George E. Cryer
George Edward Cryer was an American lawyer and politician. A Republican, Cryer served as the 32nd Mayor of Los Angeles from 1921 to 1929, a period of rapid growth in the city's population. During his administration, the Los Angeles City Hall and Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum were built, the city's population surpassed 1,000,000. Prior and subsequent to serving as mayor, he was a lawyer. Between 1929 and 1931, Cryer became engaged in a publicized libel court case with the Reverend Robert P. Shuler, a radio evangelist who accused Cryer of being a "grafter" who had entered office a poor man and left office a millionaire. Born on a farm in Waterloo, Douglas County, Cryer moved to southern California with his family in 1885, he was educated in the Redlands and Pasadena public schools and graduated from Los Angeles High School. When the Spanish–American War was declared in 1898, Cryer volunteered and served as a private in Company G, Seventh California Infantry, he was mustered out with rank of sergeant.
After his military service, Cryer enrolled at the University of Michigan Law School where he was the assistant editor of the Michigan Law Review. He graduated with honors and began the practice of law in Los Angeles in 1903. In September 1906, Cryer married Isabel Grace Gay. Mrs. Cryer was a graduate of the University of Michigan, though the two did not meet until they were both residents of Los Angeles. Cryer and his wife had Edward Gay Cryer and a daughter, Catherine Christine Cryer. Cryer's first public office was as first assistant United States Attorney, a position he held from 1910–1912, he served as the chief assistant Los Angeles City Attorney and the chief deputy Los Angeles County District Attorney. He gained fame for prosecution of public corruption. In 1917, he was the prosecutor in the corruption case brought against Los Angeles County Supervisor Richard H. Norton. Cryer was elected mayor of the City of Los Angeles in 1921 in a close election against the incumbent Meredith P. Snyder.
Cryer's campaign promised to close the "dens of vice," and attacked Snyder as being corrupt and unfit to be mayor. The Los Angeles Police Commissioner sent a telegram to the newspapers before the election asking, "Shall crime and protected vice continue, or will the voters and taxpayers elect George E. Cryer mayor?" Cryer billed himself as a non-politician: "I know nothing about politics, I shall never be a politician. I have an idea that the business of the City of Los Angeles can be conducted like any other business... effectively, efficiently." The Los Angeles Times backed Cryer, noting, "To talk with George E. Cryer is to know instinctively that he is not a politician clutching at straws for a'platform,' but that he is a quiet, effective man who does things."Cryer was re-elected mayor in 1923 and again in 1925—the latter election was for the first four-year mayoral term. His eight-year administration was a period of explosive population growth, as the city passed 1,000,000 in population, suburban sprawl began as businesses and residents moved west from the city's historic core.
During his administration, large public works projects were launched, including the construction of the Los Angeles City Hall, the Central Library, the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, the Mulholland Highway. Cryer delivered the opening address and welcome the opening ceremony for the Coliseum on Armistice Day in 1923, he led a parade of floats from the countries of the world as part of a ceremony marking the dedication of City Hall; the city expanded its municipal-owned public utility system, Cryer was instrumental in the passage of the legislation that provided for the construction of the Hoover Dam and All-American Canal, providing water and electricity to Los Angeles. After the St. Francis Dam disaster in 1928, Cryer won national prominence and commendation for promptly accepting the city's responsibility for the disaster and agreeing to pay damages without the necessity of legal proceedings. Cryer was a leader in the successful effort to bring the 1932 Summer Olympic Games to Los Angeles.
In May 1924, he declared a citywide half-day holiday and urged city residents to fill the new Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum to capacity for Olympic try-outs. By filling the Coliseum, Cryer sought to demonstrate the city's desire to host the Olympic games. Cryer led a parade of athletes into the Coliseum for an event that included a boxing exhibition by Jack Dempsey. Cryer was an opponent of communism and the activities of the Industrial Workers of the World. On taking office in 1921, Cryer declared: "In this day of'isms' and I. W. W. Agitation, every enemy of our flag and country and institutions is carrying on this insidious propaganda of destruction, it is, therefore necessary and proper that the forces of law and order should be alive, on guard." Though Cryer had been elected to office as a reformer who would eliminate public corruption, Cryer's administration became the target of corruption claims. Cryer defended his integrity against such charges and asserted when he left office that "Los Angeles is now the cleanest large city in the country, far superior to any city anywhere comparable in size."Some historical accounts indicate that Cryer was controlled by the city's political boss, Kent Kane Parrot, a coterie of bootleggers and criminals, including "vice kingpin" Charles H. Crawford.
Indeed, the loosely organized crime syndicate operating within the city government became known as "the City Hall Gang" during the 1920s. Some have written that Cryer was a mere figurehead and that Parr
Benjamin Davis Wilson
Benjamin Davis Wilson was an American politician. He was known to the Native Americans as Don Benito because of his benevolent manner in his treatment of Native American affairs. Wilson, a native of Tennessee, was a fur trader before coming to California. Detained in Southern California while attempting to obtain passage to China, Wilson decided to remain there, he married Ramona Yorba, daughter of Bernardo Yorba, a wealthy and prominent landowner, purchased part of Rancho Jurupa in what would become Riverside County. Wilson was made Justice of the Peace for the Inland Territory and was entrusted with the care of Native American affairs, he was commissioned to deal with the hostile Ute tribe over their cattle rustling and other crimes against the ranchers. His marriage to his second wife, Margaret Hereford produced a daughter Ruth who would be mother to General George S. Patton Jr. commander of U. S. and allied forces during World War II. Wilson became the first non-Hispanic owner of Rancho San Pascual, which encompassed today's towns of Pasadena, South Pasadena, San Marino and San Gabriel.
Wilson was the second elected Mayor of Los Angeles for one term, Los Angeles County Supervisor 3 terms and served three terms as a California State Senator. Wilson came to California with the Workman-Rowland Party in 1841 seeking passage to China. In 1842 Wilson bought a key portion of Rancho Jurupa from Juan Bandini, a section that would be named Rancho Rubidoux. Encompassing most of present-day Rubidoux, California, as well as a significant portion of downtown Riverside, Wilson became the first permanent settler in the Riverside area. In 1844 he married his first wife, Ramona Yorba, whose father Bernardo Yorba, was the prominent Spanish landholder of Rancho Cañón de Santa Ana. Wilson gained esteem and was asked to assist with Native American affairs. Wilson accepted by becoming Justice of the Peace of the Inland Territory. In 1845 he was asked to pursue a band of marauding Native Americans led by an escaped neophyte from the San Gabriel Mission, who stole horses from the local ranchers; the Indians drove numbering in the thousands, up to the high desert near Lucerne.
In his pursuit, Wilson sent 22 men through the Cajon Pass and led another 22 into the depths of the San Bernardino Mountains. According to Trafzer, the resident Serrano let Wilson pass through their territory in pursuit of the raiders. Wilson sent his 22 men in pairs on a bear hunt, gathering 11 pelts. On their return trip to Jurupa, they gathered another 11 pelts, he named the place Big Bear Lake. The lake today is known as Baldwin Lake, after Elias J. "Lucky" Baldwin, while the name Big Bear Lake was re-applied to a reservoir built nearby in 1884. In 1850, Wilson was elected to the Los Angeles Common Council, a year he became the second elected mayor of Los Angeles after California was made a state, he served as a Los Angeles County supervisor. He was elected to three terms of the California State Senate. In 1854 Wilson established Lake Vineyard, his own ranch and winery near modern-day San Gabriel, California, he came into possession of adjoining Rancho San Pascual through a series of complicated land deals, which began with his lending money to the Rancho's owner Manuel Garfias in 1859.
In 1863 Wilson and Dr. John Strother Griffin, who had lent Garfias money — and with whom Wilson undertook many business deals in early Los Angeles, including railways, oil exploration, real estate and ranching — bought the entire rancho property outright, diverted water from the Arroyo Seco up to the dry mesa via an aqueduct called the "Wilson Ditch." In 1864 Wilson took the first white man's expedition to a high peak of the San Gabriel Mountains that would be named Mount Wilson. He hoped to harvest timber there for the making of wine vats; the Wilson Trail became a popular one or two-day hike to the crest of the San Gabriel Mountains by local residents for years to come. In 1873, Wilson and Griffin subdivided their land. Griffin sold 2,500 acres of his property to the "Indiana Colony," represented by Daniel M. Berry. In 1876, after the Colony had sold most of its allotted land and established what would become the City of Pasadena, Wilson began subdividing and developing his adjacent landholdings which would become the eastern side of the new settlement.
Wilson lived out his days in present-day San Gabriel. He gave several acres of property to his son-in-law James de Barth Shorb. Other parts developed as Alhambra. Wilson's first wife died in 1849, they would have four children of which one daughter Ruth would marry George Patton, Sr. and have a son who would become the World War II General George S. Patton, Jr; the Pattons would purchase Lake Vineyard. Wilson was buried in San Gabriel Cemetery; the last of his land holdings in the downtown Pasadena area were bequeathed to Central School on South Fair Oaks Avenue. Mount Wilson, a metromedia center for the greater Los Angeles area, is the most famous monument to Benjamin Wilson. Wilson Avenue in Pasadena and Don Benito School of the Pasadena Unified School District honor his name. Kielbasa, John R.. "Flores Adobe". Historic Adobes of Los Angeles County. Pittsburg: Dorrance Publishing Co. ISBN 0-8059-4172-X.. Read, Nat B.. Don Benito Wilson: From Mountain Man to Mayor: Los Angeles 1841 - 1878. An
John Clinton Porter
John Clinton Porter was a U. S. political figure. The Los Angeles Times wrote that he represented a "unique mixture of reform politics and xenophobic Protestant populism took him quite from the junk yard to City Hall. Porter was a senior member of the Ku Klux Klan during its popular resurgence in the early 1920s, he was born on April 4, 1871 in Leon, Iowa to Reverend Josephus Clinton Porter and Mathilda Catherine Gardner. He served as the 33rd mayor of Los Angeles between 1929 and 1933 when he replaced George Edward Cryer, he survived a recall election in 1932. He ran for re-election twice more but was defeated in 1933 by Frank L. Shaw and in 1941 by Fletcher Bowron, he died of a heart and lung condition in Los Angeles, California on May 27, 1959. He was buried at Forest Lawn Memorial Park in the Hollywood Hills. Chronological Record of Los Angeles City Officials: 1850—1938, Compiled under Direction of Municipal Reference Library City Hall, Los Angeles March 1938 John Clinton Porter at Find a Grave John Clinton Porter on IMDb
Manuel Dominguez was born at Mission San Juan Capistrano, in the colonial Las Californias province of the Spanish Viceroyalty of New Spain. His life spanned the Spanish and American eras in California. Dominguez was the heir to the vast Rancho San Pedro land grant in the Los Angeles Basin. Eldest son of Cristobal Dominguez, he is credited with the solidification of the Rancho San Pedro with a new Mexican land grant and an American patent and with the development of the rancho, erecting the Dominguez Rancho Adobe as rancho headquarters above the Los Angeles River floodplain in the Dominguez Hills, located on the border between Compton and Carson, California. Beginning in 1828, Dominguez embarked on a lengthy career of public service, in addition to his business interests, his political service included Alcalde of the Pueblo de Los Ángeles and Third Prefect of the Southern District of Alta California. Referred to as Don Manuel Dominguez, he was born into a prominent Alta California family. In the colonial Spanish racial classification system sistema de castas he was an Español Criollo.
The gente de razón family traced itself through pure blood generations in Mexico to ancestors in Catalonia Spain. He was born January 26, 1803, baptized Luis Gonzaga Policarpo Manuel Antonio y Fernando Dominguez. Baptismal data at Yglesia del Real Presidio de San Diego indicates father as Christobol Dominguez of military status: Cabo de la compañia de cuera deste Presidio and mother as Maria Reyes Yvañez. Godparents are shown as Maria Gorgona Manuel Rodriguez. Manuel Dominguez inherited the Rancho San Pedro in 1825 from Cristóbal Domínguez. Manuel and his two brothers settled on the ranch; the land was granted to his great-uncle, Juan José Domínguez a Spanish soldier in New Spain. In 1769, with Fernando Rivera y Moncada, he was in the first group that arrived at the site of and founded the Presidio of San Diego in Alta California. Domínguez served with Gaspar de Portolà and Junípero Serra on the Portolà expedition, the first European land exploration of present-day California, it traveled north from San Diego to the San Gabriel Valley, Los Angeles Basin, San Fernando Valley, Monterey Bay, San Francisco Bay.
In 1784, Juan José Domínguez received a land grant grazing concession named Rancho San Pedro, 75,000 acres of land and one of the first in California, by the upper Las Californias military Governor Pedro Fages on behalf of King Charles III of Spain. It included; the Rancho was regranted by the Mexican government in 1822 after Mexico became independent from Spain. On December 18, 1858 the United States government patented the 43,119 acre claim by Manuel Dominguez. On May 25, 1869 Manuel Domínguez a grant to the Los Angeles and San Pedro Railroad of a 100-foot right of way through the Rancho San Pedro. Operation of the Los Angeles and San Pedro Railroad through the Rancho San Pedro began in 1869. Additional right of way from Wilmington to Rattlesnake Island to the Los Angeles and San Pedro Railroad was granted in 1871; this was the forerunner of today's Alameda Corridor, an express route for to and from the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach. Disputes of Manuel Domínguez’s ownership of Rancho San Pedro originated with events that occurred while California was under Spanish rule.
When Juan José Domínguez died in 1809 and left half of his estate to Cristóbal Domínguez his nephew, Cristóbal did not aggressively defend his claim. The executor of the estate, Manuel Gutiérrez, paid off the debts of Juan José and moved in, assuming rights of ownership. Gutiérrez built up the Rancho, he gave Jose Dolores Sepúlveda permission to run cattle on part of the land known as los Palos Verdes. Sepúlveda built up his herd. In 1817 Cristóbal asserted his claim to the estate demanding Sepúlveda remove his cattle. Governor Sola issued a decree that the Rancho was the property of Juan José Domínguez and ordering Sepúlveda to leave. Sepúlveda refused. In 1822 Cristóbal again obtained from Governor Sola a decree assigning him the land; the decree was to be presented to the ‘’Ayuntamiento’’ of Los Angeles. This was performed by Manuel Domínguez. Sepúlveda again refused. Under Mexican rule JUan Dolores Sepúlveda filed a counterclaim based on permission of Gutiérrez, length of residence and substantial improvements to the property.
Juan Dolores Sepúlveda died in an Indian revolt. His heirs were children and Manuel Gutiérrez assumed control of operations in their behalf. Doña Sepúlveda, the widow, married the family stayed on the Rancho. In 1825 Cristóbal Domínguez died and Manuel Domínguez moved onto the Rancho with his brothers Nasario and Pedro. Manuel kept up his ownership claims. California had become part of Mexico in 1822, Manuel Domínguez sought and received two decrees from Mexican Governor Echeandia for removal of the herds of Machado and Sepúlveda, but Governor Echeandia confused matters by at the same time issuing Sepúlveda a conflicting provisional grant of Rancho de los Palos Verdes; the heirs of Sepúlveda and Gutiérrez refused the decrees obtained by Manuel Domínguez. In 1834 Manuel Domínguez, Gutiérrez, the heirs of Sepúlveda. In the Arbitration Decree of 1834 he ruled that despite the decrees to vacate, the Sepúlveda's had taken possession in good faith at a time when Cristóbal Domínguez was not asserting his claim.
He awarded them the Pal
A vigilante is a civilian or organization acting in a law enforcement capacity without legal authority. "Vigilante justice" is rationalized by the belief that proper legal forms of criminal punishment are either nonexistent, insufficient, or inefficient. Vigilantes see the government as ineffective in enforcing the law. Persons alleged to be escaping the law or above the law are sometimes the victims of vigilantism. Vigilante conduct involves varied degrees of violence. Vigilantes could assault targets verbally and/or physically, damage and/or vandalize property, or murder individuals. In a number of cases, vigilantism has involved targets with mistaken identities. In Britain in the early 2000s, there were reports of vandalism and verbal abuse towards people wrongly accused of being pedophiles, following the murder of Sarah Payne. In Guyana in 2008, Hardel Haynes was beaten to death by a mob. In South Africa, since the year 2002, there has been an increase in vigilantism against the mining sector in response to perceived failures in the mitigation of acid mine drainage in the Witwatersrand Goldfields and Mpumalanga Coalfields.
Vigilantism and the vigilante ethos existed long before the word vigilante was introduced into the English language. There are conceptual and psychological parallels between the Dark Age and medieval aristocratic custom of private war or vendetta and the modern vigilante philosophy. Elements of the concept of vigilantism can be found in the Biblical account in Genesis 34 of the abduction and rape of Dinah, the daughter of Jacob, in the Canaanite city of Shechem by the eponymous son of the ruler, the violent reaction of her brothers Simeon and Levi, who slew all of the males of the city in revenge, rescued their sister and plundered Shechem; when Jacob protested that their actions might bring trouble upon him and his family, the brothers replied "Should he treat our sister as a harlot?" In 2 Samuel 13, Absalom kills Amnon after King David, their father, fails to punish Amnon for raping Tamar, their sister. Recourse to personal vengeance and dueling was considered a class privilege of the sword-bearing aristocracy before the formation of the modern centralized liberal-bureaucratic nation-state.
In addition, sociologists have posited a complex legal and ethical interrelationship between vigilante acts and rebellion and tyrannicide. In the Western literary and cultural tradition, characteristics of vigilantism have been vested in folkloric heroes and legendary outlaws. Vigilantism in literature and legend is connected to the fundamental issues of dissatisfied morality, the failures of authority and the ethical adequacy of legitimate governance. During medieval times, punishment of felons was sometimes exercised by such secret societies as the courts of the Vehm, a type of early vigilante organization, which became powerful in Westphalian Germany during the 15th century. Formally-defined vigilantism arose in the early American colonies. Established the mid-18th century, for instance, the Regulator movement of American colonial times was composed of citizen volunteers of the frontier who opposed official misconduct and extrajudicially punished banditry as well as protected colonists from indigenous Americans' enforcement of border control.
After the founding of the United States, a citizens arrest became known as a procedure, based in common law and protected by the United States Constitution, where an amateur authority figure or normal citizen arrests a fugitive. The exact circumstances under which this type of arrest, sometimes referred to as a detention, can be made varies from state to state. In India, vigilante refers to. Vigilantism is referred to as "mob justice", it is caused by perception of corruption and delays in the judicial system. As boom-towns, or mining towns in California because of the Gold Rush, started appearing towards the 1850s, vigilantes started taking justice into their own hands because these towns did not have any established forms of government; these people would assault accused thieves and murderers. When they assaulted these thieves, they would give it to the accuser. Other than reports and newspapers, there are not many records of vigilantes. Few names or groups are known. In the United States, vigilante groups arose in poorly governed frontier areas where criminals preyed upon the citizenry with impunity.
The death of Joseph Smith, Jr. on June 27, 1844, founder of the Latter Day Saint movement. In 1851, the San Francisco Vigilance Movement sought to eliminate crime perpetrated by the "Hounds", many who were members of gangs in New York that had come as soldiers during the Mexican–American War, an element of this movement focused on immigrants like the Sydney Ducks former convicts from Australia. Los Angeles and the bordering counties experienced outbursts of vigilantism from the early 1850s as many of the criminals driven out of San Francisco and the Gold Country expanded into the less-populated "Cow Counties" of Southern California, making the city and nearby countryside a dangerous place for many years. In Bleeding Kansas during the run-up to the American Civil War, the Sacking of Lawre
Los Angeles City Council
The Los Angeles City Council is the governing body of the City of Los Angeles. The council is composed of fifteen members elected from single-member districts for four-year terms; the president of the council and the president pro tempore are chosen by the council at the first regular meeting of the term. An assistant president pro tempore is appointed by the President; as of 2015, council members receive an annual salary of $184,610 per year, among the highest city council salary in the nation. Regular council meetings are held in the City Hall on Tuesdays and Fridays at 10 am except on holidays or if decided by special resolution. A current annual schedule of all Council meetings, broken down by committee, is available as a.pdf download from the Office of the City Clerk. Officers: President of the Council: Herb Wesson President Pro Tempore: Nury Martinez Assistant President Pro Tempore: Joe Buscaino Los Angeles was governed by a seven-member Common Council under general state law from 1850 to 1889, when a city charter was put into effect.
Under the first charter of the city, granted by the Legislature in 1889, the city was divided into nine wards, with a councilman elected from each one by plurality vote. The first election under that system was held on February 21, 1889, the last on December 4, 1906. Two-year terms for the City Council began and ended in December, except for the first term, which started in February 1889 and ended in December 1890; the term of office was lengthened to three years effective with the municipal election of December 4, 1906, the last year this ward system was in use. Between 1909 and 1925, the council was composed of nine members elected at large in a first-past-the-post voting system. Council membership in those years was as follows: City population in 1910: 319,200 Election: December 7, 1909 / Term: December 10, 1909, to December 13, 1911 Election: December 5, 1911 / Term: December 13, 1911, to July 1, 1913 Election: June 3, 1913 / Term: July 1913 to July 1915 Election: June 1, 1915 / Term: July 1915 to July 1917 Election: June 5, 1917 / Term: July 1917 to July 1919 City population in 1920: 576,700 Election: June 3, 1919 / Term: July 7, 1919, to July 5, 1921 Election: June 7, 1921 / Term: July 1921 to July 1923 Election: June 5, 1923 / Term: July 1923 to July 1925 Regular terms begin on July 1 of odd-numbered years until 2017 and on the second Monday in December of even-numbered years starting with 2020.
Los Angeles Common Council List of Los Angeles municipal election returns Chronological Record of Los Angeles City Officials: 1850—1938, Compiled under Direction of Municipal Reference Library City Hall, Los Angeles March 1938 Official website Map of Los Angeles City Council districts
James R. Toberman
James Robert Toberman served six one year terms as Mayor of Los Angeles. He first served between 1872 and 1874 and again from 1878 to 1882. Mayor James R Toberman switched on the city's first electric streetlights, he helped map out water and sewer systems. Toberman came to Los Angeles in 1864 when president Abraham Lincoln appointed him U. S. Revenue Assessor. Toberman was elected to the Los Angeles Common Council, the governing body of the city, in a special election on February 23, 1870, for a term ending on December 9 of that year; some of the accomplishments during his terms in office are. Toberman cut taxes from $1.60 to $1 per $100 of assessed value. Toberman left a surplus of $25,000 in the city treasury. James R. Toberman at Find a Grave