Andalusia is an autonomous community in southern Spain. It is the most populated and the second largest in area of the communities in the country. The Andalusian autonomous community is recognised as historical nationality. The territory is divided into eight provinces, Almería, Cádiz, Córdoba, Huelva, Jaén, Málaga and its capital is the city of Seville. Andalusia is the only European region with both Mediterranean and Atlantic coastlines, the small British overseas territory of Gibraltar shares a three-quarter-mile land border with the Andalusian province of Cádiz at the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar. The main mountain ranges of Andalusia are the Sierra Morena and the Baetic System, consisting of the Subbaetic and Penibaetic Mountains, in the north, the Sierra Morena separates Andalusia from the plains of Extremadura and Castile–La Mancha on Spains Meseta Central. To the south the geographic subregion of Upper Andalusia lies mostly within the Baetic System, the name Andalusia is derived from the Arabic word Al-Andalus.
Including an intense relationship with Naples, Andalusia has been a traditionally agricultural region, compared to the rest of Spain and the rest of Europe. However, the growth of the community especially in the sectors of industry and services was above average in Spain, the region has, however, a rich culture and a strong cultural identity. Many cultural phenomena that are seen internationally as distinctively Spanish are largely or entirely Andalusian in origin and these include flamenco and, to a lesser extent and Hispano-Moorish architectural styles. Andalusias hinterland is the hottest area of Europe, with cities like Córdoba, Late evening temperatures can sometimes stay around 35 °C until close to midnight, with daytime highs of over 40 °C common. Seville has the highest average temperature in mainland Spain and mainland Europe. Its present form is derived from the Arabic name for Muslim Iberia. However, the etymology of the name Al-Andalus is disputed, the Spanish place name Andalucía was introduced into the Spanish languages in the 13th century under the form el Andalucía.
This was a Castilianization of Al-Andalusiya, the form of the Arabic language al-Andalus. The etymology of al-Andalus is itself somewhat debated, but in fact it entered the Arabic language before this came under Muslim rule. Like the Arabic term al-Andalus, in historical contexts the Spanish term Andalucía or the English term Andalusia do not necessarily refer to the territory designated by these terms today. To designate the territories the Christians had regained by that time in the Guadalquivir valley and in the Kingdoms of Granada, in a document from 1253, Alfonso X styled himself Rey de Castilla, León y de toda Andalucía
The Peninsular War was a military conflict between Napoleons empire and the allied powers of Spain and Portugal, for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The war started when French and Spanish armies invaded and occupied Portugal in 1807, the Peninsular War overlaps with what the Spanish-speaking world calls the Guerra de la Independencia Española, which began with the Dos de Mayo Uprising on 2 May 1808 and ended on 17 April 1814. The French occupation destroyed the Spanish administration, which fragmented into quarrelling provincial juntas, the British Army, under the Lt. Gen. Arthur Wellesley, guarded Portugal and campaigned against the French in Spain alongside the reformed Portuguese army. The demoralised Portuguese army was reorganised and refitted under the command of Gen, in the following year Wellington scored a decisive victory over King Josephs army at Vitoria. The years of fighting in Spain were a burden on Frances Grande Armée. The Spanish armies were beaten and driven to the peripheries.
This drain on French resources led Napoleon, who had provoked a total war. War and revolution against Napoleons occupation led to the Spanish Constitution of 1812, the burden of war destroyed the social and economic fabric of Portugal and Spain, and ushered in an era of social turbulence, political instability and economic stagnation. Devastating civil wars between liberal and absolutist factions, led by officers trained in the Peninsular War, persisted in Iberia until 1850. The cumulative crises and disruptions of invasion and restoration led to the independence of most of Spains American colonies, the Treaties of Tilsit, negotiated during a meeting in July 1807 between Emperors Alexander I of Russia and Napoleon, concluded the War of the Fourth Coalition. With Prussia shattered, and Russia allied with France, Napoleon expressed irritation that Portugal was open to trade with the United Kingdom, Prince John of Braganza, regent for his insane mother Queen Maria I, had declined to join the emperors Continental System against British trade.
After a few days, a large force started concentrating at Bayonne, meanwhile the Portuguese governments resolve was stiffening, and shortly afterward Napoleon was once again told that Portugal would not go beyond its original agreements. After he received the Portuguese answer, he ordered Junots corps to cross the frontier into Spain, while all this was going on, the secret Treaty of Fontainebleau had been signed between France and Spain. The document was drawn up by Napoleons marshal of the palace Géraud Duroc and Eugenio Izquierdo, the treaty proposed to carve up Portugal into three entities. Porto and the part was to become the Kingdom of Northern Lusitania. The southern portion, as the Principality of the Algarves, would fall to Godoy, the rump of the country, centered on Lisbon, was to be administered by the French. According to the Treaty of Fontainebleau, Junots invasion force was to be supported by 25,500 men in three Spanish columns, Gen. Taranco and 6,500 troops were ordered to march from Vigo to seize Porto in the north.
Capt. Gen. Solano would advance from Badajoz with 9,500 soldiers to capture Elvas, Gen. Caraffa and 9,500 men were instructed to assemble at Salamanca and Ciudad Rodrigo, and cooperate with Junots main force
Sir Charles William Chadwick Oman KBE was a British military historian. His reconstructions of medieval battles from the fragmentary and distorted accounts left by chroniclers were pioneering, occasionally his interpretations have been challenged, especially his widely copied thesis that British troops defeated their Napoleonic opponents by firepower alone. Paddy Griffith, among historians, claims that the British infantrys discipline. Oman was born in Muzaffarpur district, the son of a British planter, and was educated at Winchester College and at Oxford University, in 1881 he was elected to a Prize Fellowship at All Souls College, where he remained for the rest of his academic career. He was elected the Chichele Professor of Modern History at Oxford in 1905 and he was elected to the FBA that year, and served as President of the Royal Historical Society, the Numismatic Society and the Royal Archaeological Institute. Omans academic career was interrupted by the First World War, during which he was employed by the governments Press Bureau, Oman was the Conservative Member of Parliament for the University of Oxford constituency from 1919 to 1935, and was knighted in 1920.
He became a fellow of New College in 1936, and received the honorary degrees of DCL. He died at Oxford aged 86 and he was awarded the Medal of the Royal Numismatic Society in 1928. Children Two of Omans children became authors and his daughter Carola was notable for her biographies, especially that of Nelson. I, A. D. 378–1278 A History of the Art of War in the Middle Ages, Vol. II, A. D. 1278–1485 England and the Hundred Years War, 1327–1485 A. D. III of The Oxford Manuals of English History, Charles Oman, ed. Alfred as a Warrior, in Alfred The Great, Alfred Bowker, ed. Reign of George VI, Vol. IV of The Political History of England, William Hunt & Reginald Poole, ed. History of the Peninsular War, Vol. III, Sep.1809 – Dec.1810 A History of England Before the Norman Conquest, I of A History of England in Seven Volumes, Charles Oman, ed. Studies in the Napoleonic Wars History of the Peninsular War, Vol. VII, Oman at Project Gutenberg Works by Charles William Chadwick Oman at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Charles Oman at Internet Archive Works by Charles Oman at LibriVox
Officer (armed forces)
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. In this sense, officers are not enlisted, but hold appointments from their government that typically remain in force indefinitely unless resigned, the proportion of officers varies greatly. Officers typically make up between an eighth and a fifth of modern armed forces personnel, in 2013, officers were the senior 17% of the British armed forces, and the senior 13. 7% of the French armed forces. In 2012, officers made up about 18% of the German armed forces, however, armed forces have generally had much lower proportions of officers. During the First World War, fewer than 5% of British soldiers were officers, in the early twentieth century, the Spanish army had the highest proportion of officers of any European army, at 12. 5%. Within a nations armed forces, armies tend to have a proportion of officers. For example,13. 9% of British army personnel and 22. 2% of the RAF personnel were officers in 2013, having officers is one requirement for combatant status under the laws of war, though these officers need not have obtained an official commission or warrant.
Commissioned officers are typically the only persons, in an armed forces environment, a superior officer is an officer with a higher rank than another officer, who is a subordinate officer relative to the superior. Non-commissioned officers in positions of authority can be said to have control or charge rather than command per se, many advanced militaries require university degrees as a prerequisite for commissioning, even from the enlisted ranks. In the Israel Defense Forces, a university degree is a requirement for an officer to advance to the rank of lieutenant colonel, the IDF often sponsors the studies for its majors, while aircrew and naval officers obtain academic degrees as a part of their training programmes. In the United Kingdom, there are three routes of entry for British Armed Forces officers, the first, and primary route are those who receive their commission directly into the officer grades following completion at their relevant military academy. The third route is similar to the second, in that they convert from an enlisted to a commission, but these are taken from the highest ranks of SNCOs.
LE officers, whilst holding the same Queens Commission, generally work in different roles from the DE officers, in the infantry, a number of Warrant Officer Class 1s are commissioned as LE officers. For Royal Navy and Royal Air Force officer candidates, a 30-week period at Britannia Royal Naval College or a 30-week period at RAF College Cranwell, Royal Marines officers receive their training in the Command Wing of the Commando Training Centre Royal Marines during a grueling 15-month course. The courses consist of not only tactical and combat training, but leadership, etiquette, until the Cardwell Reforms of 1871, commissions in the British Army were purchased by officers. The Royal Navy, operated on a more meritocratic, or at least socially mobile, AOCS also included the embedded Aviation Reserve Officer Candidate and Naval Aviation Cadet programs. NAVCADs were personnel who held associates degrees, but lacked bachelors degrees, nAVCADs would complete the entire AOCS program, but would not be commissioned until completion of flight training and receiving their wings.
After their initial tour, they would be assigned to a college or university full-time for no more than two years in order to complete their bachelors degree
Hispanic Society of America
A second building, on the north side of the terrace, was added in 1930. Exterior sculpture in front of that includes work by Anna Hyatt Huntington and nine major reliefs by the Swiss-American sculptor Berthold Nebel. The Hispanic Society complex was designated a National Historic Landmark in 2012, the museum contains more than 18,000 works in every medium, ranging from prehistoric times to the 20th century. A major component of this museum is the Sorolla Room which was reinstalled in 2010 and it displays the Vision of Spain,14 massive paintings commissioned by Archer Huntington that Sorolla created from 1911 to 1919. These magnificent paintings, totaling over 200 linear feet, ring the large room, the library contains over 250,000 books,200,000 documents,175,000 photographs, and 15,000 prints. The rare books library maintains 15,000 books printed before 1700 and it holds the manuscript Black Book of Hours Horae Beatae Virginis Mariae ad usum Romanum, one of only a handful of such works, and the enormous Map of the World by Juan Vespucci.
Beginning January 1,2017, the museum is closed for renovations until the fall of 2019. The $15 million project will replace the roof and lighting. While the museum is closed, many of its works will be lent to other institutions, about 200 of the societys most important works will be displayed from April through September 2017 at the Museo del Prado in Madrid. List of Books Printed Before 1601 in the Library of the Hispanic Society of America – via HathiTrust, official website A Collection in Context, The Hispanic Society of America by the Media Center for Art History, Columbia University
Battle of Tudela
The Battle of Tudela saw an Imperial French army led by Marshal Jean Lannes attack a Spanish army under General Castaños. The battle resulted in the victory of the Imperial forces over their adversaries. The combat occurred near Tudela in Navarre, Spain during the Peninsular War, Spanish casualties were estimated to be about 4,000 dead and 3,000 prisoners out of a total force of 33,000. The French and Poles lost no more than 600 dead and wounded out of a total of 30,000 and this is one of the battles whose name was engraved on the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. The Dos de Mayo Uprising of 2 May 1808, followed by extensive uprisings throughout Spain, Blake was active in attacking the French but his offensive near Bilbao was defeated at Pancorbo on 31 October 1808. Napoleon’s strategy was to make an attack towards Burgos splitting off the army of Blake from the others. It was in his interest that the Spanish maintain their exposed advanced positions, the French armies facing them were therefore ordered not to attack.
So from October to 21 November 1808, Marshal Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey’s III Corps remained static in front of Castaños’s army, the Spanish armies were however in a constant state of movement to no effect. For much of the time Castaños was ill leaving Palafox to direct operations, Palafox seems to have been indecisive on what course of action to take. The battlefield was the area between Tudela and the hills on the left. The Spanish front was deployed on the hills of Santa Barbara, Torre Monreal, Santa Quiteria the top of Cabezoe Maya, and the villages of Urzante, separating the Spanish and the French was the Queiles River, a tributary of the Ebro. The French advanced from the Cierzo hills that were in front of the Spanish lines towards the Spanish troops, on 21 November 1808 Castaños was around Calahorra on the Ebro between Logrono and Tudela. These movements threatened Castaños with entrapment between these two armies, to avoid this Castaños withdrew to Tudela. He decided to defend a line 17 kilometres long stretching west from Tudela along the Ebro, along the Queiles River to Cascante and finally to Tarazona at the foot of the Moncayo Massif.
Castaños had insufficient men to hold a line of this length so he asked General Juan ONeylle, as O’Neylle was under the command of Palafox he refused to move without an order from Palafox. This did not arrive until noon on 22 November 1808, O’Neylle moved promptly to the east bank of the Ebro opposite Tudela but decided not to cross the river until the next day. By nightfall on 22 November 1808 Castaños had almost 45,000 soldiers in the vicinity of Tudela, General Roca’s division was on the east bank of the Ebro plus the two divisions from Aragon of O’Neylle and Felipe Augusto de Saint-Marcq. Most of the fighting in the battle of Tudela would involve only the three divisions of Roca, O’Neylle, and Saint-Marcq – totaling about 23,000 infantry, for the French only the III Corps was involved in the Battle of Tudela
Claude Victor-Perrin, Duc de Belluno
Claude Victor-Perrin, First Duc de Belluno was a French soldier and military commander during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. He was made a Marshal of France in 1807 by Napoleon, in 1781 he entered the army as a private soldier, and after ten years service he received his discharge and settled at Valence. Soon afterwards he joined the volunteers, and distinguishing himself in the war on the Alpine frontier. In Drôme, Valence, on 16 May 1791 he married Jeanne Josephine Muguet, for his bravery at the siege of Toulon in 1793 he was raised to the rank of général de brigade. In 1802 he was governor of the colony of Louisiana for a short time, in 1803 he commanded the Batavian army. In that year he married for a time in June at s-Hertogenbosch to Julie Vosch van Avesaat, by whom he had an only daughter who died unmarried. On the outbreak of hostilities with Prussia he joined the V Army Corps under Marshal Jean Lannes as chief of the general staff. He distinguished himself at the battles of Saalfeld and Jena, after the peace of Tilsit he became governor of Berlin, and in 1808 he was created duke of Belluno.
In the same year he was sent to Spain, where he took a prominent part in the Peninsular War, here his most important service was in protecting the retreating army at the crossing of the Berezina River. He took a part in the wars of 1813–1814, until in February 1814 he arrived too late at Montereau-sur-Yonne. The result was a scene of violent recrimination and his supersession by the emperor, thus wounded in his amour-propre, Victor now transferred his allegiance to the Bourbon dynasty, and in December 1814 received from Louis XVIII the command of the second military division. In 1815, on the return of Napoleon from exile in Elba Victor accompanied the king to Ghent, when the second restoration followed the Battle of Waterloo he was made a peer of France. He became president of a commission which inquired into the conduct of the officers during the Hundred Days, in 1821 he was appointed war minister and held this office for two years. In 1830 he was major-general of the guard, and after the July Revolution of that year he retired altogether into private life.
He died in Paris on 1 March 1841 and his papers for the period 1793–1800 have been published. He was an excellent organizer and tactician, during his time in Spain he destroyed entire Spanish armies with Cannae like envelopments and even fought Wellington to a virtual tactical draw at Talavera. However he was a timid strategist often afraid of taking risks, nevertheless he recognized new developments in warfare and implemented them throughout his career. At the Beresina River in 1812, he made excellent use of reverse slope defenses showing that he learned something from Wellington, attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Victor-Perrin, Claude
Tudela is a municipality in Spain, the second largest city of the autonomous community of Navarre and twice a former Latin bishopric. The city is sited in the Ebro valley, fast trains running on two-track electrified railways serve the city and two freeways join close to it. Tudela is the capital of the Ribera Navarra, the region of lower Navarre. The poet Al-Tutili, the 12th-century traveler Benjamin of Tudela, the 13th century writer William of Tudela, the city hosts an annual festival in honor of Santa Ana which begin on 24 July at noon and continue for approximately a week. Street music and the running of the bulls are typical events of the festival, archeological excavations have shown that the area of Tudela has been populated since the lower paleolithic era. The town of Tudela was founded by the Romans on Celt-Iberian settlements, since the town has been inhabited continuously. The Roman poet Marcus Valerius Martialis recalls in grateful verse the town of Tutela compared to his native Bilbilis, the city was taken by the Arabs during the Umayyad conquest of Hispania and became the Muslim emirate of Al-Hakam I in 802 under Amrus ibn Yusuf al-Muwalad.
At the beginning of the 9th century, the importance of Tudela as a site on the river Ebro was enhanced by historical and political circumstances. The town was used by Muslims as a bridge-head to fight against the expanding Kingdom of Navarre, the co-existence of different cultures is reflected in Tudelas reputation for producing important medieval writers such as Al-Tutili. In 1157 the English scholar Robert of Ketton, first translator of the Koran to a Western tongue, the Jews were banished in 1498. Muslims and Moriscos were expelled in 1516 and 1610 respectively, Tudela became an important defensive point for the Kingdom of Navarre in battles with Castile and Aragon. At the end of the 17th century, a new square was built, called Plaza Nueva or Plaza de los Fueros. In 1783 the Diocese of Tudela was created, split off from Pamplona, on 23 November 1808, Napoleon Bonapartes Marshal Lannes won the Battle of Tudela in the Peninsular War. The train station was built in 1861, together with the agricultural revolution, the bishopric was merged back into Pamplona-Tudela in 1851, restored in 1889 and ultimately suppressed in 1984.
The Cathedral of Our Lady of Solitude and it includes examples of Romanesque architecture, such as the Puerta del Juicio, or Door of the Judgement, some Gothic influences and Baroque additions to the building. Another traditional dessert is manjar blanco, new York, Funk & Wagnalls Company. Ayuntamiento de Tudela Medieval History of Navarre Spanish) City of Tudela GCatholic - Tudela diocese GCatholic - Tudela cathedral Town Festivals Tudela, euskomedia. org, accessed 23 November 2016
A corps is a military unit usually consisting of several divisions. Some military service branches are called corps, such as the Military Police Corps, Royal Logistic Corps, Quartermaster Corps, a few civilian organizations use the name corps to imply a similar service level, such as the Peace Corps. In many armies, a corps is a formation composed of two or more divisions, and typically commanded by a lieutenant general. During World War I and World War II, due to the scale of combat. In Western armies with numbered corps, the number is indicated in Roman numerals. II Corps was formed, with Militia units, to defend south-eastern Australia, sub-corps formations controlled Allied land forces in the remainder of Australia. I Corps headquarters was assigned control of the New Guinea campaign. In early 1945, when I Corps was assigned the task of re-taking Borneo, the Canadian Corps consisted of four Canadian divisions. After the Armistice, the peacetime Canadian militia was organized into corps and divisions.
Early in the Second World War, Canadas contribution to the British-French forces fighting the Germans was limited to a single division, after the fall of France in June 1940, a second division moved to England, coming under command of a Canadian corps headquarters. This corps was renamed I Canadian Corps as a corps headquarters was established in the UK. I Canadian Corps eventually fought in Italy, II Canadian Corps in NW Europe, after the formations were disbanded after VE Day, Canada has never subsequently organized a Corps headquarters. The Chinese Republic had 133 Corps during the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Corps became the basic tactical unit of the NRA having strength nearly equivalent to an allied Division. The French Army under Napoleon used corps-sized formations as the first formal combined-arms groupings of divisions with reasonably stable manning, Napoleon first used the Corps dArmée in 1805. The use of the Corps dArmée was an innovation that provided Napoleon with a significant battlefield advantage in the early phases of the Napoleonic Wars.
The Corps was designed to be an independent military group containing cavalry and infantry and this allowed Napoleon to mass the bulk of his forces to effect a penetration into a weak section of enemy lines without risking his own communications or flank. This innovation stimulated other European powers to adopt similar military structures, the Corps has remained an echelon of French Army organization to the modern day. As fixed military formation already in peace-time it was used almost in all European armies after Battle of Ulm in 1805, in Prussia it was introduced by Order of His Majesty from November 5,1816, in order to strengthen the readiness to war