Martin Krause was a German concert pianist, piano teacher, music critic, writer. Martin Krause was born in Lobstädt, Saxony as the youngest son of the choirmaster and church schoolmaster Johann Carl Friedrich Krause in Lobstädt, he attended the teacher training college in Borna he became a pupil of Franz Liszt and established himself as a piano teacher and writer on music in Leipzig, where he founded the Franz-Liszt-Verein. From 1901 Krause worked as a professor at the Royal Academy of Music in Munich, from at least 1896 to 1911 at the Stern Conservatory in Berlin. A victim of the flu epidemic, he died on 2 August 1918 in Plattling. Wagner-Kalender 1908 aus Anlass des 25. Todestages Richard Wagners, edited by Søren Kruse, Danmark, 1961. Claudio Arrau – Krause on Arrau: "Dieses Kind soll mein Meisterstück werden." Edwin Fischer Lisy Fischer Eva Limiñana Manuel Ponce Harry Puddicombe Rosita Renard Grete von Zieritz
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Aguascalientes the Free and Sovereign State of Aguascalientes, is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 11 municipalities and its capital city is Aguascalientes, it is located in North-Central Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Zacatecas to Jalisco to the south, its name originated from the abundance of hot springs in the area. The demonym for the state's inhabitants is aguascalentense. Pre-Columbian era arrowheads and rock paintings in the caverns of the Sierra del Laurel and near the present village of Las Negritas testify to the presence of man in this territory for more than 20,000 years. In the colonial times, Pedro Almíndez Chirino was the first Spaniard who entered the territory by the end of 1530 or the beginning of 1531, following the instructions given by Nuño de Guzmán. Before the arrival of the Spaniards, the territory of what is now the State of Aguascalientes was inhabited by Chichimecas, who made the territory difficult to access.
In fact, the total occupation of the lands of El Bajío was a task that would take about two centuries. With respect to this, Viceroy Luis de Velasco offered municipal benefits to those who established settlements to confront the Chichimeca, and for his part, Viceroy Gastón de Peralta decided to confront them directly, which did not end with good results. It was in order to be in the territory, presently the state inhabited by Chichimecas, the so-called Guachichiles, that the conquistadors built several forts or presidios; this was a system devised by Martín Enríquez de Almanza following the strategy, developing in Spain throughout the Reconquista period. Therefore, in order to protect the Camino de la Plata, which stretched between Zacatecas and Mexico City, three presidios founded by the Indian fighter Juan Domínguez, were to be created, which were: the presidio at Las Bocas called Las Bocas de Gallardo, situated on the border of Aguascalientes, in what was the jurisdiction of the mayor of Teocaltiche, presently the border of Aguascalientes and Zacatecas.
The latter was located on what are now Moctezuma and Victoria Streets, although some historians place it on the Calle 5 de Mayo at Moctezuma, just in front of the Plaza de Armas. This was a fortress whose purpose was the protection of the Valle de los Romero and the road to Zacatecas, entering this way to secure the passage of convoys loaded with silver and other metals; the founding of Aguascalientes as a town came from the order that King Felipe II gave the judge of the court of Nueva Galicia, Don Gerónimo de Orozco, in which he stated that he should look for a rich man to settle in the territory with the purpose of expelling the Chichimecas and of assuring safe passage. Gerónimo de Orozco, following that order, looked for someone who would accept the king's order and found a man named Juan de Montoro in the city of Santa María de los Lagos, he accepted the assignment and, accompanied by eleven other people, headed to the territory and thus founded the town of Aguas Calientes on October 22, 1575.
It has been noted that it was called San Marcos changing its name on August 18, 1611, to the Villa of Our Lady of the Assumption of Aguas Calientes. And from June 2, 1875, it was called the Villa of Our Lady of the Assumption of Aguas Calientes. In the act of its establishment, the Villa de San Marcos was awarded the highest mayoral jurisdiction under the Kingdom of New Galicia; as of December 4, 1786, on the occasion of the issuance of the "Ordinance of Mayors," it became a quartermaster sub-delegation. On April 24, 1789, by order of the Superior Board of Royal Property, the sub-delegation of Aguascalientes became a dependency of Zacatecas. In the Mexican War of Independence, in the territory, today the state of Aguascalientes, the fires of independence were stoked by illustrious and courageous men such as Valentin Gómez Farías, Rafael Iriarte, Rafael Vázquez, Pedro Parga. Confusion has arisen regarding the exact date when Aguascalientes formally separated from the territory of Zacatecas. By virtue of having, de facto, defeated the liberal government of Zacatecas by rising against the central government, president Antonio López de Santa Anna passed through Aguascalientes, where he was well received by the people who had wanted to separate from Zacatecas for some time.
Taking advantage of the independent souls of the Aguascalentenses, by way of punishing Zacatecas for supporting the Revolution against them, by Federal Decree of General López de Santa Anna dated May 23, 1835, in the third article. With respect to this, it must be mentioned that said order was not made official as it did not meet the legal requirements to take effect, since it was necessary that two thirds of each house, both Senators and Representatives, approved the order; the second requirement not being completed, the constitutional congress convened again to develop the centralized constitution that would be known as the Seven Laws. The constitution did not acknowledge Aguascalientes
Sylvius Leopold Weiss
Sylvius Leopold Weiss was a German composer and lutenist. Born in Grottkau near Breslau, the son of Johann Jacob Weiss a lutenist, he served at courts in Breslau and Dresden, where he died; until he was thought to have been born in 1686, but recent evidence suggests that he was in fact born the following year. Weiss was one of the most important and most prolific composers of lute music in history and one of the best-known and most technically accomplished lutenists of his day, he was a teacher to Philip Hyacinth, 4th Prince Lobkowicz, the prince's second wife Anna Wilhelmina Althan. In life, Weiss became a friend of Wilhelm Friedemann Bach and met J. S. Bach through him. Bach and Weiss were said to have competed in improvisation, as the following account by Johann Friedrich Reichardt describes: "Anyone who knows how difficult it is to play harmonic modulations and good counterpoint on the lute will be surprised and full of disbelief to hear from eyewitnesses that Weiss, the great lutenist, challenged J.
S. Bach, the great harpsichordist and organist, at playing fantasies and fugues." Sylvius Weiss's son Johann Adolph Faustinus Weiss succeeded him as a Saxon court lutenist. Weiss wrote more than 1000 pieces for lute, from which about 850 attributed pieces survived, most of them grouped into'sonatas' or suites, which consist of baroque dance pieces. Weiss wrote chamber pieces and concertos, but only the solo parts have survived for most of them. Free scores by Sylvius Leopold Weiss at the International Music Score Library Project Classical Composers Database Silvius Leopold Weiss
A piano roll is a music storage medium used to operate a player piano, piano player or reproducing piano. A piano roll is a continuous roll of paper with perforations punched into it; the perforations represent note control data. The roll moves over a reading system known as a'tracker bar' and the playing cycle for each musical note is triggered when a perforation crosses the bar and is read; the majority of piano rolls play on three distinct musical scales. The 65-note format was introduced in 1896 in the USA for piano music. In 1900 an American format playing all 88 notes of the standard piano scale was introduced. In 1902 a German 72-note scale was introduced. All of these scales were subject to being operated by piano rolls of varying dimensions; the 1908 Buffalo Convention of US manufacturers standardized the US industry to the 88-note scale and fixed the physical dimensions for that scale. Piano rolls were in continuous mass production from around 1896 to 2008, are still available today, with QRS Music advertizing they have 45,000 titles available with "new titles being added on a regular basis".
Replacing piano rolls, which are no longer mass-produced today, MIDI files represent a modern way in which musical performance data can be stored. MIDI files accomplish digitally and electronically. Software for editing a performance stored as MIDI data has a feature to show the music in a piano roll representation; the first paper rolls were used commercially by Welte & Sons in their Orchestrions beginning in 1883. A rollography is a listing of piano rolls made by a single performer, analogous to a discography; the Buffalo Convention of December 10, 1908 established two future roll formats for the US-producers of piano rolls for self-playing pianos. The two formats had different punchings of 88 notes, but the same width; this made it possible to play the piano rolls on any self-playing instrument built according to the convention, albeit sometimes with a loss of special functionality. This format became a loose world standard. Metronomic or arranged rolls are rolls produced by positioning the music slots without real-time input.
The music, when played back, is purely metronomical. Metronomically arranged music rolls are deliberately left metronomic so as to enable a player-pianist to create their own musical performance via the hand controls that are a feature of all player pianos. Hand played rolls are created by capturing in real time the hand-played performance of one or more pianists upon a piano connected to a recording machine; the production roll reproduced the real-time performance of the original recording when played back at a constant speed. It is industry convention for recordings of music intended to be used for dancing to be regularized into strict tempo despite the original performance having the slight tempo fluctuations of all human performances, as due to the recording and production process, any fluctuations would be magnified/exaggerated in the finished production copy and result in an uneven rhythm. Reproducing rolls are the same as hand-played rolls but have additional control codes to operate the dynamic modifying systems specific to whichever brand of reproducing piano it is designed to be played back on.
Reproducing pianos were beyond the reach of the average home in the original era of popularity of these instruments and were marketed as reproducing the'soul' of the performer – slogans such as "The Master's Fingers On Your Piano" or "Paderewski will play for you in your own house!" were common. The player piano gives the opportunity to create music, impossible for humans to play, or, more music, not conceived in terms of performance by hand. Over one hundred composers wrote music specially for the player piano during the course of the 20th century. Many mainstream composers experimented with its possibilities, including Igor Stravinsky, Alfredo Casella, Paul Hindemith; the Duo-Art and Welte-Mignon brands were known as "reproducing" piano rolls, as they could reproduce the touch and dynamics of the artist as well as the notes struck, when played back on capable pianos. Rolls for the reproducing piano were made from the recorded performances of famous musicians. A pianist would sit at a specially designed recording piano, the pitch and duration of any notes played would be either marked or perforated on a blank roll, together with the duration of the sustaining and soft pedal.
Reproducing pianos can re-create the dynamics of a pianist's performance by means of specially encoded control perforations placed towards the edges of a music roll. Different companies had different ways of notating dynamics, some technically advanced, some secret, some dependent on a recording producer's handwritten notes, but in all cases these dynamic hieroglyphics had to be skillfully converted into the specialized perforated codes needed by the different types of instrument. Recorded rolls play at a specific, marked speed, where for example, 70 signifies 7 feet of paper travel in one minute, at the start of the roll. On all pneumatic player pianos, the paper is pulled on to a take-up spool, as more paper winds on, so the effective diameter of the spool increases, with it the paper speed. Player piano engineers were well aware of this, as can be seen from many patents of the time, but since reproducing piano recordings were made with a similar t
Andrés Segovia Torres, 1st Marquis of Salobreña, known as Andrés Segovia, was a virtuoso Spanish classical guitarist from Linares, Spain. Many professional classical guitarists today were students of his students. Segovia's contribution to the modern-romantic repertoire not only included commissions but his own transcriptions of classical or baroque works, he is remembered for his expressive performances: his wide palette of tone, his distinctive musical personality and style. Segovia was born on 21 February 1893 in Jaén, Spain, he was sent at a young age to live with his uncle Eduardo and aunt María. Eduardo arranged for Segovia's first music lessons with a violin teacher after recognizing that Segovia had an aptitude for music; this proved to be an unhappy introduction to music for the young Segovia because of the teacher's strict methods, Eduardo stopped the lessons. His uncle decided to move to Granada to allow Segovia to obtain a better education. Segovia was aware of flamenco during his formative years as a musician but stated that he "did not have a taste" for the form and chose instead the works of Fernando Sor, Francisco Tárrega, other classical composers.
Tárrega agreed to give the self-taught Segovia some lessons but died before they could meet, Segovia states that his early musical education involved the "double function of professor and pupil in the same body". Segovia's first public performance was in Granada at the age of 16 in 1909. A few years he played his first professional concert in Madrid, which included works by Francisco Tárrega and his own guitar transcriptions of Johann Sebastian Bach. Despite the discouragement of his family, who wanted him to become a lawyer, criticism by some of Tárrega's pupils for his idiosyncratic technique, he continued to pursue his studies of the guitar diligently, he played again in Madrid in 1912, at the Paris Conservatory in 1915, in Barcelona in 1916, made a successful tour of South America in 1919. Segovia's arrival on the international stage coincided with a time when the guitar's fortunes as a concert instrument were being revived through the efforts of Miguel Llobet, it was in this changing milieu that Segovia, thanks to his strength of personality and artistry, coupled with developments in recording and broadcasting, succeeded in making the guitar more popular again.
In 1921 in Paris, Segovia met Alexandre Tansman, who wrote a number of guitar works for Segovia, among them Cavatina, which won a prize at the Siena International Composition contest in 1952. At Granada in 1922 he became associated with the Concurso de Cante Jondo promoted by the Spanish composer Manuel de Falla; the aim of the "classicizing" Concurso was to preserve flamenco in its purity from being distorted by modern popular music. Segovia had developed as a fine tocador of flamenco guitar, yet his direction was now classical. Invited to open the Concurso held at the Alhambra, he played Homenaje a Debussy by Falla. In 1923 Segovia visited Mexico for the first time. There Manuel Ponce was so impressed with the concert. Ponce went on to write many works for Segovia, including numerous sonatas. In 1924, Segovia visited the German luthier Hermann Hauser Sr. after hearing some of his instruments played in a concert in Munich. In 1928 Hauser provided Segovia with one of the guitars that he used during his tour of the United States and in other concerts up to 1933.
Segovia ordered a further guitar from Hauser and after receiving it passed on the 1928 model to his US representative and close friend Sophocles Papas, who in his turn gave it to his student, the famous jazz and classical guitarist Charlie Byrd, who used it on several records. Segovia's first American tour was arranged in 1928 when Fritz Kreisler, the Viennese violinist who played the guitar, persuaded Francis Charles Coppicus from the Metropolitan Musical Bureau to present the guitarist in New York. After Segovia's debut tour in the US in 1928 the Brazilian composer Heitor Villa-Lobos composed his now well-known Twelve Études and dedicated them to Segovia, their relationship proved to be lasting and Villa-Lobos continued to write for Segovia. He transcribed numerous classical pieces himself and revived the pieces transcribed by predecessors like Tárrega. In 1932, Segovia befriended composer Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco in Venice. Since Castelnuovo-Tedesco did not play the guitar, Segovia provided him with guitar compositions which he could study.
Castelnuovo-Tedesco composed a large number of works for the guitar, many of them dedicated to Segovia. The Concerto Op. 99 of 1939 was the first guitar concerto of the 20th century and Castelnuovo-Tedesco's last work in Italy, before he emigrated to the United States. It was premiered by Segovia in Uruguay in 1939. In 1935, he gave his first public performance of Bach's Chaconne, a difficult piece for any instrument, he moved to Montevideo, performing many concerts in South America in early forties. After World War II, Segovia began to record more and performed regular tours of Europe and the US, a schedule he would maintain for the next thirty years. In 1954, Joaquín Rodrigo dedicated Fantasía para un gentilhombre to Segovia. Segovia won the 1958 Grammy Award for Best Classical Performance, Instrumentalist for his recording Segovia Golden Jubilee. John W. Duarte dedicated his English Suite Op. 31 to Segovia and his wife on the occasion of their marriage in 1962. Segovia told the