Victor Saúde Maria
This name uses Portuguese naming customs. The first or maternal family name is the second or paternal family name is Maria. Victor Saúde Maria was a Guinea-Bissau politician, he was the country's first Foreign Minister and went on to be Prime Minister from 14 May 1982 until 10 March 1984, when he fled to Portugal after a power struggle with President João Bernardo Vieira. Maria returned from exile in late 1990 and set up the United Social Democratic Party in 1992, he ran for President in 1994, receiving 2.07 % of the vote. He led the PUSD until his assassination in 1999
2008 Guinea-Bissau legislative election
Parliamentary elections were held in Guinea-Bissau on 16 November 2008. The result was a victory for the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde, which won 67 out of the 100 seats in the National People's Assembly, while the Party for Social Renewal won 28 seats. At a rally in Gabú on 17 July 2007, President João Bernardo Vieira said that the election would be held together with the next presidential elections in 2009 in order to save money, but the National People's Assembly did not agree to this. However, the head of the National Electoral Commission, El Hadj Malam Mané, said on 8 December 2007 that the election would be held between 23 October and 25 November 2008. On 5 December 2007, President Vieira met with 35 party leaders, 33 of them agreed to the CNE's date range. In a speech before the National People's Assembly on 24 March 2008, Vieira criticized Prime Minister Martinho Ndafa Kabi's government for not adequately preparing for the election, saying that "the government did not create the conditions to facilitate the holding of the legislative elections within the times required by the Constitution".
He noted that the Assembly's mandate would expire on 21 April 2008, four years after the previous elections, that afterwards the Assembly's work have to be handled by its Standing Committee. On 25 March, after consultations with political party representatives, civil society, the CNE, foreign diplomats, Vieira decided on 16 November 2008 as the date of the election. On 27 March, the Assembly voted to extend its mandate until November by a vote of 65–2; the extension was viewed by many as a challenge to Vieira, since he had said that the Assembly's work would be handled by its Standing Committee after 21 April, it provoked significant opposition. The PAIGC opposed the extension, while the United Social Democratic Party supported it. A group of 20 deputies who opposed the extension said on 15 April that the extension was a violation of the Constitution and that they would not participate in any parliamentary sessions after 21 April. However, the Assembly voted to uphold the extension on 16 April, with 68 deputies in favor, seven opposed, seven abstaining.
A meeting intended to assess the political situation was held on 18 April between Vieira, the government, the Assembly, the Council of State. Subsequently, civil society organizations called for the resignation of Prime Minister Kabi, accusing him of making death threats against Fernando Gomis, a member of the Assembly, at this meeting; the organizations said that Kabi was unable to control his anger and as a result it was not appropriate for him to lead the government. Additionally, the organizations called on Vieira to not promulgate the extension of the parliamentary mandate, they threatened to launch protests if Vieira did not dismiss Kabi's government and dissolve the Assembly. On 19 May Vieira said that he had enacted the law providing for the extension of the parliamentary mandate. While remarking that those opposed to the extension were correct, he said that it was necessary to approve it for the sake of peace and stability. On 1 August the Supreme Court annulled the law extending the deputies' terms until the election.
After consultations with the political class, civil society, the Council of State, Vieira dissolved the National People's Assembly on 5 August, leaving only its Standing Committee in place. He appointed Carlos Correia—who was Prime Minister under Vieira from 1991 to 1994 and from 1997 to 1998—as Prime Minister on the same day, replacing Kabi. A new government headed by Correia was appointed on 9 August; this government was dominated by Vieira loyalists and members of PAIGC, including PAIGC dissidents who were supporters of Vieira. The appointment of one of these PAIGC dissidents—Cipriano Cassamá—as Minister of the Interior was deemed significant, due to the Interior Ministry's responsibility for the election; the PRS was given five posts in the government, while the Republican Party for Independence and Development and the United People's Alliance were each given a single post. Shortly after Correia's appointment, a coup plot led by the head of the navy, Rear Admiral Americo Bubo Na Tchuto, was said to have been thwarted.
According to an army spokesman, Na Tchuto asked other senior officers to support his plot, planned to occur on 7 August but when he asked the chief of staff of the army to join the plot, the latter ordered Na Tchuto's arrest. Na Tchuto was placed under house arrest, but he escaped and fled to The Gambia, where he was arrested by the Gambian authorities on 12 August. On 11 August UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon released a statement saying that he was "deeply concerned over the mounting political and security tensions in Guinea-Bissau" and calling "on all national stakeholders to work cooperatively and peacefully together in the national interest and in full respect of the rule of law". An African Union pre-election assessment mission, led by Anil Gayan of Mauritius, arrived in Bissau on 18 August. Members of the mission met with Prime Minister Correia on 21 August, Correia affirmed the government's intention to hold the election on schedule in November. By law, candidate lists had to be submitted.
As the available period entered its final week, Supreme Court President Maria do Ceu Silva Monteiro expressed concern on
2009 Guinea-Bissau presidential election
Presidential elections were held in Guinea-Bissau on 28 June 2009 following the assassination of President João Bernardo Vieira on 2 March 2009. As no candidate won a majority in the first round, a second round was held on 26 July 2009 between the two leading candidates, Malam Bacai Sanhá of the governing African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde and opposition leader Kumba Ialá. Sanhá won with a substantial majority according to official results. At Vieira's funeral on 10 March 2009, interim President Raimundo Pereira said that meeting the 60-day deadline for holding a new election was "one of our greatest challenges." Cape Verde's Prime Minister, Jose Maria Neves, stated on 27 March 2009 that it was logistically and economically impossible for Guinea-Bissau to hold the election on time, that it should aim to hold them in June or November. Prime Minister Carlos Gomes Junior announced on 31 March that the election would be held on 28 June, with the agreement of "all the parties, the government, the interim president and political classes".
Foreign donors paid the entire cost of about 5.1 million euros. In April 2009, the Social Renewal Party, Guinea-Bissau's main opposition party, designated its President, Kumba Ialá, as its candidate for the presidential election; some in the party who opposed Ialá's "system of monopoly" instead proposed the candidacy of Baltizar Lopes Fernandes, but they were unsuccessful. Six candidates sought the presidential nomination of the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde, the ruling party. PAIGC President Carlos Gomes Junior backed Pereira. On 25 April 2009, the PAIGC Central Committee chose Malam Bacai Sanhá, interim President of Guinea-Bissau from 1999 to 2000, as the party's presidential candidate, he received 144 votes, while Pereira received 118. Aristides Gomes, Prime Minister from 2005 to 2007 and led the Republican Party for Independence and Development, submitted a candidate application. Francisco Fadul, Prime Minister from 1999 to 2000 and is the President of the Tribunal of Accounts submitted an application to stand as the candidate of his party, the African Party for Development and Citizenship.
Henrique Rosa, Interim President from 2003 to 2005, sought to run as an independent candidate, as did the Minister of Internal Administration, Baciro Dabó. In total, 20 candidates submitted applications to the Supreme Court of Justice, 13 representing political parties and seven independents. Zinha Vaz ran as the candidate of the Guinean Patriotic Union, was the only female candidate in the election. On 14 May, the Supreme Court announced that 12 candidacies had been approved and eight had been rejected; the candidacies of Sanhá, Ialá, Rosa were among those accepted. Fadul's candidacy was rejected on the grounds that he was still President of the Tribunal of Accounts and a member of the Bar, which the Supreme Court judged to be incompatible with his presidential candidacy; the candidacy of Aristides Gomes was rejected on the grounds that he had been out of the country during the 90 days before he filed his candidacy. Prior to the election, three of the 11 remaining candidates were considered the key contenders for the Presidency: PAIGC candidate Sanhá, PRS candidate Ialá, independent candidate Rosa.
Doubting that Ialá would be able to garner much more support than he obtained in the first round, analysts judged that Sanhá was the clear favorite for the second round. Various minor candidates—Luis Nancassa, Paulo Mendonça, Francisca Vaz Turpin, Braima Alfa Djalo—endorsed Sanhá after the first round. In mid-July, New Democracy Party candidate Iaia Djalo, who placed fourth with 3.11% urged his supporters to vote for Sanhá in the second round. During the second round campaign, Ialá blamed PAIGC for Guinea-Bissau's problems and alleged that it was responsible for Vieira's assassination. Warning against the use of such inflammatory rhetoric, the army stressed that it would not allow national stability to be endangered. On 5 June, one day before election campaigning was due to start, Dabó was fatally shot in his home in order to prevent him from ordering a prosecution against President Vieira's killers if he won the election, it was decided that the election would proceed as planned on 28 June.
Another independent candidate, Paulo Mendonça, said that the election could not go ahead on schedule because the constitution required a delay in case of the death of a candidate, he took the matter to the Supreme Court. Rosa said that his campaign would be subdued and would not begin in earnest until seven days after Dabó's death. Turnout was low when voting took place on 28 June. Electoral observers from the European Union were present at 80 of the 2,700 polling stations, the head of the EU mission, Johan Van Hecke, said that "rain played a role" but that it was not to blame for the low turnout, he said that voting proceeded "in a calm and orderly way" and that "not a single incident or complaint was reported to us". Desejado Lima da Costa, the head of the National Electoral Commission, announced provisional results on 2 July 2009; these results showed Sanhá with 133,786 votes or 39.59% of the vote, Ialá with 99,428 votes or 29.42%, Rosa with 24.19%. As a result, Sanhá and Ialá were to proceed to a second round on 2 August.
Although Rosa was positioned to make a crucial endorsement for the second r
African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde
The African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde is a political party in Guinea-Bissau. Formed to peacefully campaign for independence from Portugal, the party turned to armed conflict in the 1960s and was one of the belligerents in the Guinea-Bissau War of Independence. Towards the end of the war, the party established a Marxist–Leninist one-party state, which remained intact until multi-party democracy was introduced in the early 1990s. Although the party won the first multi-party elections in 1994, it was removed from power in the 1999–2000 elections. However, it returned to office after winning parliamentary elections in 2004 and presidential elections in 2005, since which it has remained the largest party in the National People's Assembly; the PAIGC governed Cape Verde, from its independence in 1975 to 1980. After the military coup in Guinea-Bissau in 1980, the Cape Verdean branch of the PAIGC was converted into a separate party, the African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde.
The party was established in Bissau on 19 September 1956 as the African Party of Independence, was based on the Movement for the National Independence of Portuguese Guinea founded in 1954 by Henri Labéry and Amílcar Cabral. The party had six founding members. Rafael Paula Barbosa became its first president, whilst Amílcar Cabral was appointed secretary-general; the Pijiguiti Massacre in 1959 saw Portuguese soldiers opened fire on protesting dockworkers, killing 50. The massacre caused a large segment of the population to swing towards the PAIGC's push for independence, although the Portuguese authorities still considered the movement to be irrelevant, took no serious action in trying to suppress it. However, the massacre convinced the PAIGC leadership to resort to armed struggle against the Portuguese, in September 1959 the party established a new headquarters in Conakry in neighbouring Guinea. In 1961, the PAIGC combined with the Mozambican FRELIMO and Angolan MPLA to establish the Conference of Nationalist Organizations of the Portuguese Colonies, a common party to coordinate the struggles for independence of Portuguese colonies across Africa.
The three groups were represented at international events by the CONCP. Armed struggle against the Portuguese began in March 1962 with an abortive attack by PAIGC guerrillas on Praia. Guerrilla warfare was concentrated to the mainland Guinea, however, as logistical reasons prevented an armed struggle on the Cape Verde islands. On the Cape Verde islands PAIGC worked in a clandestine manner. After being nearly crippled militarily, Amílcar Cabral ordered that sabotage be the PAIGC's main weapon until military strength could be regained. On 23 January 1963 the PAIGC started the Guinea-Bissau War of Independence by attacking a Portuguese garrison in Tite. Frequent attacks in the north took place. In that same month, attacks on police stations in Fulacunda and Buba were carried out not only by the PAIGC but by the FLING. In January 1966, Amílcar Cabral attended the Conferencia Tricontinental Enero in Havana and made a great impression on Fidel Castro; as a result of this, Cuba agreed to supply artillery experts and technicians to assist in the independence struggle.
The head of the Cuban Military Mission was Victor Dreke. In the context of the ongoing Cold War, PAIGC guerrillas received Kalashnikovs from the USSR and recoilless rifles from the People's Republic of China, with all three countries helping train guerilla troops; the first party congress took place at liberated Cassaca in February 1964, in which both the political and military arms of the PAIGC were assessed and reorganized, with a regular army to supplement the guerilla forces. Como Island was the site of a major battle between PAIGC and Portuguese forces, in which the PAIGC took control of the island and resisted fierce counterattacks by the Portuguese, including airstrikes by FAP F-86 Sabres. Following the loss of Como Island, the Portuguese army and the air force began the Operation Tridente, a combined arms operation to retake the island; the PAIGC fought fiercely, the Portuguese took heavy casualties and gained ground slowly. After 71 days of fighting and 851 FAP combat sorties, the island was taken back by the Portuguese.
However, less than two months the PAIGC would retake the island, as the Portuguese operation to capture it had depleted much of their invasion force, leaving the island vulnerable. However, Como Island ceased to be of strategic importance to Portugal following establishment of new PAIGC positions in the south on the Cantanhez and Quitafine Peninsulas. Large numbers of Portuguese troops on these peninsulas were besieged by guerrillas. Throughout the war, the Portuguese handled themselves poorly, it took them a long time to take the PAIGC diverting aircraft and troops based in Guinea to the conflicts in Mozambique and Angola, by the time that the Portuguese government began to realise that the PAIGC was a significant threat to their continued rule over Guinea, it was too late. Little was done to curtail the guerrilla operations. By 1967, the PAIGC had carried out 147 attacks on Portuguese barracks and army enc
João Bernardo Vieira
João Bernardo "Nino" Vieira was the President of Guinea-Bissau from 1980 to 1984, for the second time from 1984 to 1999, for the third time from 2005 to 2009. After seizing power in 1980, Vieira ruled for 19 years, he won a multiparty presidential election in 1994, he went into exile. He made a political comeback in 2005. Vieira was killed by soldiers on 2 March 2009 in retaliation for a bomb blast that killed Guinea-Bissau's military chief General Batista Tagme Na Waie; the military denied these allegations after Army officials claimed responsibility for Vieira's death. Vieira described himself as "God's gift" to Guinea-Bissau during his tenure in office. Vieira was born in Bissau a city of Portuguese Guinea. Trained as an electrician, he joined the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde of Amílcar Cabral in 1960 and soon became a key player in the territory's guerrilla war against Portuguese colonial rule. Vieira was a member of the Papel ethnic group, which comprises 5% of Guinea-Bissau's population.
By contrast, most of Guinea-Bissau's army officers, with whom Vieira had a tense relationship throughout his career, are members of the Balanta ethnicity, which dominates the country. As the war in Portuguese Guinea intensified, Vieira demonstrated a great deal of skill as a military leader and rose through its ranks. Vieira was known to his comrades as "Nino" and this remained his nom de guerre for the duration of the struggle. Following regional council elections held in late 1972 in areas under PAIGC control, which led to the formation of a constituent assembly, Vieira was appointed president of the National People's Assembly; the guerrilla war began to turn against the Portuguese as expenditure and loss of human lives remained a burden for Portugal. Following the coup d'état in Portugal in 1974, the new Portuguese revolutionary government which overthrew Lisbon's Estado Novo regime began to negotiate with the PAIGC; as his brother Amílcar had been assassinated in 1973, Luís Cabral became the first president of independent Guinea-Bissau after independence was granted on 10 September 1974.
On 28 September 1978, Vieira was appointed as Prime Minister of Guinea-Bissau. By 1980, economic conditions had deteriorated which led to general dissatisfaction with the government. On 14 November 1980, Vieira toppled the government of Luís Cabral in a bloodless military coup, which initial reports credited to racial strife between the black population of Guinea-Bissau and the mulatto population of the related Republic of Cape Verde, embodied in the Cabo-Verdian origin of President Cabral. In the wake of the coup, the bordering Republic of Guinea recognised the new government and sought to end a border dispute over an oil-rich region, while the PAIGC in Cape Verde split away and forming a separate party; the constitution was suspended and a nine-member military Council of the Revolution, chaired by Vieira, was set up. In 1984, a new constitution was approved. Guinea-Bissau, like the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa, moved toward multiparty democracy in the early 1990s. Through pressure from groups like the Democratic Front led by Aristide Menezes, the ban on political parties was lifted in 1991 and elections were held in 1994.
In the first round of the presidential election, held on 3 July 1994, Vieira received 46.20% of the vote against seven other candidates. He finished first, but failed to win the required majority, which led to a second round of voting on 7 August, he received 52.02% of the vote against 47.98% for Kumba Yalá, a former philosophy lecturer and candidate of the Social Renewal Party. International election observers considered both rounds free and fair. Vieira was sworn in as the first democratically elected President of Guinea-Bissau on 29 September 1994. Vieira was re-elected for another four-year term as President of PAIGC in mid-May 1998 at a party congress, with 438 votes in favor, eight opposed, four abstaining. Vieira dismissed military chief of staff Ansumane Mané on 6 June 1998. Mané and his supporters in the military promptly rebelled, the country descended into a civil war between forces loyal to Vieira and rebels loyal to Mané. A peace agreement was signed in November 1998, a transitional government was formed in preparation for new elections in 1999.
On 27 November 1998, the National People's Assembly passed a motion demanding Vieira's resignation, with 69 deputies supporting the motion and none opposing it. A renewed outbreak of fighting occurred in Bissau on 6 May 1999, Vieira's forces surrendered on 7 May, he went into exile in Portugal in June. On 12 May, former Prime Minister Manuel Saturnino da Costa was named acting President of PAIGC, replacing Vieira. Vieira was expelled from PAIGC at a party congress in September 1999 for "treasonable offences and incitement to warfare, practices incompatible with the statutes of the party". After President Kumba Yalá was overthrown in September 2003 military coup, Vieira returned to Bissau from Portugal on 7 April 2005. Arriving in the city's main football stadium by helicopter, he was met by over 5,000 cheering supporters. Although Vieira's supporters had collected 30,000 signatures for a petition urging him to run for president, he did not confirm his intention to do so, saying that he was returning "to re-establish civic rights and to register to vote in the coming elections" and that he wanted to contribute to peace and stability.
He said that he had forgiven
Guinea-Bissau the Republic of Guinea-Bissau, is a country in West Africa that covers 36,125 square kilometres with an estimated population of 1,815,698. Guinea-Bissau was once part of the kingdom of Gabu, as well as part of the Mali Empire. Parts of this kingdom persisted until the 18th century, while a few others were under some rule by the Portuguese Empire since the 16th century. In the 19th century, it was colonized as Portuguese Guinea. Upon independence, declared in 1973 and recognised in 1974, the name of its capital, was added to the country's name to prevent confusion with Guinea. Guinea-Bissau has a history of political instability since independence, no elected president has served a full five-year term. Only 14% of the population speaks noncreolized Portuguese, established as both the official and national language. Portuguese exists in creole continuum with Crioulo, a Portuguese creole spoken by half the population and an larger number speaks it as second tongue; the remainder speak a variety of native African languages.
There are diverse religions in Guinea-Bissau with no one religion having a majority. The CIA World Factbook states there are about 40% Muslims, 22% Christians, 15% Animists and 18% unspecified or other; the country's per-capita gross domestic product is one of the lowest in the world. The sovereign state of Guinea-Bissau is a member of the United Nations, African Union, Economic Community of West African States, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Community of Portuguese Language Countries, La Francophonie and the South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone, was a member of the now-defunct Latin Union. Guinea-Bissau was once part of the kingdom of part of the Mali Empire. Other parts of the territory in the current country were considered by the Portuguese as part of their empire. Portuguese Guinea was known as the Slave Coast, as it was a major area for the exportation of African slaves by Europeans to the western hemisphere. Early reports of Europeans reaching this area include those of the Venetian Alvise Cadamosto's voyage of 1455, the 1479–1480 voyage by Flemish-French trader Eustache de la Fosse, Diogo Cão.
In the 1480s this Portuguese explorer reached the Congo River and the lands of Bakongo, setting up the foundations of modern Angola, some 4200 km down the African coast from Guinea-Bissau. Although the rivers and coast of this area were among the first places colonized by the Portuguese, who set up trading posts in the 16th century, they did not explore the interior until the 19th century; the local African rulers in Guinea, some of whom prospered from the slave trade, controlled the inland trade and did not allow the Europeans into the interior. They kept them in the fortified coastal settlements. African communities that fought back against slave traders distrusted European adventurers and would-be settlers; the Portuguese in Guinea were restricted to the ports of Bissau and Cacheu. A small number of European settlers established isolated farms along Bissau's inland rivers. For a brief period in the 1790s, the British tried to establish a rival foothold on an offshore island, at Bolama, but by the 19th century the Portuguese were sufficiently secure in Bissau to regard the neighbouring coastline as their own special territory up north in part of present South Senegal.
An armed rebellion, begun in 1956 by the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde under the leadership of Amílcar Cabral consolidated its hold on the Portuguese Guinea. Unlike guerrilla movements in other Portuguese colonies, the PAIGC extended its military control over large portions of the territory, aided by the jungle-like terrain, its reached borderlines with neighbouring allies, large quantities of arms from Cuba, the Soviet Union, left-leaning African countries. Cuba agreed to supply artillery experts and technicians; the PAIGC managed to acquire a significant anti-aircraft capability in order to defend itself against aerial attack. By 1973, the PAIGC was in control of many parts of Guinea, although the movement suffered a setback in January 1973 when Cabral was assassinated. Independence was unilaterally declared on 24 September 1973. Recognition became universal following 25 April 1974 socialist-inspired military coup in Portugal, which overthrew Lisbon's Estado Novo regime.
Luís Cabral, brother of Amílcar and co-founder of PAIGC, was appointed the first President of Guinea-Bissau. Following independence, the PAIGC killed thousands of local Guinean soldiers who had fought alongside the Portuguese Army against the guerrillas; some escaped to settle in other African nations. One of the massacres occurred in the town of Bissorã. In 1980 the PAIGC acknowledged in its newspaper Nó Pintcha that many Guinean soldiers had been executed and buried in unmarked collective graves in the woods of Cumerá, Mansabá; the country was controlled by a revolutionary council until 1984. The first multi-party elections were held in 1994. An army uprising in May 1998 led to the Guinea-Bissau Civil War and the president's ousting in June 1999. Elections were held again in 2000, Kumba Ialá was elected president. In September 2003, a military coup was conducted; the military arrested Ialá on the charge of being "unable to solve the problems". After being delayed several times, legislative elections were held in March 2004.
A mutiny of military factions in October 2004 resulted in the death of the head of the armed forces and caused widespread unrest. In June 2005
Umaro Sissoco Embaló
This name uses Portuguese naming customs. The first or maternal family name is Sissoco and the second or paternal family name is Embaló. Umaro Mokhtar Sissoco Embaló is a political scientist and military officer of Guinea Bissau who served as the prime minister of his country between November 18, 2016 and January 16, 2018, he was born in Bissau. He holds a degree in International Relations from the Higher Institute of Social and Political Sciences at the Technical University of Lisbon and a master's degree in Political Science and Doctorate in International Relations from the Complutense University of Madrid, he is fluent in Portuguese and Spanish, competent in English, French and Swahili. He served in the military, undertaking National Defense Studies at the National Defense Center of Spain, further studies on National Security in Brussels, Tel Aviv, Johannesburg and Paris, he rose to the rank of Brigadier-General. He now specialises in African and Middle-Eastern affairs and in matters of defence, international co-operation and development.
He is a former Minister of African Affairs. He formed his cabinet on 13 December 2016 after having been appointed Prime Minister by President José Mário Vaz on 18 November 2016; the new prime minister of Guinea-Bissau took the post with a boycott of his own party, the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde, which through its Central Committee gave him a vote of distrust of one hundred and twelve votes in favor and eleven against on November 26, 2016. As head of government, he could count on the support of only the Social Renovation Party, the second largest seat of the National People's Congress of Guinea-Bissau. On January 13, 2018, after embarking on a collision course with President José Mário Vaz, due to this he was placed alongside the demands of João Fadiá and Botche Candé, Embaló requested his resignation of the position, having been effected on January 16, 2018; this article includes some material from the equivalent article on French Wikipedia