Manuel II Palaiologos or Palaeologus was Byzantine Emperor from 1391 to 1425. Shortly before his death he was tonsured a monk and received the name Matthew and he is commemorated on July 21. Manuel II Palaiologos was the son of Emperor John V Palaiologos. His maternal grandparents were Emperor John VI Kantakouzenos and Irene Asanina, granted the title of despotēs by his father, the future Manuel II traveled west to seek support for the Byzantine Empire in 1365 and in 1370, serving as governor in Thessalonica from 1369. The failed attempt at usurpation by his older brother Andronikos IV Palaiologos in 1373 led to Manuels being proclaimed heir and co-emperor of his father. In 1376–1379 and again in 1390 they were supplanted by Andronikos IV and then his son John VII, although John V had been restored, Manuel was forced to go as an honorary hostage to the court of the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I at Prousa. During his stay, Manuel was forced to participate in the Ottoman campaign that reduced Philadelpheia, hearing of his fathers death in February 1391, Manuel II Palaiologos fled the Ottoman court and secured the capital against any potential claim by his nephew John VII. Although relations with John VII improved, Sultan Bayezid I besieged Constantinople from 1394 to 1402, Manuel II had sent 10 ships to help in the Crusade of Nicopolis. When Manuel II returned home in 1403, his nephew duly surrendered control of Constantinople, Manuel also regained from the Ottomans Nesebar, Varna, and the Marmara coast from Scutari to Nicomedia between 1403–1421. Here Manuel supervised the building of the Hexamilion across the Isthmus of Corinth, sigismund never rejected the possibility of fighting against the Ottoman Empire. However, with the Hussite wars in Bohemia, it was impossible to count on the Czech or German armies, Manuel II died on 21 July 1425. This mirror of prince has special value, because it is the last sample of this literary genre bequeathed to us by Byzantines, by his wife Helena Dragas, the daughter of the Serbian prince Constantine Dragas, Manuel II Palaiologos had several children, including, A daughter. Mentioned as the eldest daughter but not named, possibly confused with Isabella Palaiologina, an illegitimate daughter of Manuel II known to have married Ilario Doria. 1393/8, died before 1405 in Monemvasia, also not named in the text. Theodore II Palaiologos, Lord of Morea, born 1406/7, died 1409/10 of the plague. Despotēs in the Morea and subsequently the last Byzantine emperor, 1448–1453, many Muslims were offended by this denigration of Muhammad, and many protested against it. For others it may simply have been false indignation or the assumption of offence by non-Muslims, in his book, Manuel II then continues, claiming that, God is not pleased by blood – and not acting reasonably is contrary to Gods nature. Faith is born of the soul, not the body, whoever would lead someone to faith needs the ability to speak well and to reason properly, without violence and threats
Image: Manuel II Paleologus
The coat of arms attributed to the Palaiologoi.
Half stavraton coin by Manuel. On the reverse, Manuel's bust.