Armando Hart Dávalos was a Cuban politician and a Communist leader. His grandfather was born in USA and emigrated to Cuba as a child. Before the Cuban Revolution which ousted President Fulgencio Batista, Hart studied to be a lawyer at the University of Havana. While there, he became politically active and would soon join Fidel Castro and Che Guevara in their fight against Batista; as Castro and Che Guevara were leading the guerrilla warfare in the Cuban mountains and jungles, Hart went onto become one of the main organizers of the revolutionary movement in the cities. Among his other writings, he has given a full account of events leading up to the Revolution of 1959 in his seminal work, Aldabonazo; when Batista was overthrown, Hart was made the first Minister of Education of the Revolution, served as the Minister of Culture, as well as a member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of Cuba. In January 2005, Hart wrote an article on Joseph Stalin, in which he denounced the ideas of Stalinism and its practice, while defending the ideas of Karl Marx, Vladimir Lenin, Fidel Castro, Leon Trotsky.
Armando Hart was the father of Celia Hart. He became minister of culture since the creation of that ministry on 1976 to 1997, he was appointed director of the Office of José Martí′s Program. Hart was the president of the José Martí Cultural Society at the time of this death. Order of José Martí Armando Hart Receives Award from Cuban Journalists ACN: Dominican University Grants Honoris Causa Degree to Cuban Scholar Armando Hart Dávalos on ctp.iccas.miami.edu
Prime Minister of Cuba
The Prime Minister of Cuba, known as the President of the Council of Ministers between 1976 and 2019, is the head of the Council of Ministers of Cuba. The office of Prime Minister was first instituted in 1940 in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution of Cuba as amended in that year; the first Prime Minister of Cuba was Carlos Saladrigas Zayas, the nephew of former President Alfredo Zayas. The prime minister was sometimes referred to as "premier". Between 1940 and 1959, Cuba saw fifteen changes of prime minister. Fidel Castro became prime minister in 1959; the title of the office was changed on 2 December 1976 when a new national constitution, restructuring the government, came into force. Under that constitution, the post of President was abolished and replaced by a Soviet-style collective head of state, the Council of State, elected by the National Assembly of People's Power. However, unlike the USSR's arrangements, where the Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet and the Council of Ministers were distinct posts, the Cuban Council of Ministers was chaired by the same person as the Council of State.
Furthermore, unlike English and Russian, Spanish does not distinguish between the terms "chairman/председатель" and "president/президент", translating both as "presidente". The incumbent since 19 April 2018 has been Miguel Díaz-Canel, who took over from Raúl Castro on that date. On February 24, 2019, another constitution – Cuba's current – was adopted in a referendum. Under it, the government was again re-organized, the posts of President and Prime Minister were restored; this reorganization, has yet to enter into effect. Council of Ministers List of Prime Ministers of Cuba President of Cuba
Cuba the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean meet, it is east of the Yucatán Peninsula, south of both the U. S. state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Haiti and north of both Jamaica and the Cayman Islands. Havana is capital; the area of the Republic of Cuba is 110,860 square kilometres. The island of Cuba is the largest island in Cuba and in the Caribbean, with an area of 105,006 square kilometres, the second-most populous after Hispaniola, with over 11 million inhabitants; the territory, now Cuba was inhabited by the Ciboney Taíno people from the 4th millennium BC until Spanish colonisation in the 15th century. From the 15th century, it was a colony of Spain until the Spanish–American War of 1898, when Cuba was occupied by the United States and gained nominal independence as a de facto United States protectorate in 1902.
As a fragile republic, in 1940 Cuba attempted to strengthen its democratic system, but mounting political radicalization and social strife culminated in a coup and subsequent dictatorship under Fulgencio Batista in 1952. Open corruption and oppression under Batista's rule led to his ousting in January 1959 by the 26th of July Movement, which afterwards established communist rule under the leadership of Fidel Castro. Since 1965, the state has been governed by the Communist Party of Cuba; the country was a point of contention during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, a nuclear war nearly broke out during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. Cuba is one of few Marxist–Leninist socialist states, where the role of the vanguard Communist Party is enshrined in the Constitution. Independent observers have accused the Cuban government of numerous human rights abuses, including arbitrary imprisonment. Culturally, Cuba is considered part of Latin America, it is a multiethnic country whose people and customs derive from diverse origins, including the aboriginal Taíno and Ciboney peoples, the long period of Spanish colonialism, the introduction of African slaves and a close relationship with the Soviet Union in the Cold War.
Cuba is a sovereign state and a founding member of the United Nations, the G77, the Non-Aligned Movement, the African and Pacific Group of States, ALBA and Organization of American States. The country is a middle power in world affairs, it has one of the world's only planned economies, its economy is dominated by the exports of sugar, tobacco and skilled labor. According to the Human Development Index, Cuba has high human development and is ranked the eighth highest in North America, though 67th in the world, it ranks in some metrics of national performance, including health care and education. It is the only country in the world to meet the conditions of sustainable development put forth by the WWF. Historians believe the name Cuba comes from the Taíno language, however "its exact derivation unknown"; the exact meaning of the name is unclear but it may be translated either as'where fertile land is abundant', or'great place'. Fringe theory writers who believe that Christopher Columbus was Portuguese state that Cuba was named by Columbus for the town of Cuba in the district of Beja in Portugal.
Before the arrival of the Spanish, Cuba was inhabited by three distinct tribes of indigenous peoples of the Americas. The Taíno, the Guanahatabey and the Ciboney people; the ancestors of the Ciboney migrated from the mainland of South America, with the earliest sites dated to 5,000 BP. The Taíno arrived from Hispanola sometime in the 3rd century A. D; when Columbus arrived they were the dominant culture in Cuba, having an estimated population of 150,000. The Taíno were farmers, while the Ciboney were farmers as well as hunter-gatherers. After first landing on an island called Guanahani, Bahamas, on 12 October 1492, Christopher Columbus commanded his three ships: La Pinta, La Niña and the Santa María, to land on Cuba's northeastern coast on 28 October 1492. Columbus claimed the island for the new Kingdom of Spain and named it Isla Juana after Juan, Prince of Asturias. In 1511, the first Spanish settlement was founded by Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar at Baracoa. Other towns soon followed, including San Cristobal de la Habana, founded in 1515, which became the capital.
The native Taíno were forced to work under the encomienda system, which resembled a feudal system in Medieval Europe. Within a century the indigenous people were wiped out due to multiple factors Eurasian infectious diseases, to which they had no natural resistance, aggravated by harsh conditions of the repressive colonial subjugation. In 1529, a measles outbreak in Cuba killed two-thirds of those few natives who had survived smallpox. On 18 May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto departed from Havana at the head of some 600 followers into a vast expedition through the Southeastern United States, starting at La Florida, in search of gold, treasure and power. On 1 September 1548, Dr. Gonzalo Perez de Angulo was appointed governor of Cuba, he arrived in Santiago, Cuba on 4 November 1549 and declared the liberty of all natives. He became Cuba's first permanent governor to reside in Havana instead of Santiago, he built Havana's first church made of maso
Museum of the Revolution (Cuba)
The Museum of the Revolution is located in the Old Havana section of Havana, Cuba. The museum is housed in what was the Presidential Palace of all Cuban presidents from Mario García Menocal to Fulgencio Batista, it became the Museum of the Revolution during the years following the Cuban Revolution. The building was the site of the Havana Presidential Palace Attack by the Directorio Revolucionario Estudiantil; the former"Presidential Palace' was designed by the Cuban architect Rodolfo Maruri and the Belgian architect Paul Belau who designed the Centro Gallego, presently the Gran Teatro de La Habana. The'Presidential Palace was inaugurated in 1920 by President Mario García Menocal, it remained the Presidential Palace until the Cuban Revolution of 1959. The building has Neo-Classical elements, it was decorated by Tiffany Studios of New York City; the museum's Cuban history exhibits are devoted to the period of the revolutionary war of the 1950s and to the country's post-1959 history. Portions of the museum are devoted to pre-revolutionary Cuba, including the 1895-1898 War of Independence waged against Spain
José Miguel Gómez
José Miguel Gómez y Gómez was a Cuban, one of the leaders of the rebel forces in the Cuban War of Independence and President of Cuba from 1909 to 1913. At the Constitutional Convention, Gómez was one of those who voted in favor of adopting the Platt Amendment. Born in Sancti Spíritus, in the former Las Villas Province, Gómez went on to govern Santa Clara and became quite popular in Cuba. In 1905 Gómez planned to run for the presidency with Alfredo Zayas on behalf of the Liberals. Violence prevented the Liberals from winning much in the election so Gómez dropped out of the running. Gómez and Zayas began to split the Liberal party. A strong showing by the Conservatives against the divided Liberals convinced them to rejoin. Gómez and Zayas won the 1908 election as the candidates for the Liberal Party, he was well liked among the people and Gómez was viewed as a kind president in the eyes of the people. However, political corruption boomed during his presidency and several major scandals occurred. During his presidency the government began funding newspapers, influencing them towards pro-government positions.
José Miguel Gómez died in New York City. His remains were brought back to Cuba for burial in the Colon Havana. In 1907 José López Rodríguez, financed the electoral campaign that would propel Gómez to the Presidency of the Republic. A friend of Gómez, Gerardo Machado, became the president of Cuba a few years later, he was married to América Arias y López, their son, Miguel Mariano Gómez, served as the sixth President of Cuba. Otero, Juan Joaquin. Libro De Cuba, Una Enciclopedia Ilustrada Que Abarca Las Ates, Las Letras, Las Ciencias, La Economia, La Politica, La Historia, La Docencia, Y ElProgreso General De La Nacion Cubana - Edicion Conmemorative del Cincuentenario de la Republica de Cuba, 1902-1952. Cuba, The Pursuit of Freedom
Anti-communism is opposition to communism. Organized anti-communism developed after the 1917 October Revolution in Russia and it reached global dimensions during the Cold War, when the United States and the Soviet Union engaged in an intense rivalry. Anti-communism has been an element of movements holding many different political positions, including nationalist, social democratic, libertarian, fascist, capitalist and socialist viewpoints; the first organization dedicated to opposing communism was the Russian White movement, which fought in the Russian Civil War starting in 1918 against the established Communist government. The White movement was supported militarily by several allied foreign governments, which represented the first instance of anti-communism as a government policy; the Communist Red Army defeated the White movement and the Soviet Union was created in 1922. During the existence of the Soviet Union, anti-communism became an important feature of many different political movements and governments across the world.
In the United States, anti-communism came to prominence with the First Red Scare of 1919–1920. During the 1920s and 1930s, opposition to communism in Europe was promoted by conservatives, social democrats and fascists. Fascist governments rose to prominence as major opponents of communism in the 1930s and they founded the Anti-Comintern Pact in 1936 as an anti-communist alliance. In Asia, the Empire of Japan and the Kuomintang were the leading anti-communist forces in this period. After World War II, fascism ceased to be a major political movement due to the defeat of the Axis powers; the victorious Allies were an international coalition led by the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, but after the war this alliance broke down into two opposing camps: a Communist one led by the Soviet Union and a capitalist one led by the United States. The rivalry between the two sides came to be known as the Cold War and during this period the United States government played a leading role in supporting global anti-communism as part of its containment policy.
There were numerous military conflicts between Communists and anti-Communists in various parts of the world, including the Chinese Civil War, the Korean War, the Vietnam War and the Soviet–Afghan War. NATO was founded as an anti-communist military alliance in 1949 and continued throughout the Cold War. With the Revolutions of 1989 and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, most of the world's Communist governments were overthrown and the Cold War ended. Anti-communism remains an important intellectual element of many contemporary political movements and organized anti-communism is a factor in the domestic opposition found to varying degrees within the People's Republic of China and other countries governed by Communist parties. Since the split of the Communist parties from the socialist Second International to form the Communist Third International, social democrats have been critical of Communism for its anti-democratic nature. Examples of left-wing critics of Communist states and parties are such as Friedrich Ebert, Boris Souveraine, Bayard Rustin, Irving Howe and Max Shachtman.
The American Federation of Labor has always been anti-communist. The more leftist Congress of Industrial Organizations purged its Communists in 1947 and has been staunchly anti-communist since. In Britain, the Labour Party strenuously resisted Communist efforts to infiltrate its ranks and take control of locals in the 1930s; the Labour Party became anti-communist and Labour Prime Minister Clement Attlee was a staunch supporter of NATO. Although most anarchists describe themselves as communists, most anarchists criticize authoritarian Communist parties and states. Many argue that Marxist concepts such as dictatorship of the proletariat and state ownership of the means of production are anathema to anarchism; some anarchists criticize communism from an individualist point of view. Anarchists participated in and rejoiced over the 1917 February Revolution as an example of workers taking power for themselves. However, after the October Revolution it became evident that the Bolsheviks and the anarchists had different ideas.
Anarchist Emma Goldman, deported from the United States to Russia in 1919, was enthusiastic about the revolution, but was left sorely disappointed and began to write her book My Disillusionment in Russia. Anarchist Peter Kropotkin proffered trenchant criticism of the emergent Bolshevik bureaucracy in letters to Vladimir Lenin, noting in 1920 that " is positively harmful for the building of a new socialist system. What is needed is local construction by local forces. Russia has become a Soviet Republic only in name". Many anarchists fought against Russian and Greek Communists—many were killed by them, such as Lev Chernyi, Camillo Berneri and Konstantinos Speras. In The Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels outline some provisional short-term measures that could be steps towards communism, they note: "These measures will, of course, be different in different countries. In most advanced countries, will be pretty applicable". Ludwig von Mises described this as a "10-point plan" for the redistribution of land and production and argues that the initial and ongoing forms of redistribution constitute direct coercion.
Neither Marx's 10-point plan nor the rest of the manifesto say anything about who has the right to carry out the plan. Milton Friedman argued that the absence of voluntary economic activity makes it too easy for repressive political leaders to grant themselves coercive powers. Friedman's view was shared by Friedrich
Alfredo Zayas y Alfonso
Alfredo de Zayas y Alfonso known as Alfredo de Zayas under Spanish naming customs and known as Alfredo Zayas, was a Cuban lawyer and political figure. He served as prosecutor, mayor of Havana, secretary of the Constitutional Convention, Senator 1905, president of the Senate 1906, Vice President of Cuba 1908–1913 and President of Cuba from May 20, 1921 to May 20, 1925. Born in Havana into an aristocratic family with old sugar plantations, he was the 5th child of Dr. José María de Zayas y Jiménez, a noted lawyer and educator, Lutgarda Alfonso y Espada, he was brother to Dr. Juan Bruno de Zayas y Alfonso, a medical doctor and revolutionary hero who died in the war for Cuba's independence, of Dr. Francisco de Zayas y Alfonso, Cuba's long-time Minister to Paris and Brussels; as one of the leaders of the Cuban insurrection of 1895, he ceased using the noble-sounding "de" in his name and became known as Alfredo Zayas. Besides his successful legal practice, he was active in Cuban literary circles and was co-editor of the journal "Cuba Literaria".
Zayas was an intellectual, not a military leader, during the 1895-1898 Cuban war of independence, he was arrested and sent to prison in the African possession of Ceuta. When deported, while in transit in Spain's Cárcel Modelo of Madrid, he wrote some of his best poetry, like "Al Caer la Nieve" subsequently published in his Obras Completas, Vol. 1, Poesia. Zayas was sometimes referred to as the "erudite civilian president", because unlike his predecessor and his successor he did not have experience in the field of battle. Upon his return to Cuba after the Spanish–Cuban–American War, he became acting mayor of Havana, he became its secretary. A vocal leader of the opposition against U. S. annexation of Cuba, he voted against the Platt Amendment and against granting naval bases to the United States in Guantánamo and Bahia Honda. Zayas became leader of the Liberal Party and was elected Vice-President 1908. In the contested, 1916 presidential election in which the populist Liberal Party used violent tactics, he obtained more votes than the pro-US candidate, Cornell graduate General Mario García Menocal.
The Chambelona War ensued, which after some reverses, was won by the Conservative Forces of Garcia Menocal with the covert support of the United States. Zayas surrendered in Cambute near Guanabacoa; the United States provided military support to García Menocal from Guantánamo Naval Base, without formally invoking its right of intervention pursuant to the Platt Amendment, incorporated in the US-Cuba Treaty of 1903. However, US only deployed forces in Oriente Province. Reelected in 1920, Zayas became president in 1921, he served only one term, during which he started the process to give the vote to Cuban women, negotiated the return of Cuban sovereignty over the Isle of Pines, occupied by the US since 1898, obtained a 50 Million US loan from J. P. Morgan, for the first time allowed full freedom of expression and of the press. On 10 October 1922 he launched the first Cuban radio station. Although his administration was systematically defamed by the opposition as corrupt, it was less corrupt than preceding and subsequent administrations, Zayas, refrained from censoring the press or arresting critics, unlike prior and Cuban presidents.
This brought him the nickname "el Chino", because of his stoicism and his "oriental patience". Sometimes he was nicknamed "pesetero", because since his imprisonment in Madrid he had always carried a Spanish Peseta coin in his vest pocket; when he took office in 1921, the country was in bankruptcy, with debts exceeding US$40 million, sugar prices plummeting from 22 cents to 3 cents per pound. In spite of this, he carried out a number of reforms in the field of education. In 1884, Zayas married Margarita Teresa Claudia del Carmen Arrieta y Diago and they had four children, Alfredo and Maria-Teresa Zayas Arrieta. In 1914, he married a second time to Maria de la Asuncion Jaen y Planas. He, had one other child out of wedlock, Alfredo Zayas y Mendez, his great grandnephew is the lawyer and historian Alfred-Maurice de Zayas, great grandson of José María Zayas Alfonso. He did not run for reelection and devoted his last years to giving conferences and pursuing his manifold literary and historical interests, including the publication of his major work, the 2-volume "Lexicografia Antillana", which had seen an earlier edition in 1914, occupying the post of President of the "Academia de la Historia" until his death.
In the next election Gerardo Machado was elected, but turned dictatorial, after a series of coups that followed when Machado was forced to step down Fulgencio Batista rose to power.:Alfredo Zayas, "Obras Completas", Vol. I: Poesías, Vol.2 Discursos y Conferencias, La Habana 1941-42.:Alfredo Zayas, "Un Capítulo de la Historia de Cuba", La Habana, 1916.:Alfredo Zayas, "Lexicografía Antillana", Bd. 1-2, La Habana, 1931-32.:Alfredo Zayas, "La Poesía Patriótica en Cuba hasta 1868", Academia Nacional de Artes y Letras, La Habana, 1931.:Alfredo Zayas, "El presbiterio don José Augustin Caballero y su vida y sus obras", La Habana, 1891.:Alfredo Zayas, "La Evolución Social" La Habana, 1891.:Alfredo Zayas, "Por la Gloria de Luz y Caballero" La Habana 1909.:Juan Bruno Zayas de la Portilla: "Orígenes. Compendio Histórico-Genealógico del Linaje