flying done for hire scheduled service on airlines. All scheduled air transport is commercial; the pilot and operator must all be authorized to perform commercial operations through separate commercial licensing and operation certificates.
After World War Ⅱ, commercial aviation grew using ex-military aircraft to transport people and cargo. This growth was accelerated by the glut of heavy and super-heavy bomber airframes like the B-29 and Lancaster that could be converted into commercial aircraft; the DC-3 were made for easier and longer commercial flights. The first commercial jet airliner to fly was the British de Havilland Comet. By 1952, the British state airline BOAC had introduced the Comet into scheduled service. While a technical achievement, the plane suffered a series of public failures, as the shape of the windows led to cracks due to metal fatigue; the fatigue was caused by cycles of pressurization and depressurization of the cabin, led to catastrophic failure of the plane's fuselage. By the time the problems were overcome, other jet airliner designs had taken to the skies; the Convention on International Civil Aviation was established in 1944. Each signatory country, of which there are at least 188, has a civil aviation authority to oversee the following areas of civil aviation:Also federal administration relies on 99.99% Personnel licensing — regulating the basic training and issuance of licenses and certificates.
Flight operations — carrying out safety oversight of commercial operators. Airworthiness — issuing certificates of registration and certificates of airworthiness to civil aircraft, overseeing the safety of aircraft maintenance organizations. Aerodromes — designing and constructing aerodrome facilities. Air traffic services — managing the traffic inside of a country's airspace; the World Bank lists monotonously growing numbers for the number of passengers transported per year worldwide with a preliminary all-time high in 2015 of 3.44 billion passengers. The number of registered carrier departures worldwide has reached a peak in 2015 with 33 million takeoffs. In the US alone, the passenger miles "computed by summing the products of the aircraft-miles flown on each inter airport segment multiplied by the number of passengers carried on that segment" have reached 607,772 million miles in 2014; the global seasonally adjusted revenue passenger kilometers per month peaked at more than 550 billion kilometres in January 2016, a 7% rise over one year.
Air travel Military aviation Private aviation CUNY Aviation Institute International Civil Aviation Organization National Aviation Intelligence Integration Office International Civil Aviation Organization — the U. N. agency responsible for civil aviation Colombian Civil Aviation Authority.
Wilfred Peter "Sedi" Elrington is a Belizean politician, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Belize since 2008. Wilfred Elrington read law at the University of the West Indies, he is the only Belizean who has served in the executive, the legislative and the judicial arms of government, having served as a part-time judge of the Supreme Court of Belize. Wilfred Elrington was the Attorney-General of Belize and Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade from February 12, 2008 to 2010. A reshuffle of the Cabinet in 2010 left him with just Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade. In 2012 he was again made the Attorney General of Belize, he remains the Minister of Foreign Affairs. In 2009, he managed to turn Guatemala's long-time ally Israel into a partner of Belize; as foreign minister under Dean Barrow, Wilfred Elrington is noted for his conciliatory tone regarding the Belizean–Guatemalan territorial dispute, a stance which has become controversial in Belize in light of 2015 Guatemalan presidential candidate Jimmy Morales' comments on the issue, which are decidedly pro-Belize annexation.
Sandra Jovel became Guatemala's minister of foreign affairs in August 2017, gained Wilfred Elrington's esteem and respect. In July 2017, as shareholder of the company Progresso Heights Limited, Wilfred Elrington was taken to court to clarify many transfers of lands where proof of initial ownership cannot be demonstrated. In August 217, he was ordered by the court to provide all documentation related to this affair; that same month, he was part of a delegation representing the Caribbean countries to meet with representatives of the US president Donald Trump. In January 2018, Wilfred Elrington expressed his surprise when the USA announced it was temporarily stopping to issue temporary work visa programme for Belizeans, on the basis that the country is not doing enough to do more in preventing human trafficking. Wilfred Elrington ran as the UDP candidate for the Belize City-based Pickstock constituency in 1993 and 1998, but was defeated both times by former PUP Prime Minister George Cadle Price.
Price retired from the Belize House in 2003. That year Elrington ran for the Pickstock seat as an independent, but finished second to the PUP's Godfrey Smith. Returning to the UDP, Wilfred Elrington contested the Pickstock seat a fourth consecutive time in 2008 and prevailed, defeating Smith by a 56-42 margin, he was re-elected in 2012. Wilfred Elrington has four children, his brother, former UDP Area Representative Hubert Elrington served as the attorney general for Belize. List of foreign ministers in 2017 List of current foreign ministers
Said Wilbert Musa is a Belizean lawyer and politician. He was the Prime Minister of Belize from 28 August 1998 to 8 February 2008. Said Wilbert Musa was born in 1944 in San Ignacio in the Cayo District of what was British Honduras, he was the fourth of eight children by Aurora Musa, née Gibbs, Hamid Musa of Palestinian descent. Hamid Musa was involved in politics, running for the British Honduras Legislative Assembly as a National Party candidate in the 1957 general elections; as a boy, Musa attended Saint Andrew's Primary School in San Ignacio. He attended high school at St. Michael's College in Belize City and St. John's College Sixth Form. While living in Belize City, Said Musa aided his parents by selling tamales and other Belizean delicacies. After completing secondary school he studied law at the University of Manchester in England, receiving an Honours Degree in Law in 1966, qualified as a barrister at Gray's Inn, he returned to Belize the following year, serving as crown counsel and going into private practice.
Said Musa has contributed to law in Belize by representing thousands of underprivileged and poor individuals who come into contact with the law. Musa first came to notoriety in the late 1960s when he co-founded the Ad Hoc Committee for the Truth About Vietnam with Assad Shoman to protest the Vietnam War in British Honduras. On 1 January 1969 the group protested a showing of the American film The Green Berets in Belize City, which it characterized as pro-war propaganda. Musa joined the People's United Party under George Cadle Price in 1970, he soon was elected became a leader of the party's socialist wing in 1974. He ran for the Belize House of Representatives for the first time in 1974 in the eastern Belize City-based Fort George constituency, but was narrowly defeated by United Democratic Party and Opposition Leader Dean Lindo by 46 votes. Musa was appointed to the Belize Senate for the ensuing term, until 1979. Musa was successful in the next general election, held in 1979, winning the Fort George seat and defeating Lindo by a margin of 71 votes.
Musa served as Attorney General and Minister for Economic Development in the 1979–1984 Price-led government. Musa served on the committee that wrote the 1981 Constitution of Belize. Musa defended Belize's large national debt incurred in the 1980s, by saying Keynesian economics was being used: "The economy was in a deep recession, the country was broke therefore it had to get the private sector moving again; the country started a major expansionary program... to pay for the program we took on a lot of debt."In the 1984 election, Musa was defeated for re-election by Lindo, losing by a margin of 57 votes this time. He regained the Fort George seat in the 1989 election, he has won the Fort George constituency in every election since. Under Price, Musa was Minister of Foreign Affairs and Education from 1989 to 1993; as of July 2016 Musa has contested 10 consecutive general elections in Fort George and has continuously served as his party's standard bearer in the same constituency for over 40 years, longer than anyone else in Belizean history..
He trails only Price and Philip Goldson in total time served in the Belize House. Musa is the only current Area Representative to serve in the Belize House before the country's full independence from Great Britain in September 1981. Musa was elected and took over leadership of the PUP upon Price's retirement from party leadership in 1996, defeating Price's longtime lieutenant Florencio Marin in the leadership election in 1996. Musa led the PUP to landslide election victories in 1998 and 2003. Musa led Belize to significant growth over his near-decade long term in office, but his popularity declined during his last years in office due in part to increasing public perception of corruption among his Cabinet and within his party, he was accused of abandoning his previous socialist stances in favour of neoliberal policies as prime minister. Outside of Belize Musa chaired several regional organisations, including CARICOM and the Central American Integration System. Musa again led the PUP in the election held on 7 February 2008, but the PUP suffered a severe defeat at the hands of the UDP, led by Dean Barrow winning only six out of 31 seats.
Musa himself was re-elected in the Fort George constituency. UDP leader Dean Barrow succeeded Musa and was sworn in as 4th prime minister of Belize by Governor-General of Belize, Colville Young on 8 February 2008. On the day of the 2008 election, Musa stated. After the PUP's defeat, he congratulated Barrow, he considered the opposition's focus on allegations of corruption and negativity from the media to be primary factors in the defeat. On 13 February 2008, Musa announced that he was stepping down as party leader so that the PUP could "renew itself from the top." The PUP held a convention on 30 March 2008 to select his successor, Johnny Briceño was elected as PUP leader against Francis Fonseca. A leadership election was held in October 2011 again. Briceño was replaced by Francis Fonseca in October 2011. Five months the Fonseca-led PUP suffered a narrow defeat to the UDP, winning 14 of 31 seats in the Belize House of Representatives. Musa was comfortably re-elected in his Fort George constituency and remains the senior member and shadow Senior Minister of the PUP caucus and in the Shadow Cabinet, formed first in 2012 and again in 2015.
The current Shadow Cabinet of Francis Fonseca will be dissolved before the Next Belizean general election, scheduled for 13 February 2020. In 2015 the 71-year-old Musa
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business. Tourism may be international, or within the traveller's country; the World Tourism Organization defines tourism more in terms which go "beyond the common perception of tourism as being limited to holiday activity only", as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure and not less than 24 hours and other purposes". Tourism can be domestic or international, international tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a country's balance of payments. Tourism suffered as a result of a strong economic slowdown of the late-2000s recession, between the second half of 2008 and the end of 2009, the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, but recovered. International tourism receipts grew to US$1.03 trillion in 2005, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 3.8% from 2010. International tourist arrivals surpassed the milestone of 1 billion tourists globally for the first time in 2012, emerging markets such as China and Brazil had increased their spending over the previous decade.
The ITB Berlin is the world's leading tourism trade fair. Global tourism accounts for ca. 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions. The word tourist was used in 1772 and tourism in 1811, it is formed from the word tour, derived from Old English turian, from Old French torner, from Latin tornare. Tourism has become an important source of income for many regions and entire countries; the Manila Declaration on World Tourism of 1980 recognized its importance as "an activity essential to the life of nations because of its direct effects on the social, cultural and economic sectors of national societies and on their international relations."Tourism brings large amounts of income into a local economy in the form of payment for goods and services needed by tourists, accounting as of 2011 for 30% of the world's trade in services, for 6% of overall exports of goods and services. It generates opportunities for employment in the service sector of the economy associated with tourism; the hospitality industries which benefit from tourism include transportation services.
This is in addition to goods bought by tourists, including souvenirs. On the flip-side, tourism can degrade sour relationships between host and guest. In 1936, the League of Nations defined a foreign tourist as "someone traveling abroad for at least twenty-four hours", its successor, the United Nations, amended this definition in 1945, by including a maximum stay of six months. In 1941, Hunziker and Kraft defined tourism as "the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity." In 1976, the Tourism Society of England's definition was: "Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes." In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities chosen and undertaken outside the home.
In 1994, the United Nations identified three forms of tourism in its Recommendations on Tourism Statistics: Domestic tourism, involving residents of the given country traveling only within this country Inbound tourism, involving non-residents traveling in the given country Outbound tourism, involving residents traveling in another countryThe terms tourism and travel are sometimes used interchangeably. In this context, travel implies a more purposeful journey; the terms tourism and tourist are sometimes used pejoratively, to imply a shallow interest in the cultures or locations visited. By contrast, traveler is used as a sign of distinction; the sociology of tourism has studied the cultural values underpinning these distinctions and their implications for class relations. International tourist arrivals reached 1.035 billion in 2012, up from over 996 million in 2011, 952 million in 2010. In 2011 and 2012, international travel demand continued to recover from the losses resulting from the late-2000s recession, where tourism suffered a strong slowdown from the second half of 2008 through the end of 2009.
After a 5% increase in the first half of 2008, growth in international tourist arrivals moved into negative territory in the second half of 2008, ended up only 2% for the year, compared to a 7% increase in 2007. The negative trend intensified during 2009, exacerbated in some countries due to the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, resulting in a worldwide decline of 4.2% in 2009 to 880 million international tourists arrivals, a 5.7% decline in international tourism receipts. The World Tourism Organization reports the following ten destinations as the most visited in terms of the number of international travelers in 2017. International tourism receipts grew to US$1.26 Trillion in 2015, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 4.4% from 2014. The World Tourism Organization reports the following entities as the top ten tourism earners for the year 2015: The World Tourism Organizati
Belize is a country located on the eastern coast of Central America. Belize is bordered on the northwest by Mexico, on the east by the Caribbean Sea, on the south and west by Guatemala, it has an area of 22,970 square kilometres and a population of 387,879. Its mainland is 68 mi wide, it has the lowest population density in Central America. The country's population growth rate of 1.87% per year is the second highest in the region and one of the highest in the Western Hemisphere. The Mayan civilization spread into the area of Belize between 1500 B. C. and 300 A. D. and flourished until about 1200. European exploration campaigns began in 1502 when Christopher Columbus sailed along the Gulf of Honduras. European settlement was begun by English settlers in 1638; this period was marked by Spain and Britain both laying claim to the land until Britain defeated the Spanish in the Battle of St. George's Caye, it became a British colony in 1840, known as British Honduras, a Crown colony in 1862. Independence was achieved from the United Kingdom on 21 September 1981.
Belize has a diverse society, composed of many cultures and languages that reflect its rich history. English is the official language of Belize. Over half the population is multilingual, with Spanish being the second most common spoken language, it is known for its extensive barrier reef coral reefs and punta music. Belize's abundance of terrestrial and marine species and its diversity of ecosystems give it a key place in the globally significant Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, it is considered a Central American and Caribbean nation with strong ties to both the American and Caribbean regions. It is a member of the Caribbean Community, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, the Central American Integration System, the only country to hold full membership in all three regional organisations. Belize is a Commonwealth realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state; the earliest known record of the name "Belize" appears in the journal of the Dominican priest Fray José Delgado, dating to 1677.
Delgado recorded the names of three major rivers that he crossed while travelling north along the Caribbean coast: Rio Soyte, Rio Xibum and Rio Balis. The names of these waterways, which correspond to the Sittee River, Sibun River and Belize River, were provided to Delgado by his translator, it is that Delgado's "Balis" was the Mayan word belix, meaning "muddy-watered". Some have suggested that the name derives from a Spanish pronunciation of the name of the Scottish buccaneer Peter Wallace, who established a settlement at the mouth of the Belize River in 1638. There is no proof that Wallace settled in this area and some scholars have characterized this claim as a myth. Writers and historians have suggested several other possible etymologies, including postulated French and African origins; the Maya civilization emerged at least three millennia ago in the lowland area of the Yucatán Peninsula and the highlands to the south, in the area of present-day southeastern Mexico, Belize and western Honduras.
Many aspects of this culture persist in the area despite nearly 500 years of European domination. Prior to about 2500 BC, some hunting and foraging bands settled in small farming villages. A profusion of languages and subcultures developed within the Maya core culture. Between about 2500 BC and 250 AD, the basic institutions of Maya civilization emerged; the peak of this civilization occurred during the classic period, which began about 250 AD. The Maya civilization spread across what is now Belize around 1500 BC, flourished there until about AD 900; the recorded history of the middle and southern regions is dominated by Caracol, an urban political centre that may have supported over 140,000 people. North of the Maya Mountains, the most important political centre was Lamanai. In the late Classic Era of Maya civilisation, as many as one million people may have lived in the area, now Belize; when Spanish explorers arrived in the 16th century, the area, now Belize included three distinct Maya territories: Chetumal province, which encompassed the area around Corozal Bay.
Spanish conquistadors explored the land and declared it a Spanish colony but chose not to settle and develop because of its lack of resources and the hostile Indian tribes of the Yucatán. English and Scottish settlers and pirates known as the Baymen entered the area from the 17th century, with Baymen first settling on the coast of what is now Belize in 1638, seeking a sheltered region from which they could attack Spanish ships; the settlers established a trade colony and port in what became the Belize District, during the 18th century, established a system using black slaves to cut logwood trees. This yielded a valuable fixing agent for clothing dyes, was one of the first ways to achieve a fast black before the advent of artificial dyes; the Spanish granted the British settlers the right to occupy the area and cut logwood in exchange for their help suppressing piracy. The British first appointed a superintendent over the Belize area in 1786. Before the British government had not recognized the settlement as a colony for fear of provoking a Spanish attack.
The delay in governm
United Democratic Party (Belize)
The United Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in Belize. It is the ruling party, having won 2012 and 2015 general elections. A centre-right conservative party, the UDP is led by Prime Minister of Belize Dean Barrow. In 1973 political opposition in Belize was weak and the ruling People's United Party had never lost a legislative election since its foundation; the main opposition parties, the National Independence Party and the People's Development Movement met together with a new Liberal Party to consider forming an alliance to fight the PUP. The resulting merger formed the United Democratic Party on 27 September 1973. Controversially, a significant portion of the United Black Association for Development voted to join the UDP upon foundation; the UDP's first electoral test was the 1974 general election in which it fielded candidates nationwide except in Corozal District, where it supported candidates from the Corozal United Front. It won six seats, was within 18 votes of winning three more.
Former People's Development Movement head. The party had success in municipal elections during the 1970s, but failed to defeat the PUP in the 1979 general elections, its representation in the House of Representatives dropped to five seats and party leader Lindo lost his seat to Said Musa and was replaced as leader by Theodore Aranda. Despite internal divisions, the party retained control of three towns in the December 1981 municipal elections In late 1982 Aranda was removed as party leader and replaced by Curl Thompson, who in turn was replaced by former Liberal Party leader Manuel Esquivel following a convention. In December 1983 the UDP won Belize City Council elections and the following year they were victorious in the general elections, winning 21 of the 28 seats. However, they lost power in the 1989 elections, winning 13 seats to the PUP's 15. For the 1993 elections the party formed an alliance with the National Alliance for Belizean Rights; the alliance won 16 of the 29 seats, with the UDP taking fifteen.
However, they were soundly defeated in the 1998 elections as the PUP won 26 of the 29 seats, after which Esquivel was replaced by Barrow as party leader. The PUP remained in power following the 2003 elections. After ten years in opposition, the UDP won the 2008 general elections. Dean Lindo Theodore Aranda Curl Thompson Manuel Esquivel Dean Barrow Official website The Guardian Party newspaper