Andalusia is an autonomous community in southern Spain. It is the most populous, the second largest autonomous community in the country; the Andalusian autonomous community is recognised as a "historical nationality". The territory is divided into eight provinces: Almería, Cádiz, Córdoba, Huelva, Jaén, Málaga and Seville, its capital is the city of Seville. Andalusia is located in the south of the Iberian peninsula, in south-western Europe south of the autonomous communities of Extremadura and Castilla-La Mancha. Andalusia is the only European region with both Atlantic coastlines; the small British overseas territory of Gibraltar shares a three-quarter-mile land border with the Andalusian province of Cádiz at the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar. The main mountain ranges of Andalusia are the Sierra Morena and the Baetic System, consisting of the Subbaetic and Penibaetic Mountains, separated by the Intrabaetic Basin. In the north, the Sierra Morena separates Andalusia from the plains of Extremadura and Castile–La Mancha on Spain's Meseta Central.
To the south the geographic subregion of Upper Andalusia lies within the Baetic System, while Lower Andalusia is in the Baetic Depression of the valley of the Guadalquivir. The name "Andalusia" is derived from the Arabic word Al-Andalus; the toponym al-Andalus is first attested by inscriptions on coins minted in 716 by the new Muslim government of Iberia. These coins, called dinars, were inscribed in both Arabic; the etymology of the name "al-Andalus" has traditionally been derived from the name of the Vandals. Halm in 1989 derived the name from a Gothic term, *landahlauts, in 2002, Bossong suggested its derivation from a pre-Roman substrate; the region's history and culture have been influenced by the native Iberians, Carthaginians, Romans, Visigoths, Jews, Muslim Moors and the Castilian and other Christian North Iberian nationalities who reconquered and settled the area in the latter phases of the Reconquista. Andalusia has been a agricultural region, compared to the rest of Spain and the rest of Europe.
However, the growth of the community in the sectors of industry and services was above average in Spain and higher than many communities in the Eurozone. The region has a strong identity. Many cultural phenomena that are seen internationally as distinctively Spanish are or Andalusian in origin; these include flamenco and, to a lesser extent and Hispano-Moorish architectural styles, both of which are prevalent in other regions of Spain. Andalusia's hinterland is the hottest area of Europe, with cities like Córdoba and Seville averaging above 36 °C in summer high temperatures. Late evening temperatures can sometimes stay around 35 °C until close to midnight, with daytime highs of over 40 °C common. Seville has the highest average annual temperature in mainland Spain and mainland Europe followed by Almería, its present form is derived from the Arabic name for Muslim Iberia, "Al-Andalus". However, the etymology of the name "Al-Andalus" is disputed, the extent of Iberian territory encompassed by the name has changed over the centuries.
The Spanish place name Andalucía was introduced into the Spanish languages in the 13th century under the form el Andalucía. The name was adopted to refer to those territories still under Moorish rule, south of Castilla Nueva and Valencia, corresponding with the former Roman province hitherto called Baetica in Latin sources; this was a Castilianization of Al-Andalusiya, the adjectival form of the Arabic language al-Andalus, the name given by the Arabs to all of the Iberian territories under Muslim rule from 711 to 1492. The etymology of al-Andalus is itself somewhat debated, but in fact it entered the Arabic language before this area came under Muslim rule. Like the Arabic term al-Andalus, in historical contexts the Spanish term Andalucía or the English term Andalusia do not refer to the exact territory designated by these terms today; the term referred to territories under Muslim control. In the Estoria de España of Alfonso X of Castile, written in the second half of the 13th century, the term Andalucía is used with three different meanings: As a literal translation of the Arabic al-Ándalus when Arabic texts are quoted.
To designate the territories the Christians had regained by that time in the Guadalquivir valley and in the Kingdoms of Granada and Murcia. In a document from 1253, Alfonso X styled himself León y de toda Andalucía. To designate the territories the Christians had regained by that time in the Guadalquivir valley but not the Kingdom of Granada; this was the most common significance in Early modern period. From an administrative point of view, Granada remained separate for many years after the completion of the Reconquista due, above all, to its emblematic character as the last territory regained, as the seat of the important Real Chancillería de Granada, a court of last resort. Stil
Seville is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville, Spain. It is situated on the plain of the river Guadalquivir; the inhabitants of the city are known as sevillanos or hispalenses, after the Roman name of the city, Hispalis. Seville has a municipal population of about 690,000 as of 2016, a metropolitan population of about 1.5 million, making it the fourth-largest city in Spain and the 30th most populous municipality in the European Union. Its Old Town, with an area of 4 square kilometres, contains three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Alcázar palace complex, the Cathedral and the General Archive of the Indies; the Seville harbour, located about 80 kilometres from the Atlantic Ocean, is the only river port in Spain. Seville is the hottest major metropolitan area in the geographical Southwestern Europe, with summer average high temperatures of above 35 °C. Seville was founded as the Roman city of Hispalis, it became known as Ishbiliyya after the Muslim conquest in 712.
During the Muslim rule in Spain, Seville came under the jurisdiction of the Caliphate of Córdoba before becoming the independent Taifa of Seville. After the discovery of the Americas, Seville became one of the economic centres of the Spanish Empire as its port monopolised the trans-oceanic trade and the Casa de Contratación wielded its power, opening a Golden Age of arts and literature. In 1519, Ferdinand Magellan departed from Seville for the first circumnavigation of the Earth. Coinciding with the Baroque period of European history, the 17th century in Seville represented the most brilliant flowering of the city's culture; the 20th century in Seville saw the tribulations of the Spanish Civil War, decisive cultural milestones such as the Ibero-American Exposition of 1929 and Expo'92, the city's election as the capital of the Autonomous Community of Andalusia. Hisbaal is the oldest name for Seville, it appears to have originated during the Phoenician colonisation of the Tartessian culture in south-western Iberia and it refers to the God Baal.
According to Manuel Pellicer Catalán, the ancient name was Spal, it meant "lowland" in the Phoenician language. During Roman rule, the name was Latinised as Hispal and as Hispalis. After the Umayyad invasion, this name was adapted into Arabic as Ishbiliyya: since p does not exist in Arabic, it was replaced by b. NO8DO is the official motto of Seville, popularly believed to be a rebus signifying the Spanish No me ha dejado, meaning "She has not abandoned me"; the phrase, pronounced with synalepha as, is spelled with an eight in the middle representing the word madeja "skein ". Legend states that the title was given by King Alfonso X, resident in the city's Alcázar and supported by the citizens when his son Sancho IV of Castile, tried to usurp the throne from him; the emblem is present on Seville's municipal flag, features on city property such as manhole covers, Christopher Columbus's tomb in the Cathedral. Seville is 2,200 years old; the passage of the various civilizations instrumental in its growth has left the city with a distinct personality, a large and well-preserved historical centre.
The mythological founder of the city is Hercules identified with the Phoenician god Melqart, who the myth says sailed through the Strait of Gibraltar to the Atlantic, founded trading posts at the current sites of Cádiz and of Seville. The original core of the city, in the neighbourhood of the present-day street, Cuesta del Rosario, dates to the 8th century BC, when Seville was on an island in the Guadalquivir. Archaeological excavations in 1999 found anthropic remains under the north wall of the Real Alcázar dating to the 8th–7th century BC; the town was called Hisbaal by the Phoenicians and by the Tartessians, the indigenous pre-Roman Iberian people of Tartessos, who controlled the Guadalquivir Valley at the time. The city was known from Roman times as Hispal and as Hispalis. Hispalis developed into one of the great market and industrial centres of Hispania, while the nearby Roman city of Italica remained a Roman residential city. Large-scale Roman archaeological remains can be seen there and at the nearby town of Carmona as well.
Existing Roman features in Seville itself include the remains exposed in situ in the underground Antiquarium of the Metropol Parasol building, the remnants of an aqueduct, three pillars of a temple in Mármoles Street, the columns of La Alameda de Hércules and the remains in the Patio de Banderas square near the Seville Cathedral. The walls surrounding the city were built during the rule of Julius Caesar, but their current course and design were the result of Moorish reconstructions. Following Roman rule, there were successive conquests of the Roman province of Hispania Baetica by the Vandals, the Suebi and the Visigoths during the 5th and 6th centuries. Seville was taken by the Moors, during the conquest of Hispalis in 712, it was the capital for the kings of the Umayyad Caliphate, the Almoravid dynasty first and
Real Oviedo is a Spanish football club based in Oviedo, Asturias. Founded on 26 March 1926 as a result of the merger of two clubs who had maintained a large sporting rivalry for years in the city: Real Stadium Club Ovetense and Real Club Deportivo Oviedo; the club plays in the second tier of the Spanish football league system. The club plays in blue shirts and white shorts in the Estadio Carlos Tartiere, which seats 30,500 spectators, opened on 30 September 2000, is the largest sports stadium in Asturias. In the all-time league table for the Spanish top division, Oviedo rank in 17th place. Founded in 1926 after a merger with Stadium Ovetense and Real Club Deportivo Oviedo, Oviedo first reached La Liga seven years later, their attacking quartet of Emilín, Galé, Herrerita and Isidro Lángara, as well as Casuco and Ricardo Gallart modernised the game with their pace and running off the ball tied with sharp passing and one-touch football, played in a style 30/40 years before its time, being dubbed Delanteras Eléctricas.
Lángara won the Pichichi Trophy three years in a row prior to the Spanish Civil War, as Oviedo broke all scoring records. With the outbreak of the conflict, the team broke up: Lángara emigrated to South America and Emilín signed with FC Barcelona, Galé with Racing de Santander and Gallart with Racing de Ferrol; when football in the country resumed in 1939, Oviedo were relegated to the second division, as their pitch was deemed unplayable – Francisco Franco's troops had used the stadium as an ammunition dump. During the following decades, the club bounced back between the first and second levels, the high point being a best-ever third position in 1962–63, while the lowest was the side's first relegation to Segunda División B, in 1978. With the FIFA World Cup to be held on home soil in 1982, the Carlos Tartiere Stadium was renewed, the first match being held with the Chilean national team. In 1984–85 Oviedo won the soon-to-be-defunct Spanish League Cup, after successively defeating UD Salamanca, Bilbao Athletic, CF Lorca Deportiva, CE Sabadell FC and Atlético Madrileño.
In 1988 Oviedo returned to the top division, after ousting RCD Mallorca in the promotion playoffs, remained in that level for 13 consecutive seasons – in 1990–91 it finished sixth, qualifying once again for Europe, being knocked out in the first round by Genoa C. F. C. of Italy. After that successful year, there were more brilliant seasons and others where relegation was narrowly dodged. In a nutshell, the Carbayones had an outstanding run in La Liga during the 1990s with a team which lined up top international players. In 1992 Real Oviedo as well as most Spanish football clubs were forced to become public limited sports companies; the initial capital stock for Real Oviedo amounted to €3.6 million. In 2000, the new Carlos Tartiere Stadium with 30,500 seats became Real Oviedo’s new ground, it was opened on 20 September 2000 with a match between Real Oviedo and Partizan Belgrade, where Real Oviedo lost 0-2 to the Serbian side. Three days before, Real Oviedo and UD Las Palmas had got a 2-2 draw on the first fixture in the 2000–01 season.
After being relegated two consecutive times, Real Oviedo suffered severe economic troubles, when coupled with a profound lack of institutional support from the city's government, resulted in the team's inability to pay its players. The club was forced to drop all the way to the fourth division of Spanish football, for the 2003–04 season. Oviedo lasted two further campaigns before dropping down a level again. In another playoff against a Mallorca team – this time the reserves, the club returned again to the third division, after a penalty shootout; the financial dire straits continued into the 2012–13 season, when Oviedo called on supporters to buy shares in the club. A few footballers, notably Santi Cazorla, Juan Mata and Adrián who all started their careers there, offered their financial support in an attempt to save the club from bankruptcy – the club had until 17 November to raise €2 million in order to prevent closure. On 17 November 2012 Carlos Slim, the second richest man in the world, invested $2.5 million in the club, therefore gaining a controlling stake.
On 31 May 2015, Oviedo confirmed their return to the Spanish Segunda División after a thirteen-year absence with a 2–1 aggregate victory over Cádiz in the 2015 Segunda División B play-offs. 38 seasons in La Liga 36 seasons in Segunda División 9 seasons in Segunda División B 4 seasons in Tercera División The numbers are established according to the official website: www.realoviedo.es As of 25 February 2019Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate na
Sociedad Deportiva Ponferradina, S. A. D. is a Spanish football team based in Ponferrada, in the El Bierzo region, in the autonomous community of Castile and León. Founded on 7 June 1922 it plays in Segunda División B – Group 1, holding home matches at Estadio El Toralín, a soccer-specific stadium with a seating capacity of 8,800 spectators; the team's kit consists of a blue and white striped shirt, blue shorts. Sociedad Deportiva Ponferradina was founded in 1922; the first idea of the executive committee to arrange a stadium was to build it inside the castle of Ponferrada, eight centuries old. King Alfonso XIII denied the building permit. Ponferradina spent the vast majority of its professional years in the third divisions. In 1967, with the club in the former category, it achieved an historic 6–1 win against La Liga giants Real Madrid. Eight years due to financial difficulties, Santa Marta was sold, the team relocated to Fuentesnuevas. On 5 September 2000 El Toralín was inaugurated as the club's new grounds: the first game there was a friendly with Celta de Vigo.
In 2006–07 Ponfe competed for the first time in the second level after knocking out Universidad Las Palmas and Alicante in the promotion play-offs, but would be relegated back as third from the bottom. In the 2009–10 season, Ponferradina returned to division two: after winning the regular season with 75 points it defeated Sant Andreu on penalties, in the play-offs. In 2010–11 Ponferradina played in the second division for the second time, meeting the same fate after finishing in 21st position; the following campaign the team finished second in its group and, after ousting Real Jaén, Lucena and Tenerife in the play-offs, promoted back. In 2015-16 season, Ponferradina were relegated after defeated by Girona on the last matchday, finishing in 19th position; the longest rivalry of SD Ponferradina is the province of León rivalry with Cultural y Deportiva Leonesa. However, the respective first teams of the two clubs haven't played each other since Ponferradina promoted to Segunda División and Cultural were relegated to Tercera División in 2010.
6 seasons in Segunda División 21 seasons in Segunda División B 46 seasons in Tercera División As of 10 Abril 2019Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Segunda División B: 2004–05, 2007–08, 2009–10 Tercera División: 1957–58, 1965–66, 1986–87 Regional Championships: 1934–35 Castilla y León Cup: 2010–11 Note: this list includes players that have appeared in at least 100 league games and/or have reached international status. Official website Futbolme team profile BDFutbol team profile
CE Sabadell FC
Centre d'Esports Sabadell Futbol Club, S. A. D. is a Spanish football team based in Sabadell, a city in the province of Barcelona in the autonomous community of Catalonia. Founded in 1903, it plays in Segunda División B – Group 3, holding home games at Estadi de la Nova Creu Alta; the side has competed in national leagues since 1928, gaining its first promotion to the Segunda División in 1933 and the La Liga in 1944. Sabadell's longest spell in the top flight was from 1965 to 1972, their most recent from 1986 to 1988, they have reached one Copa del Rey final, which they lost 3–0 to Sevilla in 1935. In 1901, Joan Saus and a group of youngsters from the Sabadell Catalan Centre founded Centre d'Esports Sabadell, which became legalized on 5 June 1906; the club's first games were held in a grass field at Prat de Sant Oleguer but, on 3 June of that year, a stadium in the Creu Alta District was inaugurated, in a game against "Team X" from Barcelona known as RCD Espanyol. In 1933–34, the club won its first major trophy, the Catalan Football Championship, which allowed the winner to participate in the Copa del Presidente de la República.
During the former tournament, it won 15 games and drew once, reaching the latter's final in the following season, losing 0–3 to Sevilla FC at the Chamartín Stadium. Sabadell first competed in La Liga in the 1943–44 season, finishing ninth, it improved to fifth in 1946–47, ranking in front of Real Madrid and only four points behind champions Valencia CF, just one season after returning from Segunda División. In 1968–69, guided by manager Pasieguito, finished a best-ever fourth as the top flight consisted of 16 clubs. Subsequently, it competed in the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup, losing to Club Brugge K. V. of Belgium in the first round. CE Sabadell became a public limited sports company in 1991, being relegated to Segunda División B two years and to Tercera División following severe economic problems; the club spent the following seventeen years in the third level. In the 2010–11 season, managed by Lluís Carreras, won its group in the regular season. In the playoffs, the team drew both games against SD Eibar, but was promoted on the away goals rule following the 1–1 score at the Ipurua Municipal Stadium, returning to the professional divisions after 18 years.
Sabadell struggled in their return to the second level finishing in 19th place, being the first side in the relegation zone. However, they were spared when Villarreal CF dropped down a division in the top flight, which led to the automatic relegation of its reserve team Villarreal CF B. Sabadell finished second level as 16th in 2012-13 season, as 10th in the 2013-14 season. Sabadell finished it as 21st and relegated to third level after 4 years. Sabadell had a lot of financial problems after the relegation to Segunda B. Japanese owner Keisuke Sakamoto, who had bought the club in 2012, sold it to Aragón-based company Viacron in 2015. Esteve Calzada, a former member of FC Barcelona board and a marketing expert whose company worked for Manchester City, bought the club in 2017, but the difficulties to find a new investor meant the team had more worries to avoid relegation than real hopes of promoting, which should be the goal for one of the clubs with a biggest stadium and a highest average attendance in the division.
14 seasons in La Liga 43 seasons in Segunda División 20 seasons in Segunda División B 8 seasons in Tercera División 1R = first round As of 1 February 2019Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Copa del Rey Runner-up: 1935 Quarter-finals: 1965, 1970, 1986, 1988Campeonato de España: 1913 Championat de Catalunya: 1933–34 Copa Catalunya: 2015–16 Copa Federación de España: 1999–2000 Catalan Second Division: 1912–13, 1913–14, 1929–30 Segunda División: 1942–43, 1945–46 Segunda División B: 1983–84, 2010–11 Tercera División: 1931–32, 1963–64, 1976–77, 1993–94 Historic position in La Liga: 30th Pepe Martinez: 151 Isidro Sánchez: 142 Ramón Montesinos: 142 Ramón Marañón: 140 Mario Pini: 138 Josep Palau: 115 Joaquín Navarro: 103 Lluís Múñoz: 100 Antonio Vázquez: 92 Alberto Arnal: 86 Manuel Pallas: 85 Ricard Pujol: 81 Antonio Vázquez: 35 Manuel Pallas: 27 Josep Palau: 26 Antonio Sangrador: 23 Juan del Pino: 24 José Luis Garzón Sr.: 21 Josep Antoni Noya: 15 Josep María Vall: 15 Ramón Marañon: 15 Juli Gonzalvo: 14 Benjamín Telechea: 12 Periko Alonso: 12 Joan Grau Felip Davi Joan Saus Emili Moragas Valentí Gorina Antoni Tamburini Josep Maria Marcet Josep Bofarull Josep Maria Marcet Antoni Tamburini Josep Maria Marcet Pau Maria Llonch Miquel Sala Pau Maria Llonch Josep Maria Marcet Pere Fontanet Josep Maria Marcet Joan Ricart Ricard Rosson Antoni Altarriba Ramiro Fernández Josep Bargalló Antoni Llonch Ricard Rosson Francesc Marlasca Joaquim Hors Francesc Valldeperas Rafael Arroyos Alfred Besonias Josep Miquel Sanmiquel Rafael Arroyos Francesc Soldevilla Joan Soteras Eugeni Sánchez Joan Puig Miquel Arroyos Francisco González Cano Josep Manel Piedrafita (2004-2005
Xerez Club Deportivo, known as Xerez, is a Spanish football team based in Jerez de la Frontera, in the autonomous community of Andalusia. Founded on 24 September 1947, it plays in Tercera División – Group 10, holding home matches at Estadio Municipal de Chapín, with an overall 20,742-seat capacity. Team colours are blue shirt and socks, white shorts. Due to the link between Jerez de la Frontera and the United Kingdom created by the exports of sherry, football had its beginnings in the region towards the second half of the 19th century. In the early 20th century Sir Thomas Spencer, who worked with the William & Humbert winery, founded Sociedad Jerez Foot-Ball Club – he served as chairman and captain. From 1942 to 1947 the club had several names, ending with Jerez Club Deportivo, changed to the current name in 1960s. Xerez first reached the second division in 1953–54, remaining there for five years; the team's new stadium, Estadio Municipal de Chapín, was inaugurated on 10 July 1988, replacing the old Estadio Domecq – the first match there was a friendly against Real Madrid.
After decades in that category and in the third, it had a 2001–02 second level campaign which resulted in an historic La Liga promotion, only one year after doing the same thing. Since Xerez finished in the top 10 in division two each campaign, except in the 2007–08 season when a weak start led to a 15th-place finish; the following campaign proved excellent, as the club was always in the top positions: on 13 June 2009, after beating SD Huesca 2–1 at home, it achieved promotion to the top division for the first time in its history. In the final day of the competition, a draw at Celta de Vigo proved enough for the title, as CD Tenerife lost 1–2 home to CD Castellón in the final minute; the first season of Xerez in the top flight would be short-lived. After only collecting seven points from the first 19 games – which led to the sacking of coach José Ángel Ziganda – the club amassed 27 in the remaining 19 with Néstor Gorosito as boss, not good enough however to prevent the drop as last. Xerez ranked 14th in the two following second level seasons, respectively.
The 2012–13 campaign, was disastrous on all levels, as the team finished in 22nd and last position as a direct consequence of enduring serious financial difficulties for several years, the situation culminated with the club being relegated to the fourth division on 1 August. After the Xerez's season, a bunch of supporters founded a new club in the lower leagues, named Xerez Deportivo FC due to the club's institutional problems. While the latter was promoted to Primera Provincial, the former was again relegated, this time to Primera Andaluza, until May 2017, when Xerez came back to Tercera División. Xerez Fútbol Club - → ↓ Xerez Club Deportivo - Club Deportivo Jerez - → ↑ 1 season in La Liga 25 seasons in Segunda División 17 seasons in Segunda División B 23 seasons in Tercera División 5 seasons in Categorías Regionales Segunda División: 2008–09 Segunda División B: 1981–82, 1985–86 Tercera División: 1952–53, 1959–60, 1964–65, 1966–67, 1970–71 Note: this list includes players that have played in at least 100 league games and/or have reached international status.
Néstor Gorosito Bernd Schuster Carlos Orúe Manuel Ruiz Esteban Vigo Founded in 1975, Xerez CD B was disestablished in 2015. On 16 August 2016, Xerez CD created the basketball section of the club, it plays in the fifth division. Official website Futbolme team profile BDFutbol team profile
Defender (association football)
In the sport of association football, a defender is an outfield player whose primary role is to prevent the opposing team from scoring goals. There are four types of defenders: centre-back, full-back, wing-back; the centre-back and full-back positions are essential in most modern formations. The sweeper and wing-back roles are more specialised for certain formations. A centre-back defends in the area directly in front of the goal, tries to prevent opposing players centre-forwards, from scoring. Centre-backs accomplish this by blocking shots, intercepting passes, contesting headers and marking forwards to discourage the opposing team from passing to them. With the ball, centre-backs are expected to make long and pinpoint passes to their teammates, or to kick unaimed long balls down the field. For example, a clearance is a long unaimed kick intended to move the ball as far as possible from the defender's goal. Due to the many skills centre-backs are required to possess in the modern game, many successful contemporary central-defensive partnerships have involved pairing a more physical defender with a defender, quicker, more comfortable in possession and capable of playing the ball out from the back.
During normal play, centre-backs are unlikely to score goals. However, when their team takes a corner kick or other set pieces, centre-backs may move forward to the opponents' penalty area. In this case, other defenders or midfielders will temporarily move into the centre-back positions; some centre-backs have been known for their direct free kicks and powerful shots from distance. Brazilian defenders David Luiz and Naldo have been known for using the cannonball free kick method, which relies more on power than placement. In the modern game, most teams employ three centre-backs in front of the goalkeeper; the 4–2–3–1, 4–3–3, 4–4–2 formations all use two centre-backs. There are two main defensive strategies used by centre-backs: the zonal defence, where each centre-back covers a specific area of the pitch; the sweeper is a more versatile centre-back who "sweeps up" the ball if an opponent manages to breach the defensive line. This position is rather more fluid than that of other defenders who man-mark their designated opponents.
Because of this, it is sometimes referred to as libero. Though sweepers may be expected to build counter-attacking moves, as such require better ball control and passing ability than typical centre-backs, their talents are confined to the defensive realm. For example, the catenaccio system of play, used in Italian football in the 1960s, employed a purely defensive sweeper who only "roamed" around the back line; the more modern libero possesses the defensive qualities of the typical libero while being able to expose the opposition during counterattacks. The Fundell-libero has become more popular in recent time with the sweeper transitioning to the most advanced forward in an attack; this variation on the position requires great fitness. While seen in professional football, the position has been extensively used in lower leagues. Modern libero sit behind centre-backs as a sweeper before charging through the team to join in the attack; some sweepers move forward and distribute the ball up-field, while others intercept passes and get the ball off the opposition without needing to hurl themselves into tackles.
If the sweeper does move up the field to distribute the ball, they will need to make a speedy recovery and run back into their position. In modern football, its usage has been restricted, with few clubs in the biggest leagues using the position; the position is most believed to have been pioneered by Franz Beckenbauer, Gaetano Scirea, Elías Figueroa, although they were not the first players to play this position. Earlier proponents included Alexandru Apolzan, Ivano Blason, Velibor Vasović, Ján Popluhár. Other defenders who have been described as sweepers include Bobby Moore, Franco Baresi, Ronald Koeman, Fernando Hierro, Matthias Sammer, Aldair, due to their ball skills and long passing ability. Though it is used in modern football, it remains a respected and demanding position. A recent and successful use of the sweeper was made by Otto Rehhagel, Greece's manager, during UEFA Euro 2004. Rehhagel utilized Traianos Dellas as Greece's sweeper to great success, as Greece became European champions.
Although this position has become obsolete in modern football formations, due to the use of zonal marking and the offside trap, certain players such as Daniele De Rossi:, Leonardo Bonucci, Javi Martínez and David Luiz have played a similar role as a ball-playing central defender in a 3–5–2 or 3–4–3 formation. Some goalkeepers, who are comfortable leaving their goalmouth to intercept and clear through balls, who participate more in play, such as René Higuita, Manuel Neuer, Edwin van der Sar, Fabien Barthez, Hugo Lloris, among others, have been referred to as sweep